Aidan G. C. Wright

Aidan G. C. Wright
University of Pittsburgh | Pitt · Psychology

Ph.D.

About

350
Publications
152,558
Reads
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12,350
Citations
Introduction
For more information about my current work, please visit my lab website at www.personalityprocesses.com Also, I generally don't visit Research Gate frequently, but I put up almost all of my work as a pre-print on psyarxiv.com, so if you would like a pre-print, please check there! Thanks for the interest in my work.
Education
August 2011 - August 2012
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clnic
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2006 - August 2012
Pennsylvania State University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2004 - May 2006
Villanova University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (350)
Article
Very little is known about the daily stability and fluctuation of personality pathology. To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated the naturalistic manifestation of personality pathology over the course of 100 days. A group of individuals (N = 101) diagnosed with any personality disorder (PD) completed a daily diary study over 100 consecuti...
Article
Full-text available
Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest s...
Article
Full-text available
The nomothetic approach (i.e., the study of interindividual variation) dominates analyses of clinical data, even though its assumption of homogeneity across people and time is often violated. The idiographic approach (i.e., the study of intraindividual variation) is best suited for analyses of heterogeneous clinical data, but its person-specific me...
Article
Full-text available
In this naturalistic study, the authors adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between- and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings o...
Article
Recent editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) conceptualize personality disorders (PDs) as categorical constructs, but high PD co-occurrence suggests underlying latent dimensions. Moreover, several borderline PD criteria resemble Criterion A of the new DSM-5 Section III...
Article
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project's success rests on the assumption that constructs and data can be integrated across units of analysis and developmental stages. We adopted a psychoneurometric approach to establish biobehavioral liability models of sensitivity to social threat, a key component of potential threat that is particularly sali...
Article
The predominant focus in attachment research on trait-like individual differences has overshadowed investigation of the ways in which working models of attachment represent dynamic, interpersonally responsive socio-affective systems. Intensive longitudinal designs extend previous work by evaluating to what extent attachment varies over social inter...
Preprint
Interpersonal theory organizes social behavior along dominant (vs. submissive) and warm (vs. cold) dimensions. There is a growing interest in assessing these behaviors in naturalistic settings to maximize ecological validity and to study dynamic social processes. Studies that have assessed interpersonal behavior in daily life have primarily relied...
Article
Background Previous research suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship between incidental affect (i.e., how people feel in day-to-day life) and physical activity behavior. However, many inconsistencies exist in the body of work due to the lag interval between affect and physical activity measurements. Purpose Using a novel continuous-tim...
Article
Widiger and Hines raise a number of significant concerns with the alternative model of personality disorders (AMPD). This places the major class of psychiatric difficulties represented by the personality disorders in a precarious position because the model used in previous editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and cu...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research...
Article
Emotional and behavioral variability are unifying characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Ambulatory assessment (AA) has been used to quantify this variability in terms of the categorical BPD diagnosis, but evidence suggests that BPD instead reflects general personality pathology. This study aimed to clarify the conceptualization...
Preprint
Personality disorders are among the most common and severe classes of psychopathology. From a clinical perspective, it is challenging to help individuals with personality disorders because treatment ruptures, discontinuation, reversals, and failures are relatively common. An additional clinical challenge is that the model used to diagnose personali...
Article
Loneliness is a potent psychosocial stressor that predicts poor health and mortality among older adults, possibly in part by accelerating age-related declines in immunocompetence. Mindfulness interventions have shown promise for reducing loneliness and improving markers of physical health. In a sample of lonely older adults, this two-arm parallel t...
Preprint
There is general agreement that personality pathology has its roots in childhood and adolescence, though little is known about the manifestation of maladaptive personality traits in the daily lives of youth. The DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) provides a set of traits useful for organizing behavioral and experiential patter...
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Full-text available
Using network methods to analyze multivariate psychological data on symptoms or beliefs has become popular, and numerous tutorials and primers provide detailed guides. However, these guides make such methods appear artificially robust because they often fail to adequately review serious critiques of psychometric network analysis. We briefly review...
Preprint
Full-text available
This annotated bibliography contains published critiques of methods for constructing and analyzing psychometric networks. We use the term `psychometric network' broadly to include networks in which the nodes are psychological variables (e.g., symptoms, beliefs, traits, etc.) and the edges are their statistical associations estimated from empirical...
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Full-text available
Factor analytic models of common mental disorders may be affected by various methodological choices, which could undermine the assumption that Internalizing and Externalizing reflect the natural structure of psychopathology. In this study, we addressed this issue by testing whether and how methodological choices affect the empirical structure of ps...
Article
Background: Several personality traits increase risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Because many of these traits are correlated, their associations with disease risk could reflect shared variance, rather than unique contributions of each trait. We examined a higher-order personality trait of Stability as related to preclinical atheros...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rivalry and admiration-seeking are two distinct strategies humans use to gain status in social competition. However in vivo data is lacking about whether these behavioral manifestations of status pursuit are driven by distinct rivalry and admiration-seeking traits, as outlined by the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept (NARC), whether NARC...
Article
Background Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with increased risk for chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic disease at midlife. Purpose As it is presently unknown whether inflammation mediates the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adulthood cardiometabolic risk, we investigated associations between re...
Article
Cognitive reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy that is postulated to reduce risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly the risk due to negative affect. At present, however, the brain systems and vascular pathways that may link reappraisal to CVD risk remain unclear. This study thus tested whether brain activity evo...
Preprint
Over the past 20 years, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has become a vital part of the methods repertoire used to study personality pathology. This is because EMA facilitates modeling (dys)function consistent with clinical theory as an ensemble of contextualized dynamic within-person processes, such as when and how relevant socio-affective re...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a quantitative nosological system that addresses shortcomings of traditional mental disorder diagnoses, including arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, frequent disorder co-occurrence, substantial heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic unreliability over time and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Influential psychological theories hypothesize that people consume alcohol in response to the experience of both negative and positive emotions. Despite two decades of daily diary and ecological momentary assessment research, it remains unclear whether people consume more alcohol on days they experience higher negative and positive affect in everyd...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous passive sensing of daily behavior from mobile devices has the potential to identify behavioral patterns associated with different aspects of human characteristics. This paper presents novel analytic approaches to extract and understand these behavioral patterns and their impact on predicting adaptive and maladaptive personality traits. O...
Article
Full-text available
How do individuals resist suicidal urges in a suicidal crisis? Deterrents for suicide can be conceptualized as reasons for living (RFL), but our understanding of their protective effects is predominantly informed by cross-sectional research. We examined the protective effects of RFL on suicidal ideation (SI) in daily life in a high-risk sample. We...
Preprint
In a discussion of partial covariance matrices, Gaussian graphical models (GGMs), and unidimensional latent variable models (ULVMs), Waldrop and Marsman (2021) make a claim that “for the ULVM, observed partial correlations would all be positive... [proving] that the GGM applied to data coming from a ULVM will be fully-connected and not empty.” In a...
Preprint
Across adulthood, people tend to experience psychologically adaptive personality trait change, a robust finding known as the maturity principle of personality development. We identify three open areas of inquiry regarding personality maturation and address them in a pre-registered study, using a sample of US adults ages 30-70 who completed a batter...
Preprint
Interpersonal functioning involves an interplay of subjective perceptions and overt behavior. This study examines agreement between self and informant reports of behavior measured naturalistically to investigate the associations between observable behavior, self-perceptions, and others’ perceptions and to enrich the nomological networks for the dom...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study, we examined whether personality traits moderate the link between interpersonal dysfunction and suicidal behavior in a high-risk sample of 458 individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Participants were assessed annually for up to 30 years (mean number of follow-ups = 7.82). Using multilevel structural e...
Article
Personality and psychopathology have generally been regarded as distinct aspects of human behaviour, largely studied by researchers from different disciplines. However, an established body of research shows a common structure for personality and psychopathology phenotypes. This evidence has led to significant changes in how psychiatric problems are...
Preprint
Widiger and Hines raise a number of significant concerns with the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). This places the major class of psychiatric difficulties represented by the personality disorders in a precarious position because the model used in prior editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and curre...
Article
Full-text available
College students are at heightened risk of engaging in unhealthy alcohol use that leads to negative consequences (e.g., motor vehicle accidents, poor academic performance). Understanding how individual differences, such as maladaptive personality traits, contribute to that risk could improve intervention efforts. A potential pathway through which p...
Preprint
The scientific study of narcissism has accelerated in recent years. However, this literature has primarily been cross-sectional and descriptive in nature, making it difficult to integrate with theories of narcissism, which instead emphasize various dynamics. Theoretical work construes narcissism as a complex dynamical system with processes that int...
Article
The scientific study of narcissism has accelerated in recent years. However, this literature has primarily been cross‐sectional and descriptive in nature, making it difficult to integrate with theories of narcissism, which instead emphasize various dynamics. Theoretical work construes narcissism as a complex dynamical system with processes that int...
Preprint
Acute risk of death by suicide manifests in heightened suicidal ideation in certain contexts and time periods. These increases are thought to emerge from complex and mutually reinforcing relationships between dispositional vulnerability factors and individually suicidogenic short-term stressors. Together, these processes inform clinical safety plan...
Article
Advances in methods for longitudinal data collection and analysis have prompted a surge of research on psychological processes. However, decisions about how to time assessments are often not explicitly tethered to theories about psychological processes but are instead justified on methodological (e.g., power) or practical (e.g., feasibility) ground...
Article
Emotion-based impulsivity has emerged as an important transdiagnostic risk factor for both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. However, it is unclear how this dynamic process unfolds within individuals. We measured urgency within-persons as the momentary association between impulsivity and contemporaneous negative and positive affect i...
Article
Acute risk of death by suicide manifests in heightened suicidal ideation in certain contexts and time periods. These increases are thought to emerge from complex and mutually reinforcing relationships between dispositional vulnerability factors and individually suicidogenic short-term stressors. Together, these processes inform clinical safety plan...
Preprint
Full-text available
This commentary discusses questions and misconceptions about HiTOP raised by Haeffel et al. (2021). We explain what the system classifies and why it is descriptive and atheoretical, highlighting benefits and limitations of this approach. We clarify why the system is organized according to patterns of covariation or comorbidity among signs and sympt...
Article
In this commentary, we discuss questions and misconceptions about the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) raised by Haeffel et al. We explain what the system classifies and why it is descriptive and atheoretical, and we highlight benefits and limitations of this approach. We clarify why the system is organized according to patterns of...
Article
Narcissism is of great interest to behavioral scientists and the lay public. Research across the past 20 years has led to substantial progress in the conceptualization, measurement, and study of narcissism. This article reviews the current state of the field, identifying recent advances and outlining future directions. Advances include hierarchical...
Preprint
Personality pathology is increasingly conceptualized within hierarchical, dimensional trait models. The Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorders (CAT-PD) is a measure of pathological traits with wider coverage than prevailing instruments—however, its domain-level structure is not established. In this pre-registered study...
Article
Objective We asked authors of this Special Issue to answer four questions: 1) Is there evidence that personality and psychopathology can be integrated?, 2) Is integration important?, 3) Can they be distinguished?, and 4) How can the difference be measured? Method We review each of the papers and place the special issue in a historical context. Re...
Preprint
Background: Several personality and affective traits increase risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Because many of these traits are correlated, much of their association with disease risk could reflect shared variance, rather than unique contributions of each trait individually. Within the Five Factor Model of personality, we examined a...
Preprint
How do individuals resist suicidal urges in a suicidal crisis? Deterrents for suicide can be conceptualized as reasons for living (RFL), but our understanding of their protective effects is predominantly informed by cross-sectional research. We examined the protective effects of RFL on suicidal ideation (SI) in daily life in a high-risk sample. We...
Article
Sleep disturbance is associated with elevated suicidal ideation and negative affect. To date, however, no study has investigated the temporal relationship between sleep and suicidality among those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This preregistered (https://osf.io/4vugk) study tested whether nightly sleep (self-reported sleep d...
Preprint
We asked authors of this Special Issue to answer four questions: 1) Is there evidence thatpersonality and psychopathology can be integrated?, 2) Is integration important?, 3) Can they be distinguished?, and 4) How can the difference be measured?. Authors uniformly agreed that personality and psychopathology can be integrated within a common structu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Narcissism is of great interest to behavioral scientists and the lay public. Research across the last 20 years has led to substantial progress in the conceptualization, measurement, and study of narcissism. The present paper reviews the current state of the field, identifying recent advances and outlining future directions. Advances include hierarc...
Preprint
Continuous passive sensing of daily behavior from mobile devices has the potential to identify behavioral patterns associated with different aspects of human characteristics. This paper presents novel analytic approaches to extract and understand these behavioral patterns and their impact on predicting adaptive and maladaptive personality traits. O...
Preprint
College students are at heightened risk of engaging in unhealthy alcohol use that leads to negative consequences (e.g., motor vehicle accidents, poor academic performance). Understanding how individual differences, like maladaptive personality traits, contribute to that risk could improve intervention efforts. A potential pathway through which pers...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have held a long-standing debate regarding the validity of discrete emotions versus global affect. The current manuscript tries to integrate these perspectives by explicitly examining the structures of state emotions and trait affect across time. Across three samples (sample 1: N = 176 Unites States undergraduates in a 50 day daily diar...
Preprint
The predominant focus in attachment research on trait-like individual differences has overshadowed investigation of the ways in which working models of attachment represent dynamic, interpersonally responsive socio-affective systems. Intensive longitudinal designs extend previous work by evaluating to what extent attachment varies over social inter...
Preprint
Recent evidence suggests that there is important variability in the expression of personality pathology in day-to-day life. A potentially useful route to study the expression of maladaptive traits in daily life can be derived from literature on stress and daily hassles, which provide a variety of dynamic accounts for the relations between individua...
Article
Interpersonal antagonism is one of the major domains of maladaptive personality. Structure-based investigations of antagonism have generally been consistent in highlighting the more specific antagonistic traits (e.g., manipulativeness, callousness) that underlie the broader domain. However, less work has attempted to merge structural and functional...
Article
Full-text available
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical effort to address limitations of traditional mental disorder diagnoses. These include arbitrary boundaries between disorder and normality, disorder co‐occurrence in the modal case, heterogeneity of presentation within dis­orders, and instability of diagnosis within patients. This...
Article
In this article, we describe the collaborative process that is underway to develop measures for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). The HiTOP model has generated much interest in the psychiatric literature in recent years, but research applications and clinical translation of the model require measures that are specifically keyed...
Article
Background The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a classification system that seeks to organize psychopathology using quantitative evidence – yet the current model was established by narrative review. This meta-analysis provides a quantitative synthesis of literature on transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology to evaluate the...
Article
Full-text available
Despite enthusiasm for using intensive longitudinal designs to measure day-to-day manifestations of personality underlying differences between people, the validity of personality state scales has yet to be established. In this study, we evaluated the psychometrics of 20-item and 10-item daily, Big Five personality state scales in three independent...
Article
Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory is an evidence-based model of personality, psychopathology, and intervention. In this paper, we review six assumptions of CIIT that distinguish it from other frameworks and suggest five particularly promising and important areas for future research.
Article
Background High trait conscientiousness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, and health behaviors are a putative but relatively untested pathway that may explain this association. Purpose To explore the role of key health behaviors (diet, physical activity, substance use, and sleep) as links between conscientiousness and cardiometabolic...
Article
Study objectives Sleep quantity and continuity vary across the lifespan. Actigraphy is a reliable and widely-used behavioral measure of sleep in research and personal health monitoring. This meta-analysis provides a novel examination of whether age (in years) is associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep across the lifespan. Methods A systematic se...
Article
Objective In this study we examined whether discrepancies between interpersonal values and interpersonal efficacies are associated with distress, and provide a framework through which similar questions regarding intrapersonal alignment may be investigated. Method Using interpersonal circumplex scales, we assessed interpersonal values and efficacie...
Article
Generations of psychologists have been taught that mental disorder can be carved into discrete categories, each qualitatively different from the others and from normality. This model is now outdated. A preponderance of evidence indicates that (a) individual differences in mental health (health vs. illness) are a matter of degree, not kind, and (b)...
Preprint
Advances in methods for longitudinal data collection and analysis have prompted a surge of research on psychological processes. However, decisions about how to time assessments are often not tethered explicitly to theories about psychological processes, but are instead justified on methodological (e.g., power) or practical (e.g., feasibility) groun...
Preprint
Interpersonal Antagonism is one of the major domains of maladaptive personality. Structural-based investigations of Antagonism have generally been consistent in highlighting the more specific antagonistic traits (e.g., manipulativeness, callousness) that underlie the broader domain. However, less work has attempted to merge structural and functiona...
Preprint
Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory is an evidence-based model of personality, psychopathology, and intervention. In this paper, we review six assumptions of CIIT that distinguish it from other frameworks and suggest five particularly promising and important areas for future research.
Article
Background The processes through which social support exerts its influence in daily life are not well understood. Arguably, its salutary effects as an environmental variable might be construed as shared effects of personality. Method To test this possibility, we investigated the unique and shared effects of personality and social support on daily...
Article
Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have higher morbidity and mortality than the general population, which may be due to maladaptive health behaviors such as smoking. Previous studies have examined the links between categorical PD diagnoses/personality traits and smoking/nicotine dependence, but little is known about how the Diagnostic and...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Mindfulness interventions have been effective for improving a range of health outcomes; however, pathways underlying these effects remain unclear. Inflammatory processes may play a role, possibly through increased resistance of immune cells to the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids (i.e., glucocorticoid resistance; GCR). Here,...
Article
Full-text available
We recently wrote an article comparing the conclusions that followed from two different approaches to quantifying the reliability and replicability of psychopathology symptom networks. Two commentaries on the article have raised five core criticisms, which are addressed in this response with supporting evidence. 1) We did not over-generalize about...
Article
Despite the high co-occurrence of sleep and mood disturbances, day-to-day associations between sleep characteristics (sleep duration, continuity, and timing) and dimensions of mood (positive affect and negative affect) remain unclear. The present study aimed to test whether there is a daily, bidirectional association between these sleep characteris...
Article
Traditional diagnostic systems went beyond empirical evidence on the structure of mental health. Consequently, these diagnoses do not depict psychopathology accurately, and their validity in research and utility in clinical practice are therefore limited. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) consortium proposed a model based on stru...
Article
The present study compared the primary models used in research on the structure of psychopathology (i.e., correlated factor, higher-order, and bifactor models) in terms of structural validity (model fit and factor reliability), longitudinal measurement invariance, concurrent and prospective predictive validity in relation to important outcomes, and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emotional and behavioral variability are unifying characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Ambulatory assessment (AA) has been used to assess and quantify this variability in terms of the categorical BPD diagnosis, but growing evidence suggests that BPD instead reflects general personality pathology. This study aimed to clarify the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Maintaining psychological equilibrium within a dynamic environment is thought to be the core of human functioning. Systems-based theories of personality hypothesize that generalized processes control stability by regulating how strongly a person reacts to various situations. Research shows there are higher-order traits of general personality functi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a classification system that seeks to organize psychopathology using quantitative evidence—yet the current model was established by narrative review. This meta-analysis provides a quantitative synthesis of literature on transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology to evaluate the...