Aida F. Rios

Aida F. Rios
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Department of Oceanography, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo

PhD

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138
Publications
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Publications

Publications (138)
Article
The subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) is important in the global carbon cycle because of the deep water ventilation processes that lead to both high uptake of atmospheric CO2 and large inventories of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant). Thus, it is crucial to understand its response to increasing anthropogenic pressures. In this work, the budgets of dissolved in...
Article
Full-text available
A significant fraction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) released to the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans, leading to a range of chemical changes and causing ocean acidification (OA). Assessing the impact of OA on marine ecosystems requires the accurate detection of the rate of seawater pH change. This work reports the results of nearly 3 y...
Article
The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estim...
Article
Full-text available
Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean's uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50°S-36°N) for the Atlantic Ocean over two decades (1993-2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the distributions and transports of the main water masses in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (NASPG) for the mean of the period 2002–2010 (OVIDE sections 2002 to 2010 every other year), as well as the inter-annual variability of the water mass structure from 1997 (4x and METEOR sections) to 2010. The water mass structure of the NASPG, q...
Article
Ocean acidification is directly related to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels due to human activities and the active role of the global ocean in absorbing part of this anthropogenic CO2. Here we present an assessment of the pH changes that have occurred along 24.5°N in the Subtropical North Atlantic through comparison of pH observations conducted in...
Technical Report
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/CLIVAR/OVIDE_2012/. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Technical Report
Full-text available
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/CLIVAR/CAIBOX_2009/. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Article
Full-text available
Acidification of the oceans is one of the consequences of ongoing increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The effects on organisms that build their shells of calcium carbonate are not sufficiently studied and might be detrimental. Simulating ocean acidification scenarios in the laboratory is a reasonable way to study their response to decreased...
Article
Full-text available
The interannual to decadal variability in the transport of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) across the subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) is investigated, using summer data of the FOUREX and OVIDE high-resolution transoceanic sections, from Greenland to Portugal, occupied six times from 1997 to 2010. The transport of Cant across this section, Tcant hereafter,...
Article
Full-text available
The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface wat...
Article
Full-text available
The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface wat...
Technical Report
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/CLIVAR/A17_FICARAM_XV_2013/. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Article
Full-text available
The interannual to decadal variability of the transport of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant) across the Subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) is investigated, using data of the OVIDE high resolution transoceanic section, from Greenland to Portugal, occupied six times from 1997 to 2010. The transport of Cant across this section, TCant hereafter, is north...
Article
The North Atlantic subpolar gyre is considered to be one of the strongest marine anthropogenic CO2 sinks, a consequence of extensive deep convection occurring during winter. Observations collected in this region since 1981 have shown large changes in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) concentrations in intermediate and deep waters, which have been at...
Article
Full-text available
The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is an effort by the international marine carbon research community. It aims to improve access to carbon dioxide measurements in the surface oceans by regular releases of quality controlled and fully documented synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products. SOCAT version 2 presented here extends...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to public demand for a welldocumented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global...
Article
Full-text available
A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly availab...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim), one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet), winds derived under the Cro...
Article
Full-text available
The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant), absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review o...
Article
During the last decade, two important collections of carbon relevant hydrochemical data have become available: GLODAP and CARINA. These collections comprise a synthesis of bottle data for all ocean depths from many cruises collected over several decades. For a majority of the cruises at least two carbon parameters were measured. However, for a larg...
Article
Full-text available
Uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean declined rapidly between 1990 and 2006. This reduction in carbon dioxide uptake was related to warming at the sea surface, which--according to model simulations--coincided with a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The extent to which the slowdown of...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea-air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea-air CO2 flu...
Article
Full-text available
Using data collected during the DYBAGA and ECO cruises, remote sensing chlorophyll-a estimations and the averaged upwelling index of the previous fortnight (Iw’), we studied the variability of the sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2) over the Galician continental shelf during three seasonal cycles. Sea surface salinity (SSS) distribution controlled fCO2...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the globa...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of observational pH data has made it difficult to assess recent rates of ocean acidification, particularly in the high latitudes. Here we present a time series that spans over 27 yr (1981–2008) of high-quality carbon system measurements in the North Atlantic, which comprises fourteen cruises and covers the important water mass formation ar...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic and Arctic oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea-air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales, for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea-air CO2 fl...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of sea-air CO2 fluxes are largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from using different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR...
Article
Full-text available
The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant), absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review o...
Article
The western basin of the South Atlantic from 10°N to 55°S and from the coast to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a region with large uncertainties as to the storage of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant). Our analysis of data of the last three decades provides a Cant storage rate of 0.92 ± 0.13 mol m− 2 y− 1, i.e., 13%–35% higher than previous estimates in this area...
Article
The subsurface ocean layer (100–200m deep) is suggested as a reference to parameterise preformed alkalinity (AT°) and air–sea CO2 disequilibrium (∆Cdis) in the Atlantic. Results suggest that this domain retains the memory of water mass formation (WMF) conditions over annual periods and avoids the large, short-term variability of the uppermost layer...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westw...
Article
One of the key issues in understanding the global carbon cycle and predicting future climate change is determining the role of the Southern Ocean (SO). Approximately, more than one third of the global anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) uptake occurs in the SO (18% of the global ocean area), where the coldest source waters involved in the meridional countercl...
Article
A large part of the CO2 released to the atmosphere due to human activities is taken up by the oceans, raising the amount of total inorganic carbon dissolved in the upper layers, thus affecting the chemical balances of the CO2 system in seawater. In addition to the estimation of the anthropogenic carbon inventory, establishing the rate at which ocea...
Article
Observational methods to estimate anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) are applied to a high quality dataset of the Atlantic Ocean from 65°N - 80°S. The database consists of CARINA and GLODAP datasets (76363 data) that was extended to 104043 using a local MLR and neural networks to recover carbon data available for Cant computations, assuming no temporal varia...
Article
Full-text available
The carbon system in the water masses of the Iberian basin (North Atlantic Ocean) has been affected over the last two decades by the raise of the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant). In order to study the storage of Cant in the Iberian basin, the variables of the carbonic system were measured among others [i.e., pH, total inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkal...
Article
Full-text available
The carbon system in the water masses of the Iberian Basin (North Atlantic Ocean) has been affected over the last two decades by the increase in anthropogenic CO2 (Cant). In order to study the storage of Cant in the Iberian Basin, variables of the carbonic system (i.e., pH, total inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity), among others, were measured...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the VACLAN (Climate Variability in the North Atlantic) project, a section covering the Bay of Biscay was sampled in September 2005. This work estimates the distribution of the different water masses in the region using an extended optimum multiparametric method and analyzes water mass distribution of anthropogenic carbon as calculated us...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the VACLAN (Climate Variability in the North Atlantic) project, a section covering the Bay of Biscay was sampled in September 2005. This work estimates the distribution of the different water masses in the region using an extended optimum multiparametric method and analyzes water mass distribution of anthropogenic carbon as calculated us...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of observational pH data has made difficult assessing recent rates of ocean acidification, particularly in the high latitudes. Here we present a time series of high-quality carbon system measurements in the North Atlantic, comprising fourteen cruises spanning over 27 yr (1981-2008) and covering important water mass formation areas like the...
Article
Full-text available
The WOCE cruises were carried out during the 1990s and were included in GLODAP, which is an easily usable, available and fully calibrated global database. AT and CT data, together with the rest of carbon variables, were subjected to rigorous quality control and some adjustments were done assuming biases, in case of AT and CT, not greater than ±6 mu...
Article
The present study reports and discusses water surface fCO2 measurements from 36 cruises in the Strait of Gibraltar made over an eleven-year period (1997 to 2009). Underway measurements of sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw), sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) compiled during the cruises were analysed and integrated into a si...
Article
This work estimates new regionalized empirical parameterizations for preformed alkalinity (ATo) and the CO2 air–sea disequilibrium (∆Cdis). Both are key terms for the computation of anthropogenic CO2 in the back-calculation methods. Data from the subsurface layer (75–180 m depth range) covering an area from North to South and from 19°E to 67.5°W (P...
Article
Long-term variability of the biogeochemical properties during the formation of central waters in the Eastern North Atlantic were analyzed between 42–47°N and 10–20°W from the dataset gathered during the Galicia VII (GVII) and C. Darwin 58/59 (CD58/59) cruises. These cruises that showed important changes in the thermohaline properties and the nutrie...
Article
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CANT) was calculated using four independent approaches in the western South Atlantic basin. The methods considered are the CFC-based Transit Time Distribution method and the φCT°, TrOCA and ΔC* carbon-system-based back-calculation methods. All four methods have produced CANT distribution patterns that are generally in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a multiparametric interpolation method and its application to anthro pogenic carbon (C-ANT) in the Atlantic calculated by two estimation methods using the CARINA database The multiparametric interpolation proposed uses potential temperature (theta) salinity conservative NO and PO as conservative parameters fo...
Article
Full-text available
The AZORES-I cruise was conducted in August 1998, spanning the length of three latitudinal large-scale sections at 22, 28 and 32ºW. The oceanic carbon system was oversampled by measuring total alkalinity, total inorganic carbon and pH. It is thus possible to estimate anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) and to investigate its relationship with the main water m...
Article
The meridional WOCE line A17 was conducted during the austral summer of 1994 parallel to the eastern South American coast, from 55°S to 10°S, where one of the main limbs of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), i.e., the southward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is found. Full-depth profiles of pH, total alkalinity and total inorganic...
Article
Full-text available
A high-quality inorganic carbon system database, spanning over three decades (1981-2006) and comprising of 13 cruises, has allowed the applying of the phi C degrees(T) method and coming up with estimates of the anthropogenic CO2 (C-ant) stored in the main water masses of the North Atlantic. In the studied region, strong convective processes convey...
Article
Full-text available
Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Artic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Ocean). These data have gone through rigorous quality con...
Article
Full-text available
A total of fourteen hydrographic cruises from 2000 to 2008 were conducted during the spring and autumn seasons between Spain and the Southern Ocean under the framework of the Spanish research project FICARAM. The underway measurements were processed and analysed to describe the meridional air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the covered sector of the Atlan...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical ancillary data from previously not publicly available cruises were retrieved and recently merged to a new data base, CARINA. The initial North Atlantic project, an international effort for ocean carbon synthesis, was extended to include the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (Arctic Ocean and Nordic...
Article
The seasonal and spatial variability of CO2 uptake across the Loire estuary plume and the adjacent continental shelf was investigated over two years (November 2002 to December 2004). A high-frequency time series of the surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw) and the air–water CO2 exchange is reported and discussed. Continuous measurements of salinity, temper...
Article
Full-text available
A high-quality inorganic carbon system database spanning over three decades (1981–2006) and comprising 13 cruises has allowed applying the φCT° method and coming up with accurate estimates of the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) stored in the main water masses of the North Atlantic. In the studied region, strong convective processes convey surface properti...
Article
Full-text available
Initially a North Atlantic project, the CARINA carbon synthesis was extended to include the Southern Ocean. Carbon and relevant hydrographic and geochemical ancillary data from cruises all across the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean were released to the public and merged into a new database as part of the CARINA synthesis effo...