Ahmed Kamal

Ahmed Kamal
Iowa State University | ISU · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Ph.D.

About

306
Publications
32,552
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7,975
Citations

Publications

Publications (306)
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to significant blockage conditions in wireless networks, transmitted signals may considerably degrade before reaching the receiver. The reliability of the transmitted signals, therefore, may be critically problematic due to blockages between the communicating nodes. Thanks to the ability of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) to reflect...
Article
5G network operators will consider the dense deployment of small cells to increase network coverage and capacity. However, in order to install a large number of gNBs, operators will face the challenge of backhauling their traffic to the core network in a cost-effective manner. Although Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) using 5G new radio is a pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent research on reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) suggests that the RIS panel, containing passive elements, enhances channel performance for the internet of things (IoT) systems by reflecting transmitted signals to the receiving nodes. This paper investigates RIS panel assisted-wireless network to instigate minimal base station (BS) tran...
Preprint
Full-text available
5G network operators consider the dense deployment of small base-stations (SBSs) to increase network coverage and capacity. Hence, operators face the challenge of X-hauling, i.e., backhauling or fronthauling, their traffic to the core network. Also, SBSs densification will increase the possibility of failure of these X-haul links. To cope with this...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The density increasing in Radio Access Networks (RAN) caused the migration of traditional base stations to the cloud to meet huge traffic of end-users' demands. In this context, virtualization techniques can add more flexibility and programmability to scale in/out virtual storage, network and computing resources. However, Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) requires...
Article
The emerging Internet-of-things (IoT) systems contain a large number of small wireless devices with limited energy, communication, and computational capabilities. In such systems, a helping station located between the IoT devices and backhaul servers can be deployed to broadcast the IoT devices to the backhaul networks. This paper investigates a hy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Operating at lower frequencies than systems such as Wi-Fi, TVWS wireless communication can enable long-range communication in rural communities and can more easily penetrate obstacles (vegetation, terrains). Thus, it is appealing to scenarios where line-of-sight is not always guaranteed. In particular, TVWS communication is a good candidate for sup...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Radio access network (RAN) virtualization is gaining more and more ground and expected to re-architect the next-generation cellular networks. Existing RAN virtualization studies and solutions have mostly focused on sharing communication capacity and tend to require the use of the same PHY and MAC layers across network slices. This approach has not...
Presentation
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PV-RAN (Paravirtualized RAN) is a lightweight, open-source platform that allows scientists to run concurrently on the same USRP device different PHY and MAC layers.
Article
Full-text available
The increasing use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in various commercial applications, such as precision agriculture and aerial remote sensing, is fast contributing to a significant growth in the UAV market. Also, it is crucial to provide continuous coverage after failures of wireless network components or additional bandwidth in high traffic si...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently, there has been a flurry of research on the use of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) in wireless networks to create dynamic radio environments. In this paper, we investigate the use of an RIS panel to improve bi-directional communications. Assuming that the RIS will be located on the facade of a building, we propose to connect it t...
Article
Today car drivers struggle to find a free parking space for their cars. It is considered a big challenge specially in large cities and in rush hours. Many studies considered this problem and how it influences our life. This increases emissions and energy consumption and wastes people’s times as they try to find a free space for their cars. People n...
Article
Full-text available
Service offloading poses interesting challenges in current and next‐generation networks. The classical network optimization algorithms are still painstakingly tune heuristics to get a sufficient solution. Classical approaches use data as input in order to output near‐optimal solutions. These techniques show exponential computational time and deal o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Radio access network (RAN) virtualization is gaining more and more ground and expected to re-architect the next-generation cellular networks. Existing RAN virtualization studies and solutions have mostly focused on sharing communication capacity and tend to require the use of the same PHY and MAC layers across network slices. This approach has not...
Article
In future cellular networks, it is expected that data traffic will increase significantly due to deployments of large numbers of Internet of Things (IoT) objects. The IoT objects operate underlaying a cellular network, and they use Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication to transmit multicst messages. We propose to use Radio Frequency (RF) Energy Tr...
Preprint
The trend is to implement intelligent agents capable of analyzing available information and utilize it efficiently. This work presents a number of reinforcement learning (RL) architectures; one of them is designed for intelligent agents. The proposed architectures are called selector-actor-critic (SAC), tuner-actor-critic (TAC), and estimator-selec...
Article
This paper considers a heterogenous wireless cellular network (HetNet) where many small base stations (SBS) coexist. SBSs can be deactivated and put to sleep to save energy and are equipped with two power sources, harvested energy (HE) and a grid power source, where an SBS will use its available HE to serve the associated users first. Then, the SBS...
Article
Full-text available
Recent developments in mobile and wireless networks have paved the way for them to become a fabric of society and the economy. The ever-increasing penetration rate of mobile telephony and wireless broadband data access, and the ubiquity of WiFi are just a few examples of this phenomenon. While multihop wireless networks (e.g., WiMax, LTE-A, ad hoc,...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we consider the use of UAVs to provide wireless connectivity services, for example after failures of wireless network components or to simply provide additional bandwidth on demand, and introduce the concept of UAVs as a service (UaaS). To facilitate UaaS, we introduce a novel framework, dubbed D3S, which consists of four phases: dem...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper proposes an energy management framework for cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) supported by dynamic solar powered drones. A HetNet composed of a macrocell base station (BS), micro cell BSs, and drone small cell BSs are deployed to serve the networks' subscribers. The drones can land at pre-planned locations defined by the mobile o...
Article
In wireless cellular networks, self-healing is one of the three functionalities for self-organizing networks, and it has four major components: fault detection, fault diagnosis, fault response and fault recovery. In this paper, we propose a cell outage compensation mechanism (fault response scheme) using a network cooperation scheme in a heterogene...
Article
This work investigates the performance of an energy harvesting communications system. This system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter is equipped with an infinite buffer to store data, and energy harvesting capability to harvest renewable energy and store it in a finite battery. The goal is to maximize the expected cumulative...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperation among network devices is a promising approach to improve network throughput and network service quality. In addition, it can be used to enhance network surviv-ability against failures. In this paper, we study a cooperative multi-path routing solution for wireless Users Equipment (UEs)’ streaming applications. We assume that UEs use mult...
Article
In this paper, we consider a cognitive Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to disseminate data to a group of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The cognitive UAV shares the wireless spectrums of Primary Users (PUs) where it accesses the spectrums opportunistically when the corresponding channels are available. The UAV predicts the OFF periods of the PU, t...
Article
Device-to-Device (D2D) direct discovery service is a key component for Proximity Services (ProSe) and D2D communications. Depending on the type of the studied network (pedestrian, vehicular, residential, industrial), large spatio-temporal fluctuation in mobile users’ density may occur inducing several patterns throughout the day. The current standa...
Article
This paper proposes an energy management framework for cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) supported by dynamic solar powered drones. A HetNet composed of a macrocell base station (BS), micro cell BSs, and drone small cell BSs are deployed to serve the networks‘ subscribers. The drones can land at pre-planned locations defined by the mobile o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes an energy management framework for cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) supported by dynamic solar powered drones. A HetNet composed of a macrocell base station (BS), micro cell BSs, and drone small cell BSs are deployed to serve the networks' subscribers. The drones can land at pre-planned locations defined by the mobile o...
Conference Paper
Information-Centric Networking is considered as one of the most promising architecture for IoT. The use of content-centric approach may improve the content access & dissemination, reduce the content retrieval latency, and enhance the network performance. The use of in-network caching in ICN enhances the data availability in the network, overcome th...
Technical Report
Reinforcement learning (RL) can be defined as a technique for learning in an unknown environment. Through learning, two main modes select actions, exploration and exploitation. The exploration is to investigate unexplored actions. The exploitation is to exploit current best actions. Balancing between exploration and exploitation is a challenge for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Drone-based communications is a novel and attractive area of research in cellular networks. It provides several degrees of freedom in time (available on demand), space (mobile) and it can be used for multiple purposes (self-healing, offloading, coverage extension or disaster recovery). This is why the wide deployment of drone-based communications h...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers a downlink energy harvesting heterogeneous networks (EHHetNet) system where each base station (BS) is equipped to harvest from wireless and renewable sources. It presents the EH HetNets system model and gives the problem formulation based on the knowledge level of the RE generation, aiming to minimize the networks energy cons...
Preprint
The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has gained interest in wireless networks for its many uses and advantages such as rapid deployment and multi-purpose functionality. This is why wide deployment of UAVs has the potential to be integrated in the upcoming 5G standard. They can be used as flying base-stations, which can be deployed in case of...
Article
The idea of the Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled the objects of our surroundings to intercommunicate with each other in diverse working environments by utilizing their embedded architectural and communication technologies. IoT has provided humans the capability to manipulate the operations and data available from different information systems u...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates a multi-band harvesting (EH) schemes under cognitive radio interweave framework. All secondary users are considered as EH nodes that are allowed to harvest energy from multiple bands of Radio Frequency (RF) sources. A win-win framework is proposed, where SUs can sense the spectrum to determine whether the spectrum is busy, a...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) enabled communications is a novel and attractive area of research in cellular communications. It provides several degrees of freedom in time, space and it can be used for multiple purposes. This is why wide deployment of UAVs has the potential to be integrated in the upcoming 5G standard. In this paper, we present a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) enabled communications is a novel and attractive area of research in cellular communications. It provides several degrees of freedom in time, space and it can be used for multiple purposes (self-healing, offloading, relaying or coverage extension). This is why wide deployment of UAVs has the potential to be integrate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes a novel wireless relay selection scheme involving multiple mobile Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to support communicating ground users. The goal is to optimize the transmit power levels and trajectories of the relaying UAVs in order to maximize the data rate transmission of the ground users which are suffering from the absence...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy harvesting (EH) from Radio Frequency (RF) sources is considered a promising solution for future wireless technologies in terms of efficiency and battery lifetime, specially for applications that do not consume a lot of energy such as Internet of Things (IoT) devices. This paper investigates a multi-band EH schemes under cognitive radio inter...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the problem of optimal planning and deployment of multiple relays to support energy-efficient uplink transmissions of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. A novel approach is proposed to optimize the relay locations with the objective of minimizing the total energy consumption of the network. In addition, the uplink trans...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate an energy efficient and energy harvesting (EH) system model in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where all base stations (BSs) are equipped to harvest energy from renewable energy sources. We consider a hybrid power supply of green (renewable) and traditional micro-grid, such that traditional micro-grid is not exploited...
Article
Full-text available
Energy harvesting (EH) combined with cooperative communications constitutes a promising solution for future wireless technologies. They enable additional efficiency and increased lifetime to wireless networks. This paper investigates a multiple-relay selection scheme for an EH-based two-way relaying (TWR) system. All relays are considered as EH nod...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we investigate energy efficiency and energy harvesting (EH) in fifth generation (5G) heterogeneous networks where all base stations (BSs) are equipped to harvest energy from renewable energy sources, e.g., solar. We consider a hybrid power supply of green (renewable) and traditional micro-grid, such that traditional micro-grid is n...
Article
Full-text available
Cloud computing and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) use cases proposed by ETSI can improve network caching when an adequate optimization algorithm is used. A cache placement algorithm is proposed based on these virtualization tools. Moreover, a cache placement protocol is presented to support the cache migration. Optimal cache and Virtual Mac...
Article
The problem of energy saving in data centers has recently attracted significant interest within the research community, and the adaptive data center activation model has emerged as a promising technique to save energy. However, this model has not integrated adaptive activation of switches and hosts in data centers because of its complexity. This pa...