Alain Brauman

Alain Brauman
Institute of Research for Development | IRD · 210 - Functional Ecology and Biochemistry of Soils and Agroecosystems (Eco&Sols)

PhD in Microbiology

About

211
Publications
51,159
Reads
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Introduction
My study concerns the impact of land uses changes on soil functioning including biodiversity and soil functions driven by the soil biota community. Recently I develop a new a new set of indicators to monitor soil health named Biofunctool®. It consists of 9 in-field, time- and cost- effective indicators to assess 3 mains soil functions : carbon transformation, nutrient cycling and structure maintenance. A Soil Quality Index synthetizes the results and provide a synthetic soil functioning score
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - January 2016
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • Senior scientist (Directeur de recherche), head of INternation Join Laboratory LUSES
Description
  • Since my assignment in Thailand my research concerns the impact of rubber plantations on the biological functioning of the soil.
September 2011 - March 2016
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • Senior scientist (Directeur de recherche), Director of LMI LUSES
September 2011 - present
Land Development Department
Position
  • Soil biological expert

Publications

Publications (211)
Article
Alley cropping agroforestry-whereby tree rows are integrated in crop plots-is considered as a lever for the agroecological transition. Its benefit for enhancing soil functioning is rarely studied. We studied soil health in a 25 years temperate agroforestry plot cultivated with barley (Hordeum vulgare) according to two factors: i. the position to th...
Article
Classifying organisms has a wide use and a long history in ecology. However, the meaning of a 'group of or-ganisms' and how to group organisms is still the subject of much theoretical and empirical work. Achieving this long quest requires simplifying the complexity of species niches for which relevant morphological, behavioural, biochemical or life...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation dealt with the restoration of soil health after heavy disturbances in rubber tree plantations in Ivory Coast. We showed that the restitution of logging residues (i.e. the crop residues of the previous rubber stand), combined with a legume cover, made it possible to quickly restore soil functioning.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
After a Rubber plantation cycle (25 to 40 years), the greatest risk of soil degradation occurred during the replanting period which extends from the clear cutting of an old plantation to the planting of young rubber trees. During this period, the soil is subject to numerous disturbances mainly related to (1) the opening up of the environment follow...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil erosion causes major problems of land degradation in agricultural systems leading to losses of soil fertility. Rubber tree is one of the main tropical perennial crops with about 13 million hectares of plantations worldwide in 2018. In the early stage of a rubber plantation, soil is especially vulnerable to degradations given the low canopy cov...
Article
Soil health is defined as the soil's capacity to deliver ecosystem functions within environmental constraints. On tree plantations, clear-cutting and land preparation between two crop cycles cause severe physical disturbance to the soil and seriously deplete soil organic carbon and biodiversity. Rubber, one of the main tropical perennial crops worl...
Article
Full-text available
Natural rubber consumption has led to the expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations which affects the deforestation and ecosystem. However, no study of the long-term effect of rubber plantations on soil biodiversity has been carried out yet. This study aimed to assess the long-term impact of continuous rubber monocropping on soil biodive...
Article
Full-text available
Rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) cover large areas in the tropics. In historical producing regions like South Thailand, rubber has been planted by smallholders for three successive rotations lasting a total of 75 years. Despite possible consequences on topsoil, the long-term impacts of repeated rubber plantations on soil quality remain...
Presentation
Full-text available
Les plantations d'hévéas sont largement exploitées sur une période de rotation de 25 à 40 ans (Oku et al. 2012). Après un cycle d’hévéaculture, le risque le plus important de dégradation du sol survient pendant la phase de replantation qui s'étend de l’abattage d'une ancienne plantation à la plantation de jeunes hévéas. Durant cette période, le sol...
Article
Conservation agriculture (CA) is one strategy with which both sustainability and productivity can be achieved by improving soil health. However, linkages between practices, soil health and cropping system performance remain poorly disentangled. We assessed the relationships between soil health and cropping system performance for three maize-based c...
Presentation
Full-text available
Dans cette présentation, nous montrons dans un premier temps la forte perturbation des fonctions du sol induite par la phase de replantation (coupe rase, sous-solage, etc.) entre 2 cycles de plantations d'hévéas en Côte d'Ivoire. Dans un deuxième temps, le bénéfice de la restitution des résidus d'abattage et de l'implantation d'une légumineuse sur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Le changement d’usage des terres est à l’origine de modifications des écosystèmes, provoquant la perte de nombreuses espèces et entrainant leur substitution par d’autres espèces ayant des traits différents. Dans les plantations d’hévéas, le maintien et la restauration de la biodiversité après des rotations successives est indispensable pour assurer...
Article
The assessment of the impacts of land management on soil quality is crucial in the current environmental context. Among the many approaches available to assess soil quality, most of studies or monitoring programs consist in the measurement of stock measurements using an additive approach of physical, chemical and biological , parameters. More recen...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf litter plays a major role in carbon and nutrient cycling, as well as in fueling food webs. The chemical composition of a leaf may directly and indirectly influence decomposition rates by influencing rates of biological reactions and by influencing the accumulation of soil organic carbon content, respectively. This study aimed to assess the imp...
Article
The assessment of the impacts of land-use and management on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is a major environmental concern, as the soil carbon cycle underpins key ecosystem services. However, assessments based on short-term SOC dynamics face methodological and experimental difficulties. Hurisso et al. (2016) proposed a method to assess SOC dyn...
Article
Full-text available
L'évaluation de la santé des sols devient un enjeu sociétal important, notamment dans le cadre de la transition agroécologique. Cependant, la notion de santé des sols et les moyens pour la mesurer ne font pas consensus au sein de la communauté scientifique. La définition la plus partagée est celle basée sur sa capacité à fonctionner (Karlen et al.,...
Poster
Full-text available
Les sols de la Côte d’Ivoire abritent une grande diversité d’organismes. Ils regorgent d’invertébrés mais savez vous réellement qui ils sont et ce qu’ils font ? Ce projet s’inscrit dans la caractérisation temporelle de la biodiversité du sol dans les replantations d’hévéas.
Poster
Full-text available
Soil is an essential component of agroecosystem, sustaining several soil functions such as nutrient cycling supported by biodiversity. However, land use change from natural ecosystem and intensive crop management may trigger heavy disturbances, threatening soil biodiversity and its related functions. To cope with that, soil resilience, defined as t...
Book
Full-text available
L’agroécologie est, de manière croissante, évoquée au cœur des discussions internationales sur le devenir des systèmes agricoles et alimentaires dans le monde, en apparaissant comme une des réponses pertinentes aux grands défis globaux en matière de développement économique et social et d’environnement, largement reflété́ dans les Objectifs de Déve...
Article
The assessment of soil quality is a scientific issue that has been widely debated in the literature for the last twenty years. We developed the Biofunctool® framework to assess soil quality based on an integrative approach that accounts for the link between the physico-chemical properties and the biological activity of soils. Biofunctool® consists...
Article
Full-text available
The production of sufficient food for an increasing global population while conserving natural capital is a major challenge to humanity. Tree-mediated ecosystem services are recognized as key features of more sustainable agroecosystems but the strategic management of tree attributes for ecosystem service provision is poorly understood. Six agrofore...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a comparison of the litterfall, litter decomposition, soil macrofauna, and nutrient contents in rubber monoculture and rubber-based agroforestry plantations. The three intra-couple differences examined are rubber with pakliang (RP) compared with rubber monoculture (RMP), rubber with timber (RT) compared with rubber monoculture (RMT) a...
Poster
Full-text available
The capacity of soils to mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration depends on the quantitative but also the qualitative changes in soil organic carbon (SOC). In particular, the stability of SOC has to be considered to evaluate the long-term fate of the soil carbon stocks. The aim of this study was to assess the accurateness of thermal an...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid expansion of perennial crops is a major threat to biodiversity in Southeast Asia. The biodiversity losses related to the conversion of forest lands to oil palm or rubber plantations (RP) are well documented by recent studies. However, the impact of the conversion from intensively managed annual crops to perennial crops on soil biodiversit...
Article
Full-text available
The comparison of little fall and its decomposition in rubber monoculture and rubber agroforestry plantations were study and were conducted at Si Banphot and Srinagarindra districts, Phatthalung province from October 2016 to April 2017. The mature rubber cultivar RRIM 600 clone with age around 10-30 years were selected to study in monoculture and r...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical rainforest soils harbor a considerable diversity of soil fauna that contributes to emissions of N2O. Despite their ecological dominance, there is limited information available about the contribution of epigeal ant mounds to N2O emissions in these tropical soils. This study aimed to determine whether ant mounds contribute to local soil N em...
Article
Full-text available
The production of sufficient food for an increasing global population while conserving natural capital is a major challenge to humanity. Tree-mediated ecosystem services are recognized as key features of more sustainable agroecosystems but the strategic management of tree attributes for ecosystem service provision is poorly understood. Six agrofore...
Article
Full-text available
The soil microbial activity is a key parameter in numerous studies aiming to assess soil quality in agricultural plots. Basal Soil Respiration (BSR) has been extensively used as an indicator of this soil microbial activity. However, available methods to measure BSR remain time-and labor-consuming and must be performed in the laboratory which may le...
Poster
Full-text available
Both aboveground and belowground biodiversity and their interactions can play an important role in crop productivity. Plant functional diversity, such as legume based intercrops have been shown to improve yields through plant complementarity for nitrogen use (Corre-Hellou et al., 2006). Moreover, plant species or plant genotype may influence the st...
Article
Full-text available
Nematodes are small organism living in the soil and can be used as soil bioindicators because they are commonly found in all types of soil and have the ability to respond readily to changes in the soil‘s physical and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different rubber ages and agricultural practices on soil...
Book
La production agricole dépend, entre autres, d’une bonne nutrition minérale en macro-éléments comme l’azote (N), le phosphore (P), le souffre (S) et le potassium (K) des cultures. Plus spécifiquement, l’alimentation en N et P des végétaux est majoritairement assurée par la fertilisation minérale qui apporte les ions minéraux qui pourront être absor...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersion of bacterivorous nematodes in soil is a crucial ecological process that permits settlement and exploitation of new bacterial-rich patches. Although plant roots, by modifying soil structure, are likely to influence this process, they have so far been neglected. In this study, using an original three-compartment microcosm experimental desi...
Article
Full-text available
In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O). Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding gui...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Industrial tree crop plantations often enter in direct competition for land with forests. In those cases, the net result on climate is detrimental. In other cases, the possibility for tree crops to fulfil the objectives of CSA deserves a deeper investigation. This study analyses the case of natural rubber production in Thailand. The natural rubber...
Poster
Full-text available
Industrial tree crop plantations often enter in direct competition for land with forests. In those cases, the net result on climate is detrimental. In other cases, the possibility for tree crops to fulfil the objectives of CSA deserves a deeper investigation. This study analyses the case of natural rubber production in Thailand. The natural rubber...
Article
Full-text available
Xylophagous termites rely on nitrogen deficient foodstuff with a low C/N ratio. Most research work has focused on nitrogen fixation in termites highlighting important inflow and assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen into their bodies fundamentally geared up by their intestinal microbial symbionts. Most of termite body nitrogen is of atmospheric orig...
Article
Full-text available
Our experiment evaluated the effect of maize and peanut mulched residues upon soil organic matter and denitrifying community over a five-week incubation in soil microcosms. Soil organic matter under peanut and maize debris contrasted in biochemical quality throughout incubation, despite identical soil C contents that were significantly increased by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tree plantations are often denigrated for their negative impact on natural resources particularly loss of biodiversity. This assessment is undeniable when tree plantation encroached natural forests. However, in the case of Rubber plantation, the main tree plantation in south East Asia, it often replaced intensively managed annual crops such as cass...
Poster
Descition of IRD implication in agroecology throught the diffrents IRD supportive tools
Data
Soil biological processes that produce greenhouse gases, such as N2O, are more intense in tropical soils because of the warm and humid climate; however, the role played by the wide diversity of fauna in these soils in soil N2O production is still poorly understood. This study attempts to assess the role of scarabaeid grubs (Coleoptera), a major fau...
Article
Soil biological processes that produce greenhouse gases, such as N2O, are more intense in tropical soils because of the warm and humid climate; however, the role played by the wide diversity of fauna in these soils in soil N2O production is still poorly understood. This study attempts to assess the role of scarabaeid grubs (Coleoptera), a major fau...
Article
Full-text available
Soil aggregates and particulate organic matter (POM) are thought to represent distinct soil microhabitats for microbial communities. This study investigated whether organo-mineral (0-20, 20-50 and 50-200 μm) and POM (two sizes: > 200 and < 200 μm) soil fractions represent distinct microbial habitats. Microbial habitats were characterised by the amo...
Article
1.A major question in ecology is to know how ecosystem function is affected by the number of species. After two decades of research, the nature, shape, and causes of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning remain unresolved. Huston (1997) suggested that a statistical “sampling effect” for a few dominant species produced the...
Article
Full-text available
Soil biological processes that produce greenhouse gases, such as N2O, are more intense in tropical soils because of the warm and humid climate; however, the role played by the wide diversity of fauna in these soils in soil N2O production is still poorly understood. This study attempts to assess the role of scarabaeid grubs (Coleoptera), a major fau...
Article
Full-text available
Bacillus sp. strain CaSUT007, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium isolated from cassava, was investigated for the secretion of compounds that might be involved in plant growth promotion. Extracts containing phytohormone and extracellular proteins were made from the cell-free fluid of CaSUT007 broth cultures. These extracts, along with a whole c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is one of the 5 major economic crops in Thailand. Since 1991, Thailand has been the first country in the world for natural rubber production and export and is still expending the planted surfaces. Nevertheless the most suitable soils for rubber tree growth 1 are rather scare in the region of Thailand where plant...