Alain Méot

Alain Méot
Université Clermont Auvergne | Univ BPC · UFR Psychologie, Sciences Sociales, Sciences de l’'Education

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Publications

Publications (82)
Article
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The Behavioral Immune System (BIS, Schaller & Park, 2011) is a defense system whose function is to protect against pathogen exposure. Memory is an important component of this system (Fernandes et al., 2017). We investigated "contamination effects" in memory in relation to COVID-19. Photographs of everyday objects were shown to adults (N = 80) in th...
Article
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Animacy effects in memory correspond to the observation that animates (e.g., cow) are remembered better than inanimates (e.g., pencil). Although the ultimate explanation of these effects seems to be well-documented, clear evidence that would support one or other of the proximate explanations of animacy effects has proven difficult to obtain. Here,...
Article
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The threat of diseases varies considerably among individuals, and it has been found to be linked to various proactive or reactive behaviors. In the present studies, we investigated the impact of individual differences in the perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD) on social touch before (Study 1) or during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) p...
Article
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Disgust is a basic emotion which protects individuals from potential contamination. It is hypothesized that disgust evolved primarily as a mechanism against oral contamination or as a strategy against disease infections in general. We investigated visual attention to disgusting oral (rotten food) and non-oral (e.g., a tick) and control (e.g., a gul...
Article
Compounds are morphologically complex words made of different linguistic parts. They are very prevalent in a number of languages such as French. Different psycholinguistic characteristics of compounds have been used in certain studies to investigate the mechanisms involved in compound processing (see Table 7). We provide psycholinguistic norms for...
Chapter
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The aim of the present chapter is to present theoretical and empirical arguments in support of the existence of a defense system against pathogens: the Behavioral Immune System (BIS). Complementary to the well-known biological immune system, this system represents a recent theoretical proposition which has given rise to an increasing number of stud...
Article
We provide norms collected on a sample of French adults for a subset of 209 food images selected from the food-pics image database (Blechert, Meule, Busch, & Ohla, 2014). The pictures were rated on arousal, familiarity, valence, liking, frequency of consumption, caloric content, healthiness, tastiness, desire to eat and perceived level of transform...
Article
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The survival processing advantage in memory is the finding that items encoded in survival scenarios are remembered better than words encoded in survival-irrelevant scenarios or in deep encoding situations (e.g., pleasantness). Whether this mnemonic advantage, which is generally found in scenarios involving personal survival, can also be observed in...
Article
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We provide normative data for a new set of 313 colourised line drawings. The drawings were standardised on name agreement (N = 60 participants), image agreement (N = 34), conceptual familiarity (N = 36), age of acquisition (N = 35), and imageability (N = 35). Objective visual complexity measures are given for the pictures, and objective word freque...
Article
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Imagining fictional creatures like zombies in survival situations boosts long-term memory for words encoded in these situations more than rating words for pleasantness (zombie effect). Study 1 required word-ratings in a zombie-survival scenario; participants were told they had to protect against either possible zombie attack or contamination. The z...
Article
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Five studies were designed to provide further evidence of contamination effects in memory. In study 1, participants were told to imagine that either (1) they had been infected in the grasslands of a foreign land (ancestral contamination); (2) they had been infected during a trip in a foreign country (modern contamination); or (3) as tour guide, the...
Article
Why are we still afraid of snakes? Contributions of evolutionary psychology to the understanding of certain behavioral biases The purpose of this article is to briefly present the contribution of evolutionary psychology to the understanding of certain behavioral biases. This theoretical orientation, which is not well-known in France, explains behav...
Article
Animacy is one of the basic semantic features of word meaning and influences perceptual and episodic memory processes. However, evidence that this variable also influences lexicosemantic processing is mixed. As animacy is a semantic variable thought to have evolutionary roots, we first examined its influence in a semantic categorization task that d...
Article
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Using the megastudy approach, we report a new database (MEGALEX) of visual and auditory lexical decision times and accuracy rates for tens of thousands of words. We collected visual lexical decision data for 28,466 French words and the same number of pseudowords, and auditory lexical decision data for 17,876 French words and the same number of pseu...
Article
Animates are remembered better than inanimates because the former are ultimately more important for fitness than the latter. What, however, are the proximate mechanisms underpinning this effect? We focused on imagery processes as one proximate explanation. We tested whether animacy effects are related to the vividness of mental images (Study 1), or...
Article
In visual perception, evidence has shown that attention is captured earlier and held longer by animate than inanimate stimuli. The former are also remembered better than the latter. Thus, as far as attentional processes are concerned, animate entities have a privileged status over inanimate entities. We tested this hypothesis further using an adapt...
Article
Words that correspond to a potential sensory experience—concrete words—have long been found to possess a processing advantage over abstract words in various lexical tasks. We collected norms of concreteness for a set of 1,659 French words, together with other psycholinguistic norms that were not available for these words—context availability, emoti...
Article
We provide psycholinguistic norms for a new set of 160 French idiomatic expressions and 160 proverbs: knowledge, predictability, literality, compositionality, subjective and objective frequency, familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), and length. Different analyses (reliability, descriptive statistics, correlations) performed on the norms are report...
Article
The adaptive view of human memory (Nairne, 2010) assumes that animates (e.g., rabbit) are remembered better than inanimates (e.g., glass) because animates are ultimately more important for fitness than inanimates. Previous studies provided evidence for this view by showing that animates were recalled or recognized better than inanimates (e.g., Nair...
Article
Background/Study Context: It has been found that young adults remember animates better than inanimates. According to the adaptive view of human memory, this is due to the fact that animates are more important for fitness purposes than inanimates. This effect has been ascribed to episodic memory, where older people exhibit difficulties. Methods: Her...
Article
The adaptive view of human memory [Nairne, J. S. 2010. Adaptive memory: Evolutionary constraints on remembering. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 53 pp. 1-32). Burlington: Academic Press; Nairne, J. S., & Pandeirada, J. N. S. 2010a. Adaptive memory: Ancestral priorities and the mnemonic value of survival processi...
Article
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Abstract. Animates are better remembered than inanimates. According to the adaptive view of human memory (Nairne, 2010; Nairne & Pandeirada, 2010a, 2010b), this observation results from the fact that animates are more important for survival than inanimates. This ultimate explanation of animacy effects has to be complemented by proximate explanation...
Article
Full-text available
According to the age of acquisition (AoA) hypothesis, words acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later (see Juhasz, 2005; Johnston & Barry, 2006 for reviews). Connectionist models have begun to explore the influence of the age/order of acquisition of the items (and also their frequency of encounter) (E...
Article
Abstract We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visua...
Article
We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of...
Article
We collected subjective frequency, age-of-acquisition, and imageability norms for 319 acronyms from French adults. Objective printed frequency, bigram frequency, and lengths in letters, phonemes, and syllables, as well as orthographic neighbors, were computed. The time taken to read acronyms aloud was also recorded. Correlational analyses indicated...
Article
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We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on...
Article
The impact of a minimal social comparison feedback in writing was investigated in two experiments. During the first part of each experiment, the participants wrote down the names of pictures as quickly as possible. Before the second part, half of them were given either positive (Experiment 1) or negative (Experiment 2) feedback on their naming spee...
Article
We report psycholinguistic norms for 305 French idiomatic expressions (Study 1). For each of the idiomatic expressions, the following variables are reported: knowledge, predictability, literality, compositionality, subjective and objective frequency, familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), and length. In addition, we have collected comprehension tim...
Article
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We report object-naming and object recognition times collected from Russian native speakers for the colorized version of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:174-215, 1980) pictures (Rossion & Pourtois, Perception 33:217-236, 2004). New norms for image variability, body-object interaction [BO...
Article
According to the age-of-acquisition hypothesis, words acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later. Connectionist models have begun to explore the influence of the age/order of acquisition of items (and also their frequency of encounter). This study attempts to reconcile two different methodological and...
Article
Full-text available
We report performance measures for lexical decision (LD), word naming (NMG), and progressive demasking (PDM) for a large sample of monosyllabic monomorphemic French words (N = 1,482). We compare the tasks and also examine the impact of word length, word frequency, initial phoneme, orthographic and phonological distance to neighbors, age-of-acquisit...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to provide Russian normative data for the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28, 516-536, 1980) colorized pictures (Rossion & Pourtois, Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). The pictures were standardized on name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, imageability,...
Article
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Cet article présente des normes d’imageabilité (ou valeurs d’imagerie) pour un ensemble de 1493 mots. Des analyses statistiques réalisées sur ces normes révèlent une fidélité élevée. Les scores d’imageabilité se révèlent par ailleurs assez modestement corrélés avec d’autres variables psycholinguistiques (par ex., fréquences lexicales, âge d’acquisi...
Article
In the current paper, imageability norms are described for a set of 1,493 French words. The statistical analyses conducted on imageability norms have revealed a high reliability between the scores. Moreover, imageability scores are moderately correlated with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g. lexical frequencies, age of acquisition). Analyses c...
Article
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Least squares analyses (e.g., ANOVAs, linear regressions) of hierarchical data leads to Type-I error rates that depart severely from the nominal Type-I error rate assumed. Thus, when least squares methods are used to analyze hierarchical data coming from designs in which some groups are assigned to the treatment condition, and others to the control...
Article
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The French Lexicon Project involved the collection of lexical decision data for 38,840 French words and the same number of nonwords. It was directly inspired by the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) and produced very comparable frequency and word length effects. The present article describes the methods used to collect the data, reports...
Article
Cet article présente des normes psycholinguistiques pour un ensemble de 110 clips d’actions. Les analyses statistiques réalisées à partir de ces normes montrent qu’en comparaison des études de Bonin et al. (2004) et de Schwitter et al. (2004), les corrélations entre les différentes variables psycholinguistiques sont généralement les mêmes que celle...
Article
In this paper we describe psycholinguistic norms for a set of 110 video dips of actions. Statistical analyses performed on the norms reveal that, compared to the Bonin et al. (2004) and Schwitter et al. (2004) studies, the correlations between the different psycholinguistic variables are the same as those found for photographs and drawings. However...
Article
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Pérez (2007) reported that objective age of acquisition (AoA) was a major determinant of adult object naming latencies when frequency trajectory and cumulative frequency were included in the same regression analysis. In this comment, we discuss several issues concerning the influence of frequency trajectory and AoA and argue that objective AoA is a...
Article
Full-text available
Ratings for age of acquisition (AoA) and subjective frequency were collected for the 1,493 monosyllabic French words that were most known to French students. AoA ratings were collected by asking participants to estimate in years the age at which they learned each word. Subjective frequency ratings were collected on a 7-point scale, ranging from nev...
Article
Full-text available
We report performance measures for lexical decision (LD), word naming (NMG), and progressive demasking (PDM) for a large sample of monosyllabic monomorphemic French words (N = 1,482). We compare the tasks and also examine the impact of word length, word frequency, initial phoneme, orthographic and phonological distance to neighbors, age-of-acquisit...
Article
Full-text available
A set of 105 photographs of celebrities has been standardized in French on distinctiveness, proper name agreement, face agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), and subjective frequency. Statistics on the collected variables for photographs are provided. The relationships between these variables have been analyzed. Face naming latencies have also been...
Article
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It has long been established that there is a linear and positive relationship between relative deprivation and prejudice. However, a recent experiment suggests that the converse of relative deprivation, relative gratification, may also be associated with prejudice (S. Guimond & M. Dambrun, 2002). Specifically, the evidence suggests that the usual t...
Article
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The main determinants of lexical access in speech are considered to be a word's age of acquisition (AoA) and its frequency of occurrence in a speaker's experience. It is unclear whether and how these variables interact, although they are commonly observed to be correlated, for the few studies that address the issue have reported inconsistent findin...
Article
Levelt (2002) argued that apparent effects of word frequency and age of acquisition (AoA) reported in recent picture naming studies might actually be confounded effects operating at the level of object recognition, rather than relevant to theories of lexical retrieval. In order to investigate this issue, AoA effects were examined in an object recog...
Article
Ferrand, Segui, and Grainger (1996) found robust syllable priming effects in picture naming latencies: Pictures primed with their initial syllable (e.g., ba for baleine [whale]) were processed faster than pictures primed with a string of letters shorter or longer than their initial syllable (e.g., bal for baleine). However, in several studies, thes...
Article
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The present study focused on the issue of the scope of advance planning in written picture naming. In the first series of experiments, participants had to write down or to speak aloud two bare nouns from pictures presented side-by-side starting with the left one, whereas in the second series of experiments, participants had to produce noun phrases...
Article
In this paper, the discuss the two possible statistical approaches when IV are continuous: analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The statistical model common to these two approaches, and analysis of covariance is first briefly reminded. Using general arguments, followed by a psycholinguistic illustration, we discuss the advantages an...
Article
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A number of studies have shown that the scale of social dominance orientation (SDO), used to measure the degree of preference for inequality among social groups, is a predictive measure of social and political attitudes toward stigmatized outgroups. However, the relationship between SDO and discrimination has received little attention. The main goa...
Article
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We conducted four experiments to investigate whether adults can exert attentional strategic control over nonlexical and lexical processing in written spelling to dictation. In Experiment 1, regular and irregular words were produced either in a nonword context (regular and irregular nonwords) or in a word context (high-frequency regular and irregula...
Article
The aim of the present study was to provide French normative data for 112 action line drawings. The set of action pictures consisted of 71 drawings taken from Masterson and Druks (1998) and 41 additional drawings. It was standardized on six psycholinguistic variables--that is, name agreement, image agreement, image variability, visual complexity, c...
Article
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Research on stereotype threat has repeatedly demonstrated that the intellectual performance of social groups is particularly sensitive to the situational context in which tests are usually administered. In the present experiment, an adaptation of the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test was introduced as a measure of cognitive ability. Results...
Article
This paper concerns the influence of age of acquisition (AoA) in word reading and other tasks, and attempts to develop a number of issues raised by Zevin and Seidenberg (2002). Analyses performed on both rated and objective measures of AoA show that the frequency trajectory of words is a reliable predictor of their order of acquisition, which valid...
Article
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A set of 142 photographs of actions (taken from Fiez & Tranel, 1997) was standardized in French on name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, imageability, age of acquisition, and duration of the depicted actions. Objective word frequency measures were provided for the infinitive modal forms of the verbs and for the...
Article
Picture naming speed is strongly influenced by the age of acquisition (AoA) of words. Most studies of AoA have relied on adults' AoA ratings. However, objective AoA has been found to be a stronger determinant of picture naming latencies. Whereas objective AoA norms for words have been collected for some language communities, no objective AoA measur...
Article
This article presents concreteness, imageability, subjective and emotional valence norms for a set of 866 words. The norms were collected from 97 participants, all French native speakers whose mean age was 23. Descriptive statistics and correlational analyses have been performed on these norms and on other estimated (age of acquistion, conceptual f...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose an original modelling methodology to investigate grazing systems, which confronts and combines two conceptually and methodologically different approaches that link two contrasting points of view on the grazing system: a farmer's organisation of grazing and changes in plant cover states on the farm territory. The methodology cons...
Article
Pictures are often used as stimuli in studies of perception, language, and memory. Since performances on different sets of pictures are generally contrasted, stimulus selection requires the use of standardized material to match pictures across different variables. Unfortunately, the number of standardized pictures available for empirical research i...