Alain Guillaume

Alain Guillaume
Paris Descartes University · Psychology Institute

PhD

About

33
Publications
4,250
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553
Citations
Introduction
psychologie cognitive, neurosciences, neurosciences computationnelles, apprentissage supervisé / par renforcement, mouvements oculaires, eye tracking, attention, système visuel, transformations visuo-motrices, adaptation sensori-motrice, dominance oculaire, motricité réactive / volontaire, mouvement du bras, psychophysique, électrophysiologie (EEG), imagerie fonctionnelle (IRMf), modélisation

Publications

Publications (33)
Article
Full-text available
Visuospatial attention has an inherent asymmetry: the leftward bias called pseudoneglect. In typical line bisection tasks, healthy individuals tend to judge the center of a line leftward of the true center, an effect attributed to the right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial attention. Since it has been shown that information perceived by the dom...
Article
Full-text available
Saccade adaptation is the learning process that ensures that vision and saccades remain calibrated. The central nervous system network involved in these adaptive processes remains unclear because of difficulties in isolating the learning process from the correlated visual and motor processes. Here we imaged the human brain during a novel saccade ad...
Article
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The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual informatio...
Article
Unlike handedness, sighting eye dominance, defined as the eye unconsciously chosen when performing monocular tasks, is very rarely considered in studies investigating cerebral asymmetries. We previously showed that sighting eye dominance has an influence on visually triggered manual action with shorter reaction time (RT) when the stimulus appears i...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic Neural Field models (DNF) often use a kernel of connection with short range excitation and long range inhibition. This organization has been suggested as a model for brain structures or for artificial systems involved in winner-take-all processes such as saliency localisation, perceptual decision or target/action selection. A good example o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction.- The dominant eye is defined as the one we unconsciously choose when we have to perform monocular tasks. In the field of clinical neuro-ophthalmology it is well-established that eye dominance plays a key role in several eye diseases. Furthermore, the accurate quantification of eye dominance might be relevant within the framework of so...
Article
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Behavioral studies have suggested that the brain uses a visual estimate of the hand to plan reaching movements towards visual targets and somatosensory inputs in the case of somatosensory targets. However, neural correlates for distinct coding of the hand according to the sensory modality of the target have not yet been identified. Here we tested t...
Article
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Saccadic inhibition refers to the strong temporary decrease in saccadic initiation observed when a visual distractor appears shortly after the onset of a saccadic target. Here, to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, we assessed whether saccade amplitude changes could accompany these modulations of latency distributions. As previous stud...
Article
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Saccades are the fast eye movements dedicated to sight orientation toward targets. Robinson [1] suggested a model based on feedback control according to an internally estimated motor error relying on a "neuronal integrator". Although supported by numerous behavioral studies, this principle is still in search of biological confirmation. Indeed, neur...
Article
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Execution of a saccadic eye movement towards the goal of a hand pointing movement improves the accuracy of this hand movement. Still controversial is the role of extra-retinal signals, i.e. efference copy of the saccadic command and/or ocular proprioception, in the definition of the hand pointing target. We report here that hand pointing movements...
Conference Paper
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The DAMNED simulator is a Distributed And Multithreaded Neural Event-Driven framework designed for implementing Spiking Neuron Networks (SNNs). This paper shows the power of DAMNED for simulating the tempo- ral dynamics of a biologically inspired model of the system controlling saccadic eye movements. A fundamental neural structure for the saccade...
Article
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Sensorimotor adaptation restores and maintains the accuracy of goal-directed movements. It remains unclear whether these adaptive mechanisms modify actions by controlling peripheral premotor stages that send commands to the effectors and/or earlier processing stages involved in registration of target location. Here, we studied the effect of adaptat...
Conference Paper
Ocular saccades are fast and accurate movements of both eyes. Saccade accuracy can be maintained throughout life by adaptation mechanisms despite physiological or pathological alterations of the sensorimotor system. This study was aimed at testing whether these saccadic adaptation mechanisms involve changes in the sensory and/or motor stages of sen...
Article
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Studying the transfer of visuomotor adaptation from a given effector (e.g., the eye) to another (e.g., the hand) allows us to question whether sensorimotor processes influenced by adaptation are common to both effector control systems and thus to address the level where adaptation takes place. Previous studies have shown only very weak transfer of...
Article
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Saccadic eye movements are permanently controlled and their accuracy maintained by adaptive mechanisms that compensate for physiological or pathological perturbations. In contrast to the adaptation of reactive saccades (RS) which are automatically triggered by the sudden appearance of a single target, little is known about the adaptation of volunta...
Article
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Shifting gaze requires precise coordination of eye and head movements. It is clear that the superior colliculus (SC) is involved with saccadic gaze shifts. Here we investigate its role in controlling both eye and head movements during gaze shifts. Gaze shifts of the same amplitude can be evoked from different SC sites by controlled electrical micro...
Article
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The contribution of the cerebellar vermal lobules Vic/VII and of the caudal part of the fastigial nucleus (cFN) to the control of saccadic eye movements has been established by converging neurophysiological approaches. The precise delineation of these saccade-related territories in the medio-posterior cerebellum (MPC) has stimulated the development...
Article
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The cerebellar areas involved in the control of saccades have recently been identified in the medio-posterior cerebellum (MPC). Unit activity recordings, experimental lesions and electrical microstimulation of this region in cats and monkeys have provided a considerable amount of data and allowed the development of new computational models. In this...
Article
The regulation of the gaze shift motor map of the superior colliculus (SC) could implicate both intrinsic (collicular) processes and mechanisms controlled by other oculomotor structures (extrinsic processes) like, for example, the medioposterior cerebellum (vermian lobules VI and VII and caudal fastigial nucleus - cFN). To evaluate the contribution...
Article
Full-text available
The medioposterior cerebellum [vermian lobules VI and VII and caudal fastigial nucleus (cFN)] is known to play a major role in the control of saccadic gaze shifts toward a visual target. To determine the relative contribution of the cFN efferent pathways to the brainstem reticular formation and to the superior colliculus (SC), we recorded in the he...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have suggested that the pattern of neuronal activity in the superior colliculus (SC) interacts with the well-known topographical coding of saccades (motor map). To further describe this interaction, we recorded gaze saccades evoked by electrical microstimulation of SC deeper layers in the head-unrestrained cat and systematically var...
Article
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During the course of previous recordings of visually-triggered gaze shifts in the head-unrestrained cat, we occasionally observed small head movements which preceded the initiation of the saccadic eye/head gaze shift toward a visual target. These early head movements (EHMs) were directed toward the target and occurred with a probability varying bet...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that the medio-posterior cerebellar lobules VI/VII of the vermis and caudal part of the fastigial nucleus (cFN) are involved in the control of saccadic displacements of the visual axis in space (gaze). We have recently shown in the head-unrestrained cat that inactivation of the cFN severely impairs the accuracy of orienting gaze shifts...
Article
It is known that the medio-posterior cerebellar lobules VI/VII of the vermis and caudal part of the fastigial nucleus (cFN) are involved in the control of saccadic displacements of the visual axis in space (gaze). We have recently shown in the head-unrestrained cat that inactivation of the cFN severely impairs the accuracy of orienting gaze shifts...
Article
Full-text available
In the model proposed by Findlay & Walker, the programming of saccadic eye movements is achieved by two parallel processes, one dedicated to the coding of saccade metrics (Where) and the other controlling saccade initiation (When). One outcome of the “winner-take-all” characteristics of the salience map, the main node of the model, is an independen...
Article
The implication of the caudal part of the fastigial nucleus (cFN) in the control of saccadic shifts of the visual axis is now well established. In contrast a possible involvement of the rostral part of the fastigial nuceus (rFN) remains unknown. In the current study we investigated in the head-unrestrained cat the contribution of the rFN to the con...
Article
Muscimol injection in the caudal part of the fastigial nucleus (cFN) leads, in the head-unrestrained cat, to a characteristic dysmetria of saccadic gaze shifts toward visual targets. The goal of the current study was to test whether this pharmacological cFN inactivation impaired the ability to compensate for unexpected perturbations in gaze positio...
Article
We have shown in the companion paper that muscimol injection in the caudal part of the fastigial nucleus (cFN) consistently leads to dysmetria of visually triggered gaze shifts that depends on movement direction. Based on the observations of a constant error and misdirected movements toward the inactivated side, we have proposed that the cFN contri...

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