Akhilesh K Gaharwar

Akhilesh K Gaharwar
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Biomedical Engineering

Ph.D

About

144
Publications
61,912
Reads
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10,832
Citations
Introduction
Akhilesh K Gaharwar is associate professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University. For more information visit: https://gaharwar.engr.tamu.edu/
Additional affiliations
July 2011 - June 2013
Harvard University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
April 2011 - June 2013
Harvard University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
March 2011 - July 2013
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
March 2011 - June 2013
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Biomedical Engineering
March 2011 - June 2013
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Biomimetic Nanomaterials
August 2007 - March 2011
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Biomedical Engineering

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Full-text available
Clay nanomaterials are an emerging class of 2D biomaterials of interest due to their atomically thin layered structure, charged characteristics, and well‐defined composition. Synthetic nanoclays are plate‐like polyions composed of simple or complex salts of silicic acids with a heterogeneous charge distribution and patchy interactions. Due to their...
Article
Full-text available
Bioprinting is an emerging approach for fabricating cell‐laden 3D scaffolds via robotic deposition of cells and biomaterials into custom shapes and patterns to replicate complex tissue architectures. Bioprinting uses hydrogel solutions called bioinks as both cell carriers and structural components, requiring bioinks to be highly printable while pro...
Article
Full-text available
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of organic crystalline polymers with well‐defined molecular geometry and tunable porosity. COFs are formed via reversible condensation of lightweight molecular building blocks, which dictate its geometry in two or three dimensions. Among COFs, 2D COFs have garnered special attention due to th...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional nanomaterials, an ultrathin class of materials such as graphene, nanoclays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs), have emerged as a new generation of materials due to their unique properties relative to macroscale counterparts. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics following...
Article
Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem cell differentiation into tissue-specific lineages. T...
Article
Dynamic hydrogels are promising biomaterials for various biomedical and biotechnological applications due to their ability to change physicochemical properties and functions reversibly and/or sequentially in a time‐ or stimuli‐dependent manner. In this study, a new class of dynamic hydrogels that are crosslinked by the in situ redox reactions of go...
Article
Flexible electronics require elastomeric and conductive biointerfaces with native tissue-like mechanical properties. The conventional approaches to engineer such a biointerface often utilize conductive nanomaterials in combination with polymeric hydrogels that are cross-linked using toxic photoinitiators. Moreover, these systems frequently demonstr...
Article
Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an ultrathin nanomaterial with a high degree of anisotropy, surface-to-volume ratio, chemical functionality and mechanical strength. These properties together enable MoS2 to emerge as a potent nanomaterial for diverse biomedical applications including drug delivery, regenerative medicine, biosensi...
Article
Bioactive materials harness the body's innate regenerative potential by directing endogenous progenitor cells to facilitate tissue repair. Dissolution products of inorganic biomaterials provide unique biomolecular signaling for tissue-specific differentiation. Inorganic ions (minerals) are vital to biological processes and play crucial roles in reg...
Preprint
Over the past decade, additive manufacturing has resulted in significant advances towards fabricating anatomic-size, patient-specific scaffolds for tissue models and regenerative medicine. This can be attributed to the development of advanced bioinks capable of precise deposition of cells and biomaterials. The combination of additive manufacturing...
Article
Two–dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are emerging class of crystalline porous organic polymer with wide‐range of potential applications. However, poor processability, aqueous instability, and low water dispersibility greatly limit their practical biomedical implementation. Herein, we report a new class of hydrolytically‐stable 2D...
Article
Full-text available
Herein, a method that uses direct-ink-write printing to fabricate engineering living materials (ELMs) that respond by undergoing a programmed shape change in response to specific molecules is reported. Stimuli-responsiveness is imparted to ELMs by integrating genetically engineered yeast that only proliferate in the presence of specific biomolecule...
Article
Extrusion-based 3D bioprinting is a promising approach to generate patient-specific tissue engineered grafts. However, a major challenge in extrusion-based 3D bioprinting is that most currently used materials lack the versatility to be used in a wide range of applications. In this study, we introduce colloidal solutions of two-dimensional (2D) nano...
Article
Glucose biosensors that could be subcutaneously injected and interrogated without a physically connected electrode and transmitter affixed to skin would represent a major advancement in reducing the user burden of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). Towards this goal, an optical glucose biosensor was formed by strategically tailoring a thermorespon...
Article
Full-text available
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanostructures are layered 2D transition metal dichalcogenide with unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. These properties can further be optimized during the synthesis process by introducing atomic defects within the layered nanostructure of MoS2. Herein, MoS2 nanostructure with varying defect density is...
Article
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ultrathin, layered materials with a high surface-to-volume ratio that can deliver various therapeutics including small-molecule drugs, peptides, and large proteins. Their high surface area allows for high therapeutic loading and sustained therapeutic release over time. Some 2D nanomaterials respond to external...
Preprint
Alginate hydrogels are widely used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their excellent biocompatibility. A facile and commonly used strategy to crosslink alginate is the addition of Ca2+ that leads to hydrogelation. However, extracellular Ca2+ is a secondary messenger in activating inflammasome pathways following physical injury...
Article
Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactions have been used to investigate periodic spatial patterns due to the oscillatory nature of the reaction. However, these systems have not been confined, nor controlled, in macro-scaled architectures, making it hard to translate observations to natural behavior. Here, a poly(electrolyte) complex is designed that can...
Article
3D bioprinting is an emerging additive manufacturing technique to fabricate constructs for human disease modeling. However, current cell-laden bioinks lack sufficient biocompatibility, printability, and structural stability needed to translate this technology to preclinical and clinical trials. Here, a new class of nanoengineered hydrogel-based cel...
Article
Full-text available
Light‐responsive biomaterials are an emerging class of materials used for developing noninvasive, noncontact, precise, and controllable biomedical devices. Long‐wavelength near‐infrared (NIR) radiation is an attractive light source for in situ gelation due to its higher penetration depth and minimum side effects. The conventional approach to obtain...
Article
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are an emerging class of biomaterials with remarkable potential for biomedical applications. The planar topography of these nanomaterials confers unique physical, chemical, electronic and optical properties, making them attractive candidates for therapeutic delivery, biosensing, bioimaging, regenerative medicine,...
Article
Nanoclay‐reinforced biomaterials have sparked a new avenue in advanced healthcare materials that can potentially revolutionize treatment of musculoskeletal defects. Native tissues display many important chemical, mechanical, biological, and physical properties that engineered biomaterials need to mimic for optimal tissue integration and regeneratio...
Article
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Endothelial mechanobiology is a key consideration in the progression of vascular dysfunction, including atherosclerosis. However mechanistic connections between the clinically associated physical stimuli, vessel stiffness and shear stress, and how...
Article
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Bioactive 3D printed scaffolds are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering (BTE) applications. Here, we introduce a bioactive ink composed of Bioglass 45S5 (BG) and methacrylated collagen (CMA) for 3D printing of biomimetic constructs that resemble the organic and inorganic composition of native bone tissue. A uniform dispersion of BG part...
Article
Combination therapies involving small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing and small-molecule drugs are of high interest for cancer treatment. Among the current gene delivery carriers, cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particularly promising candidates due to their high biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, in vivo stability,...
Article
Two‐dimensional (2D) metal organic frameworks (MOFs), are an emerging class of layered nanomaterials with well‐defined structure and modular composition. The unique pore structure, high flexibility, tunability, and ability to introduce desired functionality within the structural framework, have led to potential use of MOFs in biomedical application...
Article
Full-text available
Light‐responsive inorganic biomaterials are an emerging class of materials used for developing noninvasive, noncontact, precise, and controllable medical devices in a wide range of biomedical applications, including photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine. Herein, a range of biomaterials is discussed, in...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccine coverage is severely limited in developing countries due to inefficient protection of vaccine functionality as well as lack of patient compliance to receive the additional booster doses. Thus, there is an urgent need to design a thermostable vaccine delivery platform that also enables release of the bolus after predetermined time. Here, the...
Article
Full-text available
Platelets extravasate from the circulation into tumor microenvironment, enable metastasis, and confer resistance to chemotherapy in several cancers. Therefore, arresting tumor-platelet cross-talk with effective and atoxic anti-platelet agents in combination with anticancer drugs may serve as an effective cancer treatment strategy. To test this conc...
Article
In situ tissue regeneration harnesses the body’s regenerative potential to control cell functions for tissue repair. The design of biomaterials for in situ tissue engineering requires precise control over biophysical and biochemical cues to direct endogenous cells to the site of injury. These cues are required to induce regeneration by modulating t...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanomaterials are an emerging class of biomaterials that are photoresponsive at near-infrared wavelengths (NIR). Here, we demonstrate the ability of 2D MoS 2 to modulate cellular functions of human stem cells through photothermal mechanisms. The interaction of MoS 2 and NIR stimulation of MoS 2 wit...
Article
Full-text available
Patterned substitution of D-amino acids into the primary sequences of self-assembling peptides influences molecular-level packing and supramolecular morphology. We report that block heterochiral analogs of the model amphipathic peptide KFE8 (Ac-FKFEFKFE-NH2), composed of FKFE repeat motifs with opposite chirality, assemble into helical tapes with d...
Article
Additive manufacturing is a promising method for producing customized 3D bioactive constructs for regenerative medicine. Here, 3D printed highly osteogenic scaffolds using nanoengineered ionic–covalent entanglement ink (NICE) for bone tissue engineering are reported. This NICE ink consists of ionic–covalent entanglement reinforced with Laponite, a...
Article
Bioprinting is an emerging additive manufacturing approach to the fabrication of patient-specific, implantable three-dimensional (3D) constructs for regenerative medicine. However, developing cell-compatible bioinks with high printability, structural stability, biodegradability, and bioactive characteristics is still a primary challenge for transla...
Article
Full-text available
3D Bioprinting is an additive manufacturing technique that recapitulates the native architecture of tissues. This is accomplished through the precise deposition of cell-containing bioinks. The spatiotemporal control over bioink deposition permits for improved communication between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and facilitates fabricatio...
Article
Regenerative medicine leverages the innate potential of the human body to efficiently repair and regenerate damaged tissues using engineered biomaterials. By designing responsive biomaterials with the appropriate biophysical and biochemical characteristics, cellular response can be modulated to direct tissue healing. Recently, inorganic biomaterial...
Chapter
Additive manufacturing, broadly known as 3D printing, is a class of manufacturing processes in which a 3D construct is built through sequential layer fabrication. This rapid prototyping methodology is transforming how medical devices are designed, developed, and manufactured by enabling low-volume and on-demand production without dedicated equipmen...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of gelatin-norbornene (GelNB), which is crosslinkable via thiol-ene click chemistry, and the photoinitiator lithium phenyl-2,4,6 trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP) for 3D bioprinting. These materials were compared to two widely used materials, gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) and 2-hydroxy-4’-(2-hy...
Article
The low yield of extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion is a major obstacle for mass production and limits their potential for clinical applications as a drug delivery platform. Here, we mass produced engineered extracellular vesicles (eEVs) by fusing the surface composition of EVs with lipid-based materials via a membrane extrusion technique. A libr...
Article
We report the synthesis of superhydrophobic two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides by modulation of the degree of atomic defects. The presence of atomic vacancies in 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanoassemblies dictated hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition and subsequent cell adhesion.
Article
Therapeutic approaches to treat vascular dysfunction and thrombosis at disease- and patient-specific levels is an exciting proposed direction in biomedical research. However, this cannot be achieved with animal preclinical models alone and new in vitro techniques, like human organ-on-chips, currently lack inclusion of easily obtainable and phenotyp...
Article
In article number 1801553 by Charles W. Peak, Akhilesh K. Gaharwar, and co‐workers, a nanoengineered bioink loaded with therapeutic proteins is designed to direct cell function in a 3D printed construct. This approach to design biologically active inks to control and direct cell migration can be used to engineer 3D vascularized tissue structure for...
Article
A nanoengineered bioink loaded with therapeutic proteins is designed to direct cell function in a 3D printed construct. The bioink is developed from a hydrolytically degradable polymer and 2D synthetic nanoparticle. The synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)‐dithiothreitol (PEGDTT) via a Michael‐like step growth polymerization results in acrylate termi...
Article
In article numbre 1801048 by Nureddin Ashammakhi, Ali Khademhosseini, and co‐workers, it is explored that by using 3D bioprinting, it is possible to print bone in situ using bioinks that contain patient derived cells and carrier matrices, and necessary osteoconductive materials and osteoinductive molecules. This procedure can also be carried out in...
Article
The emergence of non-toxic, ecofriendly and biocompatible polymers derived from natural sources have added a new and exciting dimension to the development of low-cost and scalable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Here, we have developed a mechanically strong and durable hydrogel comprised of an ecofriendly biopolymer that exists wi...
Article
Three‐dimensional (3D) bioprinting of cell‐laden biomaterials is used to fabricate constructs that can mimic the structure of native tissues. The main techniques used for 3D bioprinting include microextrusion, inkjet, and laser‐assisted bioprinting. Bioinks used for bone bioprinting include hydrogels loaded with bioactive ceramics, cells, and growt...
Article
Full-text available
We present a nanoengineered system for sustained and prolonged delivery of protein therapeutics, which has the potential to impact current orthopedic regeneration strategies. Specifically, we introduce two-dimensional nanosilicates with a high surface area and charged characteristics for delivery of active proteins for more than 30 days. The nanosi...
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is important in the development of complex tissue structures for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the materials used for bioprinting, referred to as bioinks, must have a balance between a high viscosity for rapid solidification after extrusion and low shear force for cytocompatibility, which...
Chapter
Full-text available
Hydrogels encompass hydrated and porous structures but their usage is limited due to mechanical fragility. To overcome these traditional limitations, various nanoparticles such as metallic, carbon-based, organic and polymeric have been incorporated into polymeric network. These nanostructured hydrogels have enhanced mechanical, chemical and biologi...
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing (AM) has shown promise in designing 3D scaffold for regenerative medicine. However, many synthetic biomaterials used for AM are bioinert. Here, we report synthesis of bioactive nanocomposites from a poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate) (PEOT)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) (PEOT/PBT) copolymer and 2D nanosilicates for fabri...
Article
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been proposed for a wide variety of biomedical applications, such as cerebrovascular aneurysm occlusion; however, risks associated with degradation byproduct formation have raised the need for more biostable formulations. In this study, the use of cyclized isocyanates, in the form of isocyanurate-containing alcohol...
Article
2D nanosilicates as a platform technology to sequester and deliver a multitude of therapeutic growth factors to stimulate and direct cellular functions are presented by Akhilesh K. Gaharwar and co‐workers in article number 1800092. The high surface area and charged characteristics of 2D nanosilicates prolong the release of therapeutic biomolecules...
Article
Most biomedical and pharmaceutical research of the human vascular system aims to unravel the complex mechanisms that drive disease progression from molecular to organ levels. The knowledge gained can then be used to innovate diagnostic and treatment strategies which can ultimately be determined precisely for patients. Despite major advancements, cu...
Article
Nanoclay-polymer shear-thinning composites are designed for a broad range of biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and additive biomanufacturing. Despite the advances in clay-polymer injectable nanocomposites, colloidal properties of layered silicates are not fully considered in evaluating the in vitro performance of...
Article
With an increase in antibiotic resistance, a growing interest in developing new antimicrobial agents has gained popularity. Metal‐ and metal‐oxide‐based nanoparticles, surface‐to‐volume is able to distinguish bacterial cells from mammalian cells and can provide long‐term antibacterial and biofilm prevention. These nanoparticles elicit bactericidal...
Article
Therapeutic angiogenesis remains a major clinical challenge due to lack of biomaterials to sequester and deliver proangiogenic therapeutics. Here, 2D nanosilicates are introduced as a platform technology to sequester and deliver a multitude of proangiogenic growth factors to stimulate angiogenesis. The high surface area and charged characteristics...
Article
Nanoparticle shape has emerged as a key regulator of nanoparticle transport across physiological barriers, intracellular uptake and biodistribution. We report a facile approach to synthesize ellipsoidal nanoparticles via self‐assembly of poly(glycerol sebacate)‐co‐poly(ethylene glycol) (PGS‐co‐PEG). The PGS‐ PEG nanoparticle system is highly tunabl...
Article
We introduce an enhanced nanoengineered ionic covalent entanglement (NICE) bioink for the fabrication of mechanically stiff and elastomeric 3D biostructures. NICE bioink formulations combine nanocomposite and ionic covalent entanglement (ICE) strengthening mechanisms to print customizable cell-laden constructs for tissue engineering with high struc...
Article
Full-text available
Non-union defects of bone are a major problem in orthopedics, especially for patients with a low healing capacity. Fixation devices and osteoconductive materials are used to provide a stable environment for osteogenesis and an osteogenic component such as autologous human bone marrow (hBM) is then used, but robust bone formation is contingent on th...
Article
Statement of significance: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death in battlefield wounds, anastomosis hemorrhage and percutaneous intervention. Thus, there is a need for the development of novel bioactive materials to reduce the likelihood of hemorrhagic shock stemming from internal wounds. Here, we introduce an injectable hemostat from kappa-carra...
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging approach for rapid fabrication of complex tissue structures using cell-loaded bioinks. However, 3D bioprinting has hit a bottleneck in progress because of the lack of suitable bioinks that are printable, have high shape fidelity, and are mechanically resilient. In this study, we introduce a new family...
Article
Protein hydrogels made entirely of host proteins should be of great value to the field of regenerative medicine. A versatile and efficient approach to transform any protein into hydrogels is presented. This strategy is based on the copper-free click chemistry reaction between azide (N3) and dibenzylcyclooctyne (DBCO). The target proteins are first...
Article
Nanoengineered hydrogels offer the potential to design shear-thinning bioinks for three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. Here, we have synthesized colloidal bioinks composed of disk-shaped two-dimensional (2D) nanosilicates (Laponite) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The addition of Laponite reinforces the PEG network and increases viscosity, storage...