Åke Lundkvist

Åke Lundkvist
Uppsala University | UU · Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology

PhD

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515
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15,457
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Publications

Publications (515)
Article
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Vertical transmission (VT) is a phenomenon of vector-borne diseases where a pathogen is transferred from an infected arthropod mother to her offspring. For mosquito-borne flavi- and alphaviruses, VT is commonly viewed as rare; however, both field and experimental studies report on vertical transmission efficiency to a notably varying degree. It is...
Article
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Infections caused by arthropod-borne RNA viruses are overrepresented among emerging infectious diseases. Effective methods for collecting, storing, and transporting clinical or biological specimens are needed worldwide for disease surveillance. However, many tropical regions where these diseases are endemic lack analytical facilities and possibilit...
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The migratory behavior of wild birds contributes to the geographical spread of ticks and their microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the dispersal and co-occurrence of Francisella and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) in ticks infesting birds migrating northward in the African-Western Palaearctic region (AWPR). Birds were trapp...
Article
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated in Sweden for the first time in 1958 from ticks and from 1 tick-borne encephalitis [TBE] patient. In 2003, Haglund and colleagues reported the isolation, the antigenic and genetic characterization of 14 TBEV strains from Swedish patients based on samples collected 1991–1994. The first serum sample,...
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The unprecedented pandemic COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with bats as original reservoirs, has once again highlighted the importance of exploring the interface of wildlife diseases and human health. In this study, we identified a novel Betacoronavirus from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Grimsö,...
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Citation: Pham-Thanh, L.; Nguyen-Tien, T.; Magnusson, U.; Bui, V.N.; Bui, A.N.; Lundkvist, Å.; Vu, D.T.; Tran, S.H.; Can, M.X.; Nguyen-Viet, H.; et al. Zoonotic Flavivirus Exposure in Peri-Urban and Suburban Pig-Keeping in Hanoi, Vietnam, and the Knowledge and Preventive Practices of Pig Farmers. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7, 79. Abstract: Mosqu...
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Since it was first discovered, the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 subtype has established linages infecting the poultry population globally and has become one of the most prevalent influenza subtypes in domestic poultry. Several different variants and genotypes of LPAI H9N2 viruses have been reported in Egypt, but little is known about...
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Background: Children develop symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) more rarely than adults upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Pediatric oncology and hematology patients may be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to their underlying disease or treatment. We investigated COVID-19 and sero...
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Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), is an acute febrile illness caused by Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV). NE manifests typically with acute kidney injury (AKI), with a case fatality rate of about 0.1%. The treatment and management of hantavirus infections are mainly supportive, although neutral...
Preprint
We identified a novel Betacoronavirus from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in Grimso, Sweden. Repeated detection over three years and an overall prevalence of 3.4% suggests the virus commonly occurs in bank voles. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate the virus belongs to a highly divergent Embecovirus lineage predominantly associated with bank...
Article
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide attached to a core protein, forming heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that are ubiquitously expressed on the surface of almost all mammalian cells and the extracellular matrix. HS orchestrates the binding of various signal molecules to their receptors, thus, regulating many biological processes, i...
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Drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 could have saved millions of lives during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is now crucial to develop inhibitors of coronavirus replication in preparation for future outbreaks. We explored two virtual screening strategies to find inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease in ultralarge chemical libraries. First, structure-bas...
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Omicron has more than twenty new mutations in the S1 domain of the spike gene as compared to the other previously known variants of SARS-CoV-2. Many of these new mutations, especially those located in the receptor binding domain, are likely to improve binding to the ACE2 receptor and to avoid binding to antibodies induced by a previous infection or...
Preprint
Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infections is highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic and mild infections in most, to deadly outcome in few. Here, we present evidence that antibodies induced by currently circulating influenza A H1N1 (flu) strains cross react with the most critical receptor binding motif of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that interact...
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Background: Dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are two common flaviviruses that are spread widely by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. Livestock keeping is vital for cities; however, it can pose the risk of increasing the mosquito population. Our study explored how livestock keeping in and around a large city is associated with the presence of...
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Introduction: The ecology of the vertebrate host contributes to the geographical range expansion of ticks. In this study, we investigated which tick taxa that infest and are dispersed by birds along African-Western Palaearctic flyways during northward migration, and whether bird ecology was associated with tick taxa. Materials and methods: Ticks...
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Brucella is a highly pathogenic bacteria endemic in Kenya, and in spite of its severity in humans, the highly inadequate Febrile Antigen Brucella Agglutination Test (FBAT) remains a primary tool for its diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from febrile patients in Kinna health center and screened by the local routine. Milk samples were purchased...
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to circulate worldwide, causing numerous outbreaks among bird species and severe public health concerns. H5N1 and H5N8 are the two most fundamental HPAI subtypes detected in birds in the last two decades. The two viruses may compete with each other while sharing the same host population and,...
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Background The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection remain the most important existing tools to prevent further spread. Methods Here we investigated the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 vir...
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Comorbidities are important for the disease outcome of COVID‐19, however, which underlying diseases that contribute the most to aggravate the conditions of COVID‐19 patients are still unclear. Viral clearance is the most important laboratory test for defining the recovery of COVID‐19 infections. To better understand which underlying diseases that a...
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The potential of rapid point-of-care (POC) tests has been subject of doubt due to an eventual risk of production errors. The aim was therefore to evaluate the two separate production lots of a commercial POC lateral flow test, intended for the detection of IgM and IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1). Control samples consisted of serum fro...
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Due to the current, rapidly increasing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, efficient and highly specific diagnostic methods are needed. The receptor-binding part of the spike (S) protein, S1, has been suggested to be highly virus-specific; it does not cross-react with antibodies against other coronaviruses. Three recombinant partial S pro...
Article
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated for the first time in Sweden in 1958 (from ticks and from 1 tick-borne encephalitis [TBE] patient).1 In 2003, Haglund and colleagues reported the isolation and antigenic and genetic characterization of 14 TBEV strains from Swedish patients (samples collected 1991–1994).2 The first serum sample, from...
Article
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Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus present in many metropolitan cities of tropical countries. Methods During and after the dengue season (September 2018 to January 2019), we conducted a case-control study in order to determine the risk factors for dengue fever in Hanoi city, Vietnam. 98 dengue patients and 99 patients with other acut...
Article
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flavivirus genus. Currently, two vaccines are available in Europe against TBEV. However, TBE cases have been rising in Sweden for the past twenty years, and thousands of cases are reported in Europe, emphasizing the need f...
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Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in serum and CSF from 16 COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms were assessed using two independent methods. IgG specific for the virus spike protein was found in 81% of cases in serum and in 56% in CSF. SARS-CoV-2 IgG in CSF was observed in two cases with negative serology. Levels of IgG in both serum and CSF...
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Diseases caused by flaviviruses, including dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis, are major health problems in Vietnam. This cross-sectional study explored the feasibility of domestic dogs as sentinels to better understand risks of mosquito-borne diseases in Hanoi city. A total of 475 dogs serum samples from 221 households in six districts of Hano...
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Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are causing high morbidity and mortality for humans. Urban livestock keeping is still common in cities around the world. The animals may serve as reservoirs for zoonotic MBDs, which increase the risks for humans. Here we assess the knowledge and practices related to MBDs in households with livestock and without livest...
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Background The agricultural food products industry in Bangladesh depends on utilizing antimicrobials indiscriminately as a growth promoter and for controlling diseases. Thus, there is always the risk of antimicrobial agent accumulation in food sources that originate from agricultural production. Method ology: In the present study, we gathered data...
Article
The intricate lattice of Gn and Gc glycoprotein spike complexes on the hantavirus envelope facilitates host-cell entry and is the primary target of the neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response. Through study of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody termed mAb P-4G2, which neutralizes the zoonotic pathogen Puumala virus (PUUV), we provide a molec...
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A crucial, but unresolved question concerning mosquito-borne virus transmission is how these viruses can remain endemic in regions where the transmission is halted for long periods of time, due to mosquito inactivity in, e.g., winter. In northern Europe, Sindbis virus (SINV) (genus alphavirus, Togaviridae) is transmitted among birds by Culex mosqui...
Preprint
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Influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics result from interspecies transmission events within the avian reservoir and further to mammals including humans. Investigating molecular virus–host interactions dictating this process and the adaptations to the new hosts that follow is vital to understand zoonotic IAV spread. Receptor incompatibility has been sugge...
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The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a global public health emergency posing a high burden on nations’ health care systems and economies. Despite the great effort put in the development of vaccines and specific treatments, no prophylaxis or effective therapeutics are currently available. Nitric oxide (NO) is a broad-spectrum antimi-crobial and a pote...
Preprint
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Background: Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus present in many metropolitan cities of tropical countries. Methods: During and after the dengue season (September 2018 to January 2019), we conducted a case-control study in order to determine the risk factors for dengue fever in Hanoi city, Vietnam. 98 dengue patients and 99 patients with other acu...
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Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the virus evolved, and we therefore aimed to provide an insight into which genetic variants were enriched, and how they spread in Sweden. Methods: We analyzed 348 Swedish SARS-CoV-2 sequences freely available from GISAID obtained from 7 February 2020 until 14 May 2020. Results: We identified 14 variant...
Preprint
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Background and objectives: Several antibody tests are available to detect SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, many of which address different antigens. Rapid point-of-care (POC) tests have been doubted due to an eventual risk of production errors, although it is unstudied whether such error would affect test sensitivity and/or specificity. We aimed to...
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The rapid urban growth of Hanoi city requires a livestock production system that ensures both food security and the livelihoods of dwellers. This paper reviews the existing policies for livestock production of Hanoi city and the changes in livestock population between 2014 and 2018 and identifies major challenges for livestock development of the ci...
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The prevalence of COVID-19 antibodies on June 17–18, 2020 was investigated in two residential areas of Stockholm, Sweden. Among the residents in Norra Djurgårdsstaden, a newly built upper- and middle-class area of Stockholm, 4.1% of study participants had SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, while in Tensta, a highly segregated low-income area, 30% of t...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is growing and spread in the Swedish elderly care system during April 2020. The increasing number of employees on sick-leave due to COVID-19 creates severe logistic problems. Some elderly care homes therefore started to screen their personnel to secure the safety of the elderly and to avoid unnecessary quarantine of potentiall...
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Background: Chikungunya infection range from subclinical infection to debilitating arthralgia and to chronic inflammatory rheumatism. TNF-α, DC-SIGN, TLR3 and blood groups have been directly or indirectly implicated in the susceptibility and pathogenesis of chikungunya. Methods: To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in genes coding for these...
Preprint
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We report repeated rRT-PCR detection and infective ability of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a health care worker three days prior to mild COVID-19 symptoms. We propose that this provides evidence for potential early presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and that contagiousness may arise shortly after exposure...
Preprint
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Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can be dispersed and potentially transmitted by aerosols, directly or via ventilation systems. We report detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in COVID-19 ward ceiling vent openings as well as in ventilation exhaust filters and central ducts up to at least 56 meters from patient areas. As this ventilation system provides low...
Preprint
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Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2, as well as other coronaviruses, can be dispersed and potentially transmitted by aerosols directly or via ventilation systems. We therefore investigated ventilation openings in one COVID-19 ward and central ducts that expel indoor air from three COVID-19 wards at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, during April an...
Article
Increasing evidence indicates immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) after covid-19, but it remains unclear for how long the protection remains. Serology testing seems to have a higher sensitivity than molecular diagnostics from 8 days after onset of symtoms, and should be part of risk assessment and epidemiol...
Preprint
The intricate lattice of Gn and Gc glycoprotein spike complexes at the surface of hantaviruses facilitates host-cell entry and is the primary target of the neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response. Here, through study of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 4G2) generated in a bank vole reservoir host following infection with Puumala virus...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 is the most rapidly growing pandemic in modern time, and the need for serological testing is most urgent. Although the diagnostics of acute patients by RT-PCR is both efficient and specific, we are also crucially in need of serological tools for investigating antibody responses and assessing individual and potential herd immunity. We evalu...
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Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a potentially severe neurological disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). In Europe and Asia, TBEV infection has become a growing public health concern and requires fast and specific detection.AimIn this observational study, we evaluated a rapid TBE IgM test, ReaScan TBE, for usage in a clinical laboratory se...
Article
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Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus of subtype H9N2 is the most frequently detected subtype among domestic poultry and is a public health concern because of its zoonotic potential. Due to the multiple and complex routes of LPAIV H9N2 between geographic regions, little is known about the spatial diffusion of H9N2 virus to, within, and from E...
Preprint
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Objectives: Comorbidities have significant indications for the disease outcome of COVID-19, however which underlying diseases that contribute the most to aggravate the conditions of COVID-19 patients is still largely unknown. SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance is a golden standard for defining the recovery of COVID-19 infections. To dissect the underlying...
Article
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum (AP) has vast geographical and host ranges and causes disease in humans and domesticated animals. We investigated the role of northward migratory birds in the dispersal of tick-borne AP in the African-Western Palearctic. Ticks were collected from northward migratory birds trapped during spring migration of 2010 at two loca...
Preprint
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Background Viral clearance is one important indicator for the recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Previous studies have pointed out that suboptimal T and B cell responses can delay viral clearance in MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infected patients. The role of leukomonocytes in viral clearance of COVID-19 patients is not yet well defined. Methods Fr...
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and infection by ZIKV Asian lineage is known to cause fetal brain anomalies and Guillain-Barrés syndrome. The WHO declared ZIKV a global public health emergency in 2016. However, currently neither vaccines nor antiviral prophylaxis/treatments are available. In this study, we report the iden...
Article
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the gold standard treatment for influenza A virus (IAV). Oseltamivir is mostly used, followed by zanamivir (ZA). NAIs are not readily degraded in conventional wastewater treatment plants and can be detected in aquatic environments. Waterfowl are natural IAV hosts and replicating IAVs could thus be exposed to NAIs...
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There are three human pathogenic bird-viruses transmitted by Culex mosquitoes in Europe: the alphavirus Sindbis and the flaviviruses West Nile virus and Usutu virus. Cases of Sindbis fever occur in the north while the flaviviruses are reported from southern Europe. In this study, 7933 Culex pipiens/torrentium mosquitoes from southern Sweden were sc...
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We report a new tool for improved serological diagnostics in suspected tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine failure cases. Due to an increase in the incidence of disease as well as the number of vaccinees, specific and simplified diagnostic methods are needed. Antibody responses to TBE-virus (TBEV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are detectable pos...