Research Items (18)
Dependency on unsustainable energy sources like fossil fuels is at the stake due to their contribution to global warming and climate change. The pursue of development and exploitation of alternative, cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy sources like renewables energies is vital for the reduction of greenhouse emissions to the atmosphere. Solar energy is a freely available renewable energy with great potential and comparatively free of CO2 emissions. This work focuses on the installed solar capacity in Vitoria-Gasteiz, a medium-sized city of about 250,000 inhabitants in the Basque Country, north of Spain. A roof suitability map has been produced using a potential solar radiation algorithm together with a highly resolved 1m Digital Surface Model (DSM) derived from LiDAR data. Location and orientation of solar panels on roofs of city buildings have been manually digitized from ortophotos, which resulted in 1,349 photovoltaic solar panels polygons on 183 buildings and a total horizontally projected surface of 22,253 m2. By comparing the radiation impinged on the area covered by the PV panels with the potential energy of the whole roof area, a usability rate was calculated and 49 installations found to be located in unsuitable locations. The findings identify a considerable number of installations for which the efficiency of the installation is low but could be easily improved by simply relocating the panels in a more suitable fashion in the same building.
El Foro de Ingeniería en Geomática y Topografía del Grupo de Trabajo de la IDEE, que agrupa a los Centros Universitarios españoles en los que se imparte esa titulación, ha elaborado este texto con la intención de que se sirva de ayuda y apoyo a la docencia a nivel universitario de una asignatura de introducción a las principales tecnologías y estándares relacionados con las Infraestructuras de Datos Espaciales. En la publicación se incluyen ejercicios prácticos y está prevista publicar una edición actualizada cada año, dado el vertiginoso ritmo de novedades y nuevas versiones que se producen en este campo. El resultado es un tratado introductorio que creemos puede servir para cualquiera interesado en internarse en el mundo de las IDE desde un punto de vista técnico y práctico.
A new supervised burned area mapping software named BAMS (Burned Area Mapping Software) is presented in this paper. The tool was built from standard ArcGISTM libraries. It computes several of the spectral indexes most commonly used in burned area detection and implements a two-phase supervised strategy to map areas burned between two Landsat multitemporal images. The only input required from the user is the visual delimitation of a few burned areas, from which burned perimeters are extracted. After the discrimination of burned patches, the user can visually assess the results, and iteratively select additional sampling burned areas to improve the extent of the burned patches. The final result of the BAMS program is a polygon vector layer containing three categories: (a) burned perimeters, (b) unburned areas, and (c) non-observed areas. The latter refer to clouds or sensor observation errors. Outputs of the BAMS code meet the requirements of file formats and structure of standard validation protocols. This paper presents the tool’s structure and technical basis. The program has been tested in six areas located in the United States, for various ecosystems and land covers, and then compared against the National Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) Burned Area Boundaries Dataset
Fire risk assessment should take into account the most relevant components associated to fire occurrence. To estimate when and where the fire will produce undesired effects, we need to model both (a) fire ignition and propagation potential and (b) fire vulnerability. Following these ideas, a comprehensive fire risk assessment system is proposed in this paper, which makes extensive use of geographic information technologies to offer a spatially explicit evaluation of fire risk conditions. The paper first describes the conceptual model, then the methods to generate the different input variables, the approaches to merge those variables into synthetic risk indices and finally the validation of the outputs. The model has been applied at a national level for the whole Spanish Iberian territory at 1-km2 spatial resolution. Fire danger included human factors, lightning probability, fuel moisture content of both dead and live fuels and propagation potential. Fire vulnerability was assessed by analysing values-at-r
Este trabajo consiste en la aplicación de técnicas de teledetección sobre imágenes lunares, con el objetivo de obtener información de las características superficiales mineralógicas de la Luna. Se describen el tratamiento de las imágenes obtenidas por la misión SELENE, desarrollada por la Agencia Japonesa de Exploración Aeroespacial (JAXA), así como los resultados obtenidos para el área de estudio. La zona escogida se ubica en la región sur de la meseta Aristarchus, y corresponde a una de las regiones de mayor diversidad geológica de la Luna. Las 120 imágenes analizadas cubren alrededor de 10.000 km2 y como resultado final del trabajo se ha realizado la cartografía mineralógica de la región a la mejor escala cartográfica conseguida hasta ahora. This work consisted in the application of remote sensing techniques on lunar images with the aim of obtaining information on the superficial mineralogy features of the moon. It describes the processing of the images obtained by the SELENE mission, developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the results obtained in one particular study area. The chosen region is located to the south of the Aristarchus plateau and corresponds to a region with one the biggest geological diversity in the moon. The 120 images analyzed cover an extension of 10,000 km2, resulting in the best resolution mineralogy cartography obtained so far.
- Jan 2013
This work consisted in the application of remote sensing techniques on lunar images with the aim of obtaining information on the superficial mineralogy features of the moon. It describes the processing of the images obtained by the SELENE mission, developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the results obtained in one particular study area. The chosen region is located to the south of the Aristarchus plateau and corresponds to a region with one the biggest geological diversity in the moon. The 120 images analyzed cover an extension of 10,000 km2, resulting in the best resolution mineralogy cartography obtained so far.
- Jan 2012
This paper shows the results obtained in a research project from the University of the Basque Country (NUPV/08). The project was accomplished to carry out and produce biomass cartographic data from residues generated in the forest treatments of the main forest species potentially usable as energy resources in Bizkaia. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a computing tool. The main purpose of the project consists of identifying, quantifying and characterizing the residual forest biomass that can be exploited in Bizkaia in a sustainable way. The amount of residual biomass obtained annually after forest treatment of pinus radiata and eucaliptus globulus has been estimated at 52,214 tonnes. Its equivalent energy potential is estimated at 32,011 toe per year.
A novel automatic burned area mapping algorithm for Mediterranean ecosystems based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series data is presented in this paper. This algorithm is based on a two-phase approach. The first phase detects the most severely burned areas, using spectral/temporal rules computed from dynamic temporal windows. The second phase improves the discrimination of burned areas around those “seed” burned pixels using contextual algorithms based on edge detectors. The use of those filters improved the performance of the contextual algorithm, by refining the discrimination of fire perimeters while restricting the segmentation process. The algorithm was validated over six Mediterranean regions during the fire season of 2003, where reference data was generated using Landsat TM/ETM+ images. Omission and commission errors were below 20%, with an overall Kappa value of 0.846. The validation based on regression scattergraphs of 5 × 5 km grids showed good agreement as well ( R <sup>2</sup> = 0.972). The standard MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1) showed lower accuracy than the proposed algorithm, with higher omission errors (38.6%) and lower Kappa (0.704) and R <sup>2</sup> (0.838) values.
- Feb 2008
This paper presents results of the AQL2004 project, which has been develope within the GOFC-GOLD Latin American network of remote sensing and forest fires (RedLatif). The project intended to obtain monthly burned-land maps of the entire region, from Mexico to Patagonia, using MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) reflectance data. The project has been organized in three different phases: acquisition and preprocessing of satellite data; discrimination of burned pixels; and validation of results. In the first phase, input data consisting of 32-day composites of MODIS 500-m reflectance data generated by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) of the University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.) were collected and processed. The discrimination of burned areas was addressed in two steps: searching for "burned core" pixels using postfire spectral indices and multitemporal change detection and mapping of burned scars using contextual techniques. The validation phase was based on visual analysis of Landsat and CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) images. Validation of the burned-land category showed an agreement ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on the ecosystem and vegetation species present. The total burned area for the entire year was estimated to be 153 215 km2. The most affected countries in relation to their territory were Cuba, Colombia, Bolivia, and Venezuela. Burned areas were found in most land covers; herbaceous vegetation (savannas and grasslands) presented the highest proportions of burned area, while perennial forest had the lowest proportions. The importance of croplands in the total burned area should be taken with reserve, since this cover presented the highest commission errors. The importance of generating systematic products of burned land areas for different ecological processes is emphasized.
La teledetecci?n se ha convertido en una herramienta de gran inter?s en la cartografia de las ?reas afectadas por los incendios forestales, especialmente a escalas regionales y globales debido a las ventajas que proporcionan las im?genes de sat?lite. Los sensores espaciales observan sistem?ticamente la superficie terrestre en condiciones homog?neas y a diversas escalas espaciales dependiendo de las caracter?sticas del sensor. Adem?s recogen informaci?n con una frecuencia temporal adecuada a las caracter?sticas din?micas del fen?meno y en regiones espectrales que facilitan la identificaci?n de las superficies afectadas e incluso la severidad del incendio.Remote Sensing has become a tool of great interest for the mapping of areas affected by forest fires, especially on a regional and global scale due to the advantages provided by the satellite images. Spatial sensors monitor the ground systematically and in homogeneous conditions, to various scales depending on the characteristics of the sensor. Also they gather information on a temporal frequency that is appropriate for the dynamic characteristics of the phenomenon and in spectral regions that ease the identification of the areas affected and even the severity of the fire.
El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en diseñar un algoritmo para cartografiar de forma automática las áreas quemadas a partir de imágenes post-incendio. Se han empleado los denominados algoritmos multi-fase que consisten, en primer lugar, en identificar los píxeles semilla con alta probabilidad de que estén quemados, para posteriormente, partiendo de esos píxeles, añadir los vecinos con un proceso iterativo en el que se cartografía de forma más precisa el área quemada real. Se han evaluado tres algoritmos de crecimiento de regiones aplicados a 4 áreas de estudio Mediterráneas (tres en España y uno en Grecia) empleando imágenes unitemporales TM y ETM+ post incendio. Los algoritmos revisados se basan en el criterio Seeded Region Growing (SRG) (Adams y Bischof, 1994), y los dos siguientes en umbrales, uno de ellos fijo y el otro variable en función de valores estadísticos que definen los grupos a medida que crecen. Se ha tomado como verdad terreno una cuidadosa fotointerpretación de los incendios, asistida puntualmente con una clasificación no supervisada. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una alta exactitud en los tres algoritmos ensayados, aunque son muy dependientes del método de selección de los píxeles semilla. Los mejores resultados los proporcionan los umbrales fijos, en el ratio TM7 y TM4.
This paper presents methods to generate fuel type maps from remote sensing data at a spatial and temporal scale adequate for operational fire management applications. Fuel type maps account for structural characteristics of vegetation related to fire behaviour and fire propagation. A fuel type classification system adapted to the ecological characteristics of the European Mediterranean basin was adopted for this study. The Cabañeros National Park (in cen- tral Spain) area was selected for testing and validating the methods. Fuel type maps were derived from two Landsat TM satellite images and digital elevation data. Atmospheric and topographic corrections of the satellite images were performed to reduce spectral variability. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the most appropriate bands for fuel type mapping. The final classification was checked by an intense field survey, the final classification accuracy being estimated at 83%. The main problem was discriminating among those fuel types that differ only in vegetation height or composition of the understory layer. The mean mapping accuracy was 15 m (0.6 pixels), and no areal dis- crepancy or boundary displacement with vegetation maps was apparent.