A.K. Singh

A.K. Singh
University of Nevada, Las Vegas | UNLV · William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration

PhD

About

104
Publications
49,551
Reads
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1,796
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - present
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1991 - December 2005
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1978 - July 1991
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 1973 - July 1977
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Statistics
August 1968 - July 1970
University of Lucknow
Field of study
  • Mathematical Statistics
August 1966 - July 1968
University of Lucknow
Field of study
  • Physics, Mathematics, Statistics

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to address the problem of predicting the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from overnight breath recordings collected by a subject using a smartphone or an iPhone. The dataset used in this study was collected at a health care facility and consists of breathing amplitudes of 42 subjects using the smart phone App Ze...
Chapter
Statistics plays an important part in almost all disciplines, including applied ergonomics and human factors. Majority of applied ergonomics literature uses the classical or frequentist statistical methods, and the applications of Bayesian statistical methods in applied ergonomics has been quite limited. This is possibly due to two reasons: (i) the...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the widespread usage of loyalty programs across various businesses in the hospitality industry, its effectiveness is still being questioned. Thus, it is meaningful for hospitality marketers to evaluate the effectiveness of their loyalty programs to increase profitability and this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a loyalty prog...
Article
Introduction Pedestrian crashes are not equitably distributed; people of color and males are overburdened. The aim of this study was to examine if driver yielding behavior differed based on gender and skin color of the pedestrian, and the estimated car cost at two midblock crosswalks in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Methods One white and one bl...
Article
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This paper focuses on clusterwise regression (CR) approach for modelling of pavement performance. CR simultaneously clusters the data and estimates the associated models. Previous studies using CR approach have a few limitations: (1) the explanatory power of variables used in the analyses was not tested; (2) the approach could not find the optimal...
Presentation
Full-text available
This paper focuses on clusterwise regression (CR) approach for modelling of pavement performance. CR simultaneously clusters the data and estimates the associated models. Previous studies using CR approach have a few limitations: 1) the explanatory power of variables used in the analyses was not tested; 2) the approach could not find the optimal nu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Gompertz distribution was introduced in 1825 based upon the idea that the hazard rate for human mortality should be proportion to itself, i.e., it should have an exponential rate of increase. Makeham introduced a shift parameter in the Gompertz model to model causes of death that are independent of age. Neither of these models for human mortali...
Article
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Single entry communities (SECs) and cul-de-sacs minimize route choices and increase trip distance. Las Vegas' built environment facilitates the examination of these variables and active transport to school (ATS) rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of SECs and cul-de-sacs on ATS rates in Las Vegas, NV elementary children. P...
Article
Las Vegas has developed into one of the world's top tourist destinations, and the international market has become a vital stream of the city's revenue. The objective of this study was to understand the foreign exchange rate as a determinant for international gaming demand in the Las Vegas gaming industry. This study applied the econometric modeling...
Article
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This study analyzes the satisfaction of the Nevadans with respect to their highway transportation system and the corresponding expenditures of Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT). A survey questionnaire was designed to capture the opinions of the Nevadans (customers) about a number of characteristics of their transportation system. Data from...
Article
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Background: Inactivity levels in the USA are considered a critical public-health issue. Promoting physical activity through active transportation may prove effective to increase activity levels. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and likelihood of using various bicycle infrastructures for transportation by Las Vegas residents....
Article
Disadvantaged/Minority/Women business enterprises (DBE/MBE/WBEs) in construction and professional fields face several impediments that hinder business growth and overall performance. In this study, a survey was conducted to compare the importance of the factors that most affect business performance of these business enterprises, the impediments the...
Article
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The main goal of management in the United States is to maximize the wealth of shareholders. Managers, though, sometimes make decisions that benefit them more than the shareholders. When this occurs they are considered to be exhibiting expense preference behavior. This study evaluates expense preference behavior by managers of Nevada casinos. Using...
Article
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This study empirically tests a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) structural model that proposes that an online casino's atmospheric cues and functional qualities influence individuals' affective and cognitive responses, which in turn impact consumer behavioural intentions. Using self-reported data from a primarily US-based sample, analysed element...
Article
The gamma distribution, which is a member of Pearson Type III family of distributions, is one of the most commonly used distribution in engineering applications since it can be used as a probability model for positive data sets exhibiting various degrees of skewness. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) of the two parameter gamma distribution ar...
Article
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This study examines the effect of casino tax rate levels on short-run labor decisions by casino firms. Using a panel data set consisting of all states with legal commercial casino gambling from 1998 to 2009, a 2SLS fixed-effect model that also uses aggregate and sin-based excise taxes as instruments is estimated. We find that maximum casino tax rat...
Article
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Article
Full-text available
The Gut CFO: the ileal hormones. Decreasing insulin resistance, triglycerides, liver enzymes, signaling caloric intake, using caloric reserve, and tuning body to health with every meal. Long term stimulation of the ileal hormones by an oral GRAS compliant agent Aphoeline. Effects on metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, type II diabetes and hepatitis c....
Article
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The purpose of this research is to investigate a potential consequence related to the spending when confronted with increases in gaming tax rates. These results suggest that legislators have a cause for concern when considering increases in a state's gaming tax gaming tax receipts.
Article
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The central limit theorem, in simple terms, states that the probability distribution of the mean of a random sample, for most probability distributions, can be approximated by a normal distribution when the number of observations in the sample is 'sufficiently' large. Most applied statistics books recommend using the normal approximation for the pr...
Article
This study examined the relationship between gaming volume and restaurant revenue for paid and comped diners; i.e., diners for whom the meal was provided free, using data from two hotel casinos in different markets. The results of time series regression analysis revealed a significant and positive relationship between restaurant revenue and gaming...
Article
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effects of onsite restaurant business volume on slot machine gaming volume at a Midwestern racino property. The results provide management with critical estimates for use in determining the overall value of the restaurant space. Additionally, operators are able to examine whether it makes sense...
Article
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Learn the incidence of olfactory dysfunction in preoperative patients prior to nasal surgery and compare with a control group of patients who are not going to have such surgery. Assess the usefulness of the coffee/tea differentiation test in assessing preoperative dysosmia. Prospective controlled cohort study. Urban medical center. One hundred fift...
Article
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The volume of customer information collected by businesses is increasing at an astronomical pace. Abstract in this article, we propose an iterative procedure for clustering sparse high dimensional transaction datasets, specifically two casino player tracking datasets. a common problem in clustering sparse datasets with very large dimensions is that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The normal distribution is often used a s a model for reliability, and censored samples naturally arise in software reliability applications. Bayesian estimation methods have an advantage over the frequentist approach as they provide the user a framework for incorporating important factors such as software complexity, operating system, level and qu...
Article
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The results of play on 60 different computer simulated reel slots challenge the widely held theory that frequent slot players are able to detect changes in a slot machine's house advantage as slight as 1 to 2%. These findings affect the formulation of critical and capital-intensive customer retention strategies and brand positioning campaigns withi...
Article
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The probability distribution ofthe sum of two fair dice is used to calculate the house advantage of various bets in craps, and is readily available in probability and statistics books and gaming literature. The probability distribution ofthe sum of A: dice (for k > 3) is derived in this paper using the method of moment generating function. A recurs...
Article
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Using data from a repeater market hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, the relationship between sports book and slot machine revenues is examined. Daily sports book write and daily slot handle are compared over a 250 day period. Though many industry leaders theorize that sports book gamblers also wager in slot banks, the results of this Autoregressive Integ...
Article
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Purpose: Ileal brake hormones play a key role in regulating insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis, as well as reducing food intake and body weight 1.3. We studied the effect of an ileal delivered “natural product” (APHOELINE I), made of carbohydrates and natural herbs on the levels of these hormones and their associated biomarkers in “healthy v...
Article
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Stiff diagrams are commonly used for displaying major-ion compositions of groundwaters. The shape of the diagram indicates the relative proportion of different ions and the size indicates total concentrations. Stiff diagrams are plotted on a site map, and their shapes visually compared to decipher the flow direction of groundwater in the region. Si...
Article
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A study on LED displays has been conducted exploring a more efficient method for color generation than the traditional method. The study is comprehensive and thoroughly performed employing various sets of experiments in order to examine the functionality of the new proposed scheme which includes a literature review, theoretical modeling based on a...
Article
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In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and me...
Article
Slot operations are crucial to the success of U.S. casinos, yet little is known about the variation in unit‐level performance. This article combines the statistical methods of Principal Components Regression (PCR), population partitioning, and a method from Computational Geometry (Voronoi Diagrams) in slot performance‐potential research. This appro...
Article
The study presented here utilized long-term streamflow records (over 500 years) to investigate the influence of interannual/interdecadal climate variability on the Colorado River basin. 19 unimpaired water year streamflow stations were reconstructed utilizing partial least square regression using standard tree ring chronologies. The spatial and tem...
Article
A class of invariant Bayes rules is derived for testing homogeneity of k (≥2) different populations against (kt) slippage alternatives that some (unknown) subset of size t of the given populations has parameter larger than the remaining k-t, where t is a given integer between 1 and k-1. For a similar problem in nonparametric situations, locally bes...
Article
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Profits generated from slot operations are critical to the success of all casinos, yet little research has addressed the nature of the customer experience regarding game interaction. The relationship between a reel slot player's time on device and the pay table's coefficient of variation (CV) is examined via computer simulation. The pay table CV is...
Article
Gene expression data from microarray has very high dimensionality, resulting in extremely large sample covariance matrices. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of the block principal components analysis and a variable selection method based on principal components loadings for dimension reduction prior to performing discriminant analysi...
Article
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Consider a sum S=X 1 +X 2 +⋯+X n of n independent nonnegative random variables. The Laplace transform of S is the product of the Laplace transforms of the X i ’s. In this paper, we propose and investigate a numerical method of computing the probability distribution of S.
Article
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Pacific and Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures SSTs were used as predictors in a long lead-time streamflow forecast model in which the partial least squares regression PLSR technique was used with over 600 unimpaired streamflow stations in the continental United States. Initially, PLSR calibration or test models were developed for each station...
Article
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Single-vehicle ran-off-roadway crashes are of significant concern in Nevada. This paper summarizes some findings of a research project to evaluate of the effectiveness of continuous shoulder rumble strips to reduce such crashes in Nevada. The efforts evaluated safety records on roadways in Nevada on which continuous shoulder rumble strips had been...
Article
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While holding par constant, changes in the standard deviation of the pay table produced an inverse effect on pulls per losing player (PPLP), across six different virtual slot machines. This result establishes the standard deviation of a game as a crucial determinant of a slot player's experience. Three different single-trip scenarios were examined...
Article
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Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and effect of a daily dose induction therapy of interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1. Methods: Fifty-five treatment naive patients (age 18 and older) diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 were given an induction therapy with a daily dos...
Article
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A study of the influence of interdecadal, decadal, and interannual oceanic-atmospheric influences on streamflow in the United States is presented. Unimpaired streamflow was identified for 639 stations in the United States for the period 1951-2002. The phases (cold/negative or warm/positive) of Pacific Ocean (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and...
Article
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A direct mail offer, common to the casino industry, is analyzed using performance data obtained from the player database of a Las Vegas Strip hotel casino. These free-play offers, fueled by technological advances in player tracking systems, attempt to encourage repeat patronage by offering cash awards and free room nights. Despite compulsory play r...
Article
The multivariate statistical techniques principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis (QFA), and correspondence analysis (CA) were applied to a dataset containing trace element concentrations in groundwater samples collected from a number of wells located downgradient from the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevad...
Article
This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.
Article
The spatial interpolation method of kriging, originally developed for estimation of ore reserves in mining and prediction in meteorology, is an important geostatistical tool for characterization of a Superfund site. Point kriging uses an estimated variogram to compute the best linear unbiased estimates (BLUE) of contaminant concentration at an unsa...
Article
The Confidence Removal Goal approach was developed by the Gradient Corporation for the cleanup decisions at the METCOA Superfund Site. The CRG approach is a statistical approach to meet site cleanup goals based on the arithmetic mean of the contaminant concentration distribution. The CRG approach involves computing a threshold value c* (called the...
Article
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Contaminant concentration data collected at Superfund sites are typically positively skewed, and the log-normal distribution is commonly used to model such data distribution. U.S. EPA guidance documents recommend the use of H-statistics to compute the upper confidence limit (UCL) of the mean of a log-normal distribution. Recent work reported in the...
Article
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The purpose of the present paper is to give a simplified method of finding the density function and the moments of linear function of order statistics from uniform distribution. This is done by using a relationship between a B-spline and the linear function of uniform order statistics. Two examples are presented to illustrate this method. Some appl...
Article
Scientists, especially environmental scientists, often encounter trace level concentrations that are typically reported as less than a certain limit of detection, L. Type I left-censored data arises when certain low values lying below L are ignored or unknown as they cannot be measured accurately. In many environmental quality assurance and quality...
Article
Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to evaluate similarities in the trace element chemistry of groundwaters. Many of the trace elements, however, occur at concentrations below the detection limits (DL), which presents problems for statistical analyses. Since the optimal methods for dealing with the ‘<DL’ values require the assumption of nor...
Article
An algorithm, based on computational geometry, for computing optimum Bayes credible intervals is presented. A credible interval is the Bayesian version of a classical confidence interval estimate, except it does not require the existence of a pivotal quantity, and it is easier to interpret than the classical confidence interval. For the problem of...
Article
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This study attempts to determine the overall satisfaction factors from airline passengers at the San Francisco International Airport (SFO), using the classification method of random forest. The analysis is based on the 2014 annual survey conducted by SFO that collects data on passenger demographics and satisfaction with airport facilities and servi...
Article
The origin of groundwater discharging via evapotranspiration and from springs within Oasis Valley, Nevada, is of concern owing to the close proximity of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the possible contamination of groundwater as a result of underground nuclear testing. Principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and population partitioning, al...
Article
The stability constants of complexes formed between iron (III) and fulvic acid extracted from organic manures and wastes such as urban domestic sewage sludge, farmyard manure, poultry manure and sulfitation pressmud were investigated by the potentiometric titration method in an ionic medium of 0.1 M KNO3 at 25±1 °C. A modification of the Katchalsky...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The problem of estimation of parameters of the two well-known three-parameter models of force of mortality, viz., Weibull and Makeham models, will be considered in this paper. We propose a numerical scheme involving the golden-section search for minimization of a nonlinear function for fitting the above models. Monte Carlo simulation will be used t...