Ainhoa Magrach

Ainhoa Magrach
BC3-Basque Centre for Climate Change | BCCC

PhD in Ecology

About

59
Publications
25,046
Reads
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2,987
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - July 2013
James Cook University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2008 - September 2010

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Seventy five percent of the world's food crops benefit from insect pollination. Hence, there has been increased interest in how global change drivers impact this critical ecosystem service. Because standardized data on crop pollination are rarely available, we are limited in our capacity to understand the variation in pollination benefits to crop y...
Article
Full-text available
Progress in key social-ecological challenges of the global environmental agenda (e.g., climate change, biodiversity conservation, Sustainable Development Goals) is hampered by a lack of integration and synthesis of existing scientific evidence. Facing a fast-increasing volume of data, information remains compartmentalized to pre-defined scales and...
Preprint
In recent years, an extended body of literature has focused on the importance of temporal dynamics in shaping the structure of plant and pollinator communities and their interactions. This improvement from a previously static perspective to community analysis has allowed us to understand many of the ecological processes that shape these communities...
Preprint
Full-text available
Working landscapes represent >60% of terrestrial landscapes and thus represent opportunities for biodiversity conservation outside of traditional protected areas. For long, biodiversity conservation and crop productivity have been seen as mutually exclusive options. Here, we use a unique dataset that includes annual monitoring of 12,300 permanent 2...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding of how the structure of species interactions shapes natural communities has increased, particularly regarding plant-pollinator interactions. However, research linking pollinator diversity to reproductive success has focused on pairwise plant-pollinator interactions, largely overlooking community-level dynamics. Here, we present on...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting how communities re-arrange in response to changes in species composition remains a key challenge in ecology. Migratory species, which enter and leave communities across latitudinal gradients, offer us a unique opportunity to evaluate community- and species-level responses to a shift in community composition. We focused on a migratory hum...
Article
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The search for healthy diets has led to a surge in the demand for functional foods or ‘superfoods’, which have now become popular among the middle‐ and high‐income fractions of the society in developed regions of the world. ‘Superfoods’ are predominantly consumed far from their centres of origin and out of their cultural context with different envi...
Article
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Restoration of natural ecosystems has traditionally focused on recovering specific richness to recover ecosystem functionality. However, species within a natural ecosystem are not isolated, they interact with others forming complex ecological networks. We know that human activities (such as selective logging or agriculture expansion) modify the str...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Our understanding of how the structure of species interactions shapes natural communities has increased, particularly regarding plant-pollinator interactions. However, research linking pollinator diversity to reproductive success has focused on pairwise plant-pollinator interactions, largely overlooking community-level dynamics. Here, we...
Article
Full-text available
Pollination is an ecosystem service that directly contributes to agricultural production, and can therefore provide a strong incentive to conserve natural habitats that support pollinator populations. However, we have yet to provide consistent and convincing pollination service valuations to effectively slow the conversion of natural habitats. We u...
Article
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Freshwater biodiversity is declining, despite national and international efforts to manage and protect freshwater ecosystems. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been proposed as an approach that could more efficiently and adaptively balance ecological and societal needs. However, this raises the question of how social and ecological objectives ca...
Article
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Scientists, stakeholders and decision makers face trade-offs between adopting simple or complex approaches when modeling ecosystem services (ES). Complex approaches may be time- and data-intensive, making them more challenging to implement and difficult to scale, but can produce more accurate and locally specific results. In contrast, simple approa...
Article
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Large river-floodplain systems are hotspots of biodiversity and ecosystem services but are also used for multiple human activities, making them one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. There is wide evidence that reconnecting river channels with their floodplains is an effective measure to increase their multi-functionality, i.e., ecologica...
Article
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Closed-canopy forests are being rapidly fragmented across much of the tropical world. Determining the impacts of fragmentation on ecological processes enables better forest management and improves species-conservation outcomes. Lianas are an integral part of tropical forests but can have detrimental and potentially complex interactions with their h...
Article
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Human-induced forest fragmentation poses one of the largest threats to global diversity yet its impact on rattans (climbing palms) has remained virtually unexplored. Rattan is arguably the world’s most valuable non-timber forest product though current levels of harvesting and land-use change place wild populations at risk. To assess rattan response...
Article
During the past decades, managed honeybee stocks have increased globally. Managed honeybees are particularly used within mass-flowering crops and often spill over to adjacent natural habitats after crop blooming. Here, we uniquely show the simultaneous impact that honeybee spillover has on wild plant and animal communities in flower-rich woodlands...
Article
To contribute to the aspirations of recent international biodiversity conventions, protected areas (PAs) must be strategically located, and not simply established on economically marginal lands as they have in the past. With refined international commitments under the Convention of Biodiversity to target protected areas in places of 'importance to...
Article
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networ...
Article
Full-text available
Riparian forests are often the last remaining areas of natural vegetation in agricultural and plantation forestry landscapes. Covering millions of hectares of land in Indonesia, industrial pulpwood plantations have rapidly replaced native forests. Our study aimed to better understand the conservation importance of linear remnants of riparian forest...
Article
Tropical forests are critical for protecting global biodiversity and carbon stores. While forest degradation and fragmentation cause negative impacts on trees, many woody lianas benefit, with associated negative effects on carbon storage. Here, we focus on the key question of how abiotic environmental changes resulting from tropical forest fragment...
Article
Full-text available
Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestria...
Article
Full-text available
Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquir...
Data
Supplementary Figures 1-2, Supplementary Tables 1-2 and Supplementary Note 1
Article
Full-text available
Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the ‘health’ and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interaction...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lianas contribute substantially to the total species richness of tropical forests, accounting for up to a quarter of the woody plant diversity. However, liana diversity is intrinsically linked with forest condition and consequently is altered by human-induced forest modifications. Multiple environmental drivers including forest fragmentation, loggi...
Article
Full-text available
1.Species interactions define functional diversity and community stability across ecosystems, and depend on the spatial distribution, the habitat requirements, and the sensitivity to disturbances of all interacting partners. Hence, assessing the effects of such anthropogenic disturbances on multi-species interactions may be essential to improve ada...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall, making its cultivation vulnerable to geographic shifts in response to a changing climate. This could lead to the establishment of coffee plantations in new areas and potential conflicts with other land covers including natural forest, with consequent implications for biodiversity and ecosystem...
Chapter
Full-text available
Understanding how biodiversity persists in the small fragments of forest that remain in many tropical regions is a vital priority. This chapter reviews available studies on liana communities and liana–tree interactions in fragmented tropical forests. Although much remains unknown, it is apparent that lianas often increase dramatically in abundance...
Article
Strong global demand for tropical timber and agricultural products has driven large-scale logging and subsequent conversion of tropical forests. Given that the majority of tropical landscapes have been or will likely be logged, the protection of biodiversity within tropical forests thus depends on whether species can persist in these economically e...
Article
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An age-old conflict around a seemingly simple question has resurfaced: why do we conserve nature? Contention around this issue has come and gone many times, but in the past several years we believe that it has reappeared as an increasingly acrimonious debate between, in essence, those who argue that nature should be protected for its own sake (intr...
Article
Full-text available
Many contemporary ecosystems are likely to be affected by multiple environmental drivers, complicating efforts to predict future changes in those ecosystems. We studied long-term changes (1980-2012) in forest dynamics and liana (woody vine) abundance and biomass in fragmented and intact forests of the central Amazon. We did so by contrasting trends...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods A changing climate has raised the spectre that many areas that are currently under crop cultivation will in the future no longer be suitable for agriculture, or at least not for the crops that are currently planted. Particular concern has been levelled at coffee one of the world’s most important crop commodities and one...
Article
Full-text available
Lianas (climbing woody vines) are important structural parasites of tropical trees and may be increasing in abundance in response to global-change drivers. We assessed long-term (-14-year) changes in liana abundance and forest dynamics within 36 1-ha permanent plots spanning -600 km2 of undisturbed rainforest in central Amazonia. Within each plot,...
Article
Full-text available
Lianas (climbing woody vines) are important structural parasites of tropical trees and may be increasing in abundance in response to global-change drivers. We assessed long-term (similar to 14-year) changes in liana abundance and forest dynamics within 36 1-ha permanent plots spanning similar to 600 km(2) of undisturbed rainforest in central Amazon...
Article
Full-text available
Question: In fragmented forests, edge effects lead to changes in the distribution of plant species. In particular, tropical forest edges are increasingly dominated by lianas. Will this increase in lianas lead to changes in their interactions with other plant morphological groups? If so, will this alter the local distributions and abundance of other...
Article
Full-text available
Forest fragmentation dramatically alters species persistence and distribution and affects many ecological interactions among species. Recent studies suggest that mutualisms, such as pollination and seed dispersal, are more sensitive to the negative effects of forest fragmentation than antagonisms, such as predation or herbivory. We applied meta-ana...
Article
Fragmentation of tropical forests is one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Understanding how biological and functional attributes of communities respond to fragmentation and, in turn, whether ecosystem functioning is impacted upon are critical steps for assessing the long-term effects and conservation values of forest fragments. Ecosy...
Article
Full-text available
In fragmented landscapes, the sharp transitions between remnant habitats and those created by human disturbances result in “edge effects”. Changes in microhabitat characteristics (for example, the height at which epiphytic plants grow on their host trees) may, however, modulate these effects. We evaluated how distance to the edge and height on the...
Article
The alteration and transformation of the areas surrounding native forests due to anthropogenic disturbance can result in differences near this newly created boundary, termed ‘edge effects’.Our study describes the consequences of edge creation over two successive stages in the life cycle of a hemi‐parasitic mistletoe (Tristerix corymbosus), which de...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six speci...
Article
Forest fragmentation produces sharp changes in the spatial configuration of remnant forest patches, which include the increasing influence of patch edges on the interior of forest patches (edge effects). Human activities responsible for forest fragmentation tend also to change the internal characteristics of remnant patches, for example, through th...
Article
The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], t...
Article
Full-text available
One and a half centuries after Darwin visited Chiloe Island, what he described as "…an island covered by one great forest…" has lost two-thirds of its forested areas. At this biodiversity hotspot, forest surface is becoming increasingly fragmented due to unregulated logging, clearing for pastures and replacement by exotic tree plantations. Decrease...
Article
Full-text available
The process of fragmentation can greatly influence plant-animal interactions. To assess the degree to which it affects the balance between two interactions of opposite sign, namely seed dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation, we selected 16 patches of chestnut forest in O Courel and El Bierzo, northwestern Spain. We assessed the effect of frag...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the effect of the spatial characteristics and intensity of land use on vascular plant species richness in Castanea (Chestnut) woodlots of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula included in the category “9260 Castanea sativa woodland” (Annex I, DC 92/43 European Community). Digital maps were used to characterize 30 woodlots for which...
Article
Full-text available
The nurse effect is a positive interaction in which one plant (the nurse) provides conditions that enhance the establishment and growth of another plant species (Callaway 1995). Increased environmental severity appeared to increase the strength of nurse effects (Brooker et al . 2008, Lortie & Callaway 2006). On the one hand, the impact of the nurse...

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Project
Since 2007, ARIES has been building the first ‘Wikipedia-like’ open-source platform for interoperable data and models, through AI. Our mission is to integrate citizens and scientists’ multidisciplinary knowledge and achieve a more sustainable and resilient future for all. It’s already been 15 years since the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services team came together at the Gund Institute for Ecological Economics of the University of Vermont, with the scope of developing a pioneering modelling technology that could address the world’s most complex sustainability issues. In 2008, ARIES created a prototype of the model building system and a functional prototype was made available online in 2012. Over the following year, the project began organizing its first annual intensive training school – the International Spring University (ISU) on Ecosystem Services Modelling – to prepare scientists and policy analysts working in the environmental field. Based at the Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3) since 2010, ARIES has collaborated with many international institutions including the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the European Space Agency (ESA), and NASA. A new vision for 21st-century science The ARIES team has developed a technology trusted by +2,000 users around the world that can lead to better-informed decision-making. Check out the infographic below providing an overview of our vision to take open science to the next level. We have continually worked to make science matter in policy-making where nature counts —and we’re not stopping now!