Akira Iwanami

Akira Iwanami
Showa University

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186
Publications
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Publications

Publications (186)
Article
Background: This study aimed to examine the effects of a change in medication from suvorexant to lemborexant among patients with insomnia. Methods: Patients with chronic insomnia who had persistent insomnia for 3 months or longer and who had been taking suvorexant for 3 months or longer were selected. The participants were divided into two group...
Article
Mind wandering (MW) has been closely associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, the field remains understudied in Japan. The present study examined MW in adults with ADHD using the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale (MEWS) in a Japanese clinical population. Fifty‐two adults with ADHD (mean age, 33.0 years; 33 men), diag...
Article
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Aim: Atomoxetine (ATX) is a non-central stimulant and a standard treatment for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The long-term efficacy of Atomoxetine is about 40% at 6 months. The variability in efficacy between individuals is thought to be related to patient-specific factors, but no detailed research has been conducted. In t...
Article
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has long been regarded as disparate and mutually exclusive to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. However, this idea has become obsolete due to a growing body of evidence suggesting numerous phenotypic and genetic similari...
Article
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Background: We conducted a historical cohort study of patients with schizophrenia to identify more robust risk factors at discharge that contribute to readmission within a year. Methods and findings: The subjects underwent brief psychoeducation during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis was conducted using factors selected in the univariate a...
Article
Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty in social decision-making. The ultimatum game (UG) is a popular economic game used to evaluate social decision-making. This study aimed to examine the effects of schematically depicted eyes and ADHD symptoms on UG performance. Thirty adults with ADHD were recruited. The com...
Article
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In this study, we examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with normal controls using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2). Sixty-three adults with ADHD (mean age, 35.3 years; 38 men) and 31 controls (mean age, 38.7 years; 17 men) com...
Article
Background: Delirium is often treated on a subjective basis and per the discretion of the attending physician because of a lack of pharmacological evidence in the literature. To address this knowledge gap, we aimed to examine the efficacy of a hypnotic drug, suvorexant, as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of delirium. Methods: Fifty-seven p...
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Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently leads to psychological/social dysfunction if unaddressed. Identifying a reliable biomarker would assist the diagnosis of adult ADHD and ensure that adults with ADHD receive treatment. Pupil diameter can reflect inherent neural activity and deficits of attention or arousal characterist...
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Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the adult clinical population using the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Adult ADHD Rating Scales self‐report screening version (CAARS‐S:SV). Methods We included 50 adults with ASD and 52 with ADHD...
Preprint
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Background: While the suicide rate in Japan has recently declined, it is still high from a global perspective. Recently, suicides related to unemployment caused by COVID-19 have increased. In addition, because of increases in karoshi and industrial accidents, mental health measures for workers have become an urgent issue. We previously conducted a...
Article
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In addition to photic reflex function, the temporal behavior of the pupil diameter reflects levels of arousal and attention and thus internal cognitive neural activity. Recent studies have reported that these behaviors are characterized by baseline activity, temporal complexity, and symmetricity (i.e., degree of symmetry) between the right and left...
Article
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Backgrounds Antidepressants are widely used to treat major depressive disorder. First-line treatments with antidepressants are only successful in one-third of patients; however, evidence from randomized controlled trials on second-line treatments is limited. Moreover, recently acceptability is suggested to be a good indicator of overall treatment s...
Article
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Although behavioral studies have repeatedly demonstrated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in alertness, little is known about its underlying neural basis. It is hypothesized that pupil diameter reflects the firing of norepinephrine (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), and that the LC-NE neurom...
Article
DSP-5423P (DSP) is a transdermal delivery formulation containing 20 mg of blonanserin per 40 cm² patch. This open-label, single-arm study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of repeated application of DSP for 2 weeks in 8 patients with schizophrenia. Four patches of DSP per day (80 mg/day of blonanserin), possessing nearly equival...
Article
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Aims While several studies have reported various cognitive impairments in children with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the neuropsychological profiles of adults with this disorder are understudied. Here, the intelligence and memory functions of adults with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder without intellectual disability were eval...
Article
Spontaneous theory of mind (ToM) is an unconscious and automatic understanding of others’ mental states. Recently, individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been shown to have social and communication difficulties, and ADHD's relation to ToM has started to be investigated. Although some studies have employed explicit ToM...
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Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) represent positive effects on mental health in diverse populations. However, the detailed associations between MBIs and biomarkers in patients with psychiatric disorders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MBIs on biomarkers in psychiatric illness, trying to summarize...
Article
Background: Growing attention has been paid to the field of gut microbiota for mental disorders over the last decade. However, to our knowledge, no studies have conducted systematic reviews on the association between gut microbiota and major depressive disorder (MDD) in both interventional and non-interventional studies. Methods: We conducted a...
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Purpose: Although gender differences have been reported in various aspects of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as prevalence, comorbidities, and social functioning, there have been few such studies conducted in Japan. Our research investigated gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults...
Article
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Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare acceptability of two second generation antidepressants for major depressive disorder patients who have not responded to the first antidepressant for current episode. We will investigate the treatment discontinuation rate and treatment adherence as well as incidence of adverse events in order to evaluate...
Article
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Previous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies using a verbal fluency task (VFT) have consistently reported that adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed significantly smaller oxygenated-hemoglobin [oxy-Hb] activations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared to those in healthy controls (HC). Despite this consistent ev...
Article
The Ultimatum Game (UG) allows for the assessment of altruistic behavior as well as the perception of fairness. We examined the effects of visual social cues (gaze of others), factors associated with autism, and trust on UG performance in typical adults (TAs) and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized that individuals with...
Article
While the efficacy and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression has been well established, the acute effects of ECT on brain function remain unclear. Particularly, although cognitive dysfunction has been consistently observed after ECT, little is known about the extent and time course of ECT-induced brain functional changes, a...
Article
The cognitive profile differences between adult patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well characterized. We examined the cognitive profiles of adults having either ASD (n=120) or ADHD (n=76) with no intellectual disabilities (IQ≥70) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale...
Article
Objective: To examine whether concurrent use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) affects continuation rates for suvorexant. Background: A wider range of different BZDs and similar drugs are available on prescription in Japan than in other countries, making prescribing more complicated. Safety has only been indicated for the use of suvorexant as monotherapy i...
Article
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The Specific Levels of Functioning Scale (SLOF) has been reported to provide a measure of social function in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this multi-center study was to determine convergent validity of the Japanese version of SLOF, and if cognitive insight would be associated with social function. Fifty-eight patients with schizophrenia...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid symptoms (depression and anxiety) in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The subjects were 54 adults (30 men and 24 women) with ADHD according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. They were outpatients of Showa University Karasuyama Hospital. Their mean age was 29.4 ± 7.9 years old a...
Article
Trust is an important psychological factor in social life for individuals. In persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social communication skills, including trust of other people, is often impaired. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of autistic traits and the presentation of stylized eyespots on performance of the ultimatum ga...
Article
Anticholinergic activity (AA) is generally thought to cause cognitive dysfunction, especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the neurocognitive disorders related to memory disturbances. Therefore, it is important to evaluate cognitive functions to determine whether they are associated with anticholinergic burden. In Japan, the most frequently...
Article
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Purpose: Individuals with schizophrenia have a vastly reduced lifespan compared with the general population; comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for them. Furthermore, these individuals are more likely to have metabolic syndrome-related disorders (MSDs), which increase CVD risk. We examined the medical records of lon...
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Previous autism research has hypothesized that abnormalities of functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may vary with the spatial distance between two brain regions. Although several resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) studies have extensively examined long-range (or distant) connectivity in the adult ASD...
Article
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Recent studies have indicated the potential clinical use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool in assisting the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD); however, it is still unclear whether NIRS signal changes during cognitive task are state- or trait-dependent, and whether NIRS could be a neural predictor of treatment response. There...
Article
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The cholinergic system in schizophrenia has been associated with treatments, adverse effects, and pathophysiological processes. Although the role of the cholinergic system in schizophrenia has been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined the dynamics of human cholinergic systems in vivo. We compared serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) i...
Article
In the present study, we investigated auditory event-related potentials in adults with Asperger disorder and normal controls using an auditory oddball task and a novelty oddball task. Task performance and the latencies of P300 evoked by both target and novel stimuli in the two tasks did not differ between the two groups. Analysis of variance reveal...
Article
Background: Non-fatal suicide attempt is the most important risk factor for later suicide. Emergency department visits for attempted suicide are increasingly recognised as opportunities for intervention. However, no strong evidence exists that any intervention is effective at preventing repeated suicide attempts. We aimed to investigate whether as...
Article
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In a previous study, we succeeded in improving the spatial working memory (WM) performance in healthy young persons by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex and simultaneously measuring the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) level using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Since an improvement in WM was observed when TMS...
Conference Paper
Background: In a noisy environment, the difficulty to hear out the target speech can be attributed to energetic masking and informational masking. If the target and masker have the same properties, even when the target and masker are processed in different peripheral channels (i.e., no energetic masking), the neurotypical people are still suffered...
Article
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have sensory processing abnormalities. However, limited measures that assess these problems in adults with ASD have been developed till date, particularly in Japan. Robertson and Simmons (2012) developed a self-rating scale to investigate sensory sensitivity: the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (...
Article
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Many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty with verbal communication, which might be due to a lack of spontaneous orientation toward social auditory stimuli. Previous studies have shown that a single dose of oxytocin improves speech comprehension in autism. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the orie...
Article
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Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and af...
Article
Disorder of train of thought is one symptom of the formal thought disturbance. There are several types of disorder of thought train, such as loosing of association, flight of idea, incoherence, inhibition of thought, blocking of thought, circumstantial thinking and perseveration. Although these symptoms are characteristics of functional mental diso...
Article
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Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyr...
Article
This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group differenc...
Article
Background: In spite of the relatively high prevalence of pervasive development disorders (PDD), the medical and educational services for persons with PDD are insufficient in Japan. The present study investigated the clinical and psychosocial characteristics of adults with PDD in Japan.Methods: We selected 111 individuals with PDD out of the 257 su...
Article
We examined the relationships between the ERP measurements and concentrations of plasma monoamine metabolites in 20 healthy volunteers. Event-related potentials were recorded within the framework of two auditory paradigms, a standard oddball task and a novelty oddball task. The plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (HVA, a metabolite of dopami...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as "islets of abilities" that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for...
Article
People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and communic...
Article
Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ > 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 24), an...
Article
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The outcomes of treatment for pain disorder are generally disappointing: symptoms are poorly controlled, they are seldom managed by experts, and they are often long standing. The aim of the present study was to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of paroxetine and milnacipran for outpatients with pain disorder. The study was performed on 43 conse...
Article
Diagnosing Asperger's syndrome (AS) in adults is difficult and efficient indicators for a precise diagnosis are important in the clinical setting. We examined the clinical characteristics of AS in 129 adults (median age, 32.0 years [range, 19–57]; 102 men and 27 women; AS group (n=64; median age, 32.0 years [range, 19–50]; 50 men and 14 women), con...
Article
Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex has been previously reported in individuals with Asperger's disorder. In the present study, we used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) during two verbal fluency tasks. The subjects were 20 individuals with Asperger's disorder an...
Article
Diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome (AS) in adults is difficult, and clinical sample-based studies that systematically illustrate the clinical characteristics of adult AS patients are needed so that appropriate treatment can be provided. Here we examined the clinical characteristics of AS in 112 adults (median age, 28.0 years [range, 18–52]; 71 men an...