Agnieszka Szarkowska

Agnieszka Szarkowska
University of Warsaw | UW · Institute of Applied Linguistics

PhD

About

83
Publications
30,654
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979
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2007 - present
University of Warsaw
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we aim to promote the use of linear mixed models (LMMs) in eye-tracking research on subtitling. Using eye tracking to study viewers’ reading of subtitles often warrants controlling for many confounding variables. However, even assuming that these variables are known to researchers, such control may not be possible or desired. Traditi...
Article
Full-text available
Quality is a rather slippery concept, and its assessment in subtitling can be a challenging task, as its appreciation can easily vary depending on the different stakeholders involved in the production and reception of subtitles. In this paper, we evaluate quality indicators in subtitling as perceived by professional subtitlers and viewers. After ex...
Article
Full-text available
How much time do viewers spend reading subtitles and does it depend on the subtitle speed? By posing these questions, in this paper we re-analyse previous data to address this issue while promoting two methodological advancements in eye-tracking audiovisual research: (1) the use of proportional reading time (PRT) as a metric of time spent on subtit...
Article
Multilingual films do not always travel well across borders. When translated, multilingualism may become neutralised and washed out. In subtitling, multiple languages used in the original are usually not marked in any way in the target subtitles. This results in neutralisation and linguistic homogenisation, whereby target viewers may not even reali...
Article
Full-text available
The rapidly growing demand for subtitling on the global translation market has resulted in a new development which has revolutionised the way subtitles are created and distributed: the template. A template is a subtitle file containing a time-coded transcription of the dialogue to be later translated into multiple target languages. Loved by global...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, an unprecedented boom in experimental research conducted in the field of audiovisual translation (AVT) has taken place, marking a shift from individual, descriptive case studies towards an attempt at establishing some evidence-based truths. Using a combination of new methods and technologies, AVT researchers have embarked on the ex...
Article
In an eye-tracking study, Romero-Fresco (2016) discovered that when watching a dubbed film, Spanish viewers hardly looked at characters' mouths and focussed instead on their eyes-a phenomenon he termed 'the dubbing effect'. Our study is a conceptual replication of Romero-Fresco's study, aimed at answering the question of whether a similar effect al...
Article
Full-text available
In this article I describe how a project-based approach can be implemented when training subtitlers. I present collaborative project-based work carried out at the Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw, as part of an optional module on subtitling in the MA Programme in Translation. The project was conducted in cooperation with the P...
Article
The most famous rule on the speed of subtitles is the six-second rule. In this study we investigate if the six-second rule is too slow for contemporary viewers. We also address the question of whether subtitle processing depends on the speech rate of film dialogues and on viewer’s proficiency in the language of the film soundtrack. With these quest...
Article
Young researchers often encounter questions, problems and hurdles at the early stages of their careers that relate to areas, particularly outside their core subject. These may span from selecting the research topic and methodology to publishing strategies and identifying the position of audiovisual translation research in a wider framework of the f...
Chapter
Respeaking is a method of producing real-time subtitles for live television programmes, enabling access to the media for people who are deaf, hard of hearing or who support their viewing with subtitles. Respeaking requires a set of skills akin to both interpreting and subtitling, including multitasking and management of concurrent sources of incomi...
Article
The typically recommended maximum number of lines in a subtitle is two. Yet, three-line subtitles are often used in intralingual English-to-English subtitling on television programmes with high information density and fast speech rates. To the best of our knowledge, no prior empirical work has contrasted the processing of three-line with two-line s...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental studies on AVT have grown incrementally over the past decade. This growing body of research has explored several aspects of AVT reception and production using behavioural measures such as eye tracking, as well as venturing into physiological measures such as electroencephalography (EEG), galvanic skin response, and heart rate. As a nov...
Article
Full-text available
Although translation process research (TPR) has become one of the most active fields in Translation Studies in the last 20 years, the process of subtitle creation has received little attention. This subtitling process research study adopts TPR methods to explore the production of interlingual subtitles. We conducted two experiments: Experiment 1 co...
Article
Full-text available
Despite being (in)famous for its use of voice-over in fiction films, Poland also has a long-standing dubbing tradition. Contemporary Polish dubbing is largely domesticated: culture-bound items from the original are often replaced with elements of Polish culture, which is supposed to increase viewers’ enjoyment of the film. In this study, we examine...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we address the question whether shot changes trigger the re-reading of subtitles. Although it has been accepted in the professional literature on subtitling that subtitles should not be displayed over shot changes as they induce subtitle re-reading, support for this claim in eye movement studies is difficult to find. In this study we...
Article
Understanding the way people watch subtitled films has become a central concern for subtitling researchers in recent years. Both subtitling scholars and professionals generally believe that in order to reduce cognitive load and enhance readability, line breaks in two-line subtitles should follow syntactic units. However, previous research has been...
Article
Full-text available
People watch subtitled audiovisual materials more than ever before. With the proliferation of subtitled content, we are also witnessing an increase in subtitle speeds. However, there is an ongoing controversy about what optimum subtitle speeds should be. This study looks into whether viewers can keep up with increasingly fast subtitles and whether...
Article
Full-text available
There is a discrepancy between professional subtitling guidelines and how they are implemented in real life. One example of such discrepancy are line breaks: the way the text is divided between the two lines in a subtitle. Although we know from the guidelines how subtitles should look like and from watching subtitled materials how they really look...
Article
In this study, we examined whether interpreters and interpreting trainees are better predisposed to respeaking than people with no interpreting skills. We tested 57 participants (22 interpreters, 23 translators and 12 controls) while respeaking 5-minute videos with two parameters: speech rate (fast/slow) and number of speakers (one/many). Having me...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we report on the results of a usability study on the Open Art mobile application conducted in a museum with blind, deaf and sighted/hearing people. The Open Art application was created following the principles of Universal Design to give all types of users the opportunity to use the app on equal terms. The main goal of the study re...
Article
Full-text available
Respeaking is a method of producing subtitling for live events and TV programmes. Respeakers repeat speakers’ utterances so that they may be changed by speech recognition software into subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing. Respeakers need to paraphrase the text so that it conforms with temporal and spatial constraints of subtitling. Due to th...
Chapter
In this paper we introduce respeaking crisis points (RCPs), understood as potentially problematic moments in the respeaking process, resulting from the difficulty of the source material and/or cognitive overload on the part of the respeakers. We present results of the respeaking study on Polish participants who respoke four videos intralingually (P...
Article
Respeaking involves producing subtitles in real time to make live television programs accessible to deaf and hard of hearing viewers. In this study we investigated how the type of material to be respoken affects temporal aspects of respeaking, such as ear–voice span and pauses. Given the similarities between respeaking and interpreting (time constr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The last decade was revolutionary in terms of accessibility for the visually and hearing impaired. However, accessibility was regarded from the perspective of granting access to those with impairments. Recently, new ideas seem to emerge – accessibility can be seen as a service that can be provided for all, regardless of their (un)impairment. This i...
Research
Full-text available
Short video explaining the OpenArt project
Article
In this paper we examine the influence of text editing (edited vs. verbatim subtitles) and subtitle presentation rates (12 vs. 15 characters per second) on the comprehension and reading patterns of interlingual and intralingual subtitles among a group of 44 deaf, 33 hard of hearing and 60 hearing Polish adult subjects. The results of the eyetrackin...
Presentation
Full-text available
Having emerged in the early 80s mainly thanks to the works of Géry d’Ydewalle and his team, experimental research on Audiovisual Translation (AVT) has been quite active in the past decade. A number of studies have explored several aspects of AVT reception and production using behavioural and eye tracking measures, and sometimes also venturing into...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research on the reception of interlingual subtitling revealed that it is cognitively effective: watching a subtitled film results in a good understanding of the film content, it does not require a significant tradeoff between image processing and text processing, and it leads to a good performance in the recognition of the words and expressi...
Article
In this paper we examine the influence of text editing (edited vs. verbatim subtitles) and subtitle presentation rates (12 vs. 15 characters per second) on the comprehension and reading patterns of interlingual and intralingual subtitles among a group of 44 deaf, 33 hard of hearing and 60 hearing Polish adult subjects. The results of the eyetrackin...
Article
Full-text available
Report on the results of an online survey on subtitle presentation times and line breaks in interlingual subtitling
Article
In this paper we present preliminary results of the study on the cognitive load in intralingual and interlingual respeaking. We tested 57 subjects from three groups: interpreters, translators and controls while respeaking 5-minute videos in two language combinations: Polish to Polish (intralingual) and English to Polish (interlingual). Using two me...
Article
We introduce coefficient K, defined on a novel parametric scale, derived from processing a traditionally eye-tracked time course of eye movements. Positive and negative ordinates of K indicate focal or ambient viewing, respectively, while the abscissa serves to indicate time, so that K acts as a dynamic indicator of fluctuation between ambient/foca...
Presentation
Full-text available
Szarkowska A., Dutka Ł. (2016) “Respeaking crisis points” at the Intermedia conference, 16 April 2016
Chapter
Szarkowska, Jankowska, Krejtz and Kowalski present an innovative approach towards creating accessible content following the example of a multimedia app created in the Open Art project, carried out by a consortium of partners including museums, universities, a research institute and a media access foundation. The goal of the project is to create a m...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the issue of using strategies developed in Translation Studies to describe culture-bound elements in audio description. In the first part, the authors discuss the place of audio description in Translation Studies and especially within the field of audiovisual translation and Jakobson’s categories of intersemiotic, intralingual...
Article
In this study, we examined how function and content words are read in intra- and interlingual subtitles. We monitored eye movements of a group of 39 deaf, 27 hard of hearing, and 56 hearing Polish participants while they viewed English and Polish videos with Polish subtitles. We found that function words and short content words received less visual...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Respeakers need to master a number of linguistic and technical competences (Arumí Ribas & Romero Fresco 2008, Romero Fresco 2012, Eugeni 2008). Among them is the ability to listen and speak at the same time in the same language or to translate the words spoken in a live programme into another language. Other necessary linguistic skills are the abil...
Article
Full-text available
Full text available here: http://refractory.unimelb.edu.au/2015/02/07/kruger-szarkowska-krejtz/ This article provides an overview of eye tracking studies on subtitling (also known as captioning), and makes recommendations for future cognitive research in the field of audiovisual translation (AVT). We find that most studies in the field that have b...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the main challenges of audio describing foreign films: synchronising the translation of foreign language dialogue with audio description, identifying speakers, describing culture-bound elements, and dealing with intertextuality. The findings are discussed with a reference to an explorative study carried out among Polish viewer...
Chapter
In this paper we present audiovisual tools which enable foreign language learners to foster their linguistic skills and acquire new knowledge about the world through captioning and revoicing of videos. We discuss Content and Language Integrated Learning as a way to independent content-learning through languages on the example of ClipFlair Studio, a...
Chapter
In this chapter we present the results of the long questionnaire on SDH conducted as part of the DTV4ALL project in Poland. Before moving on to discuss detailed results, we offer a brief overview of the hearing-impaired community in Poland and the Polish audiovisual landscape, particularly with regard to SDH and sign language interpreting.
Chapter
In this chapter we present the results of the long questionnaire on SDH conducted as part of the DTV4ALL project in Poland. Before moving on to discuss detailed results, we offer a brief overview of the hearing-impaired community in Poland and the Polish audiovisual landscape, particularly with regard to SDH and sign language interpreting.
Article
The article outlines a new type of audio description: auteur description, which aims to immerse the blind and partially sighted audience into the story world created by the auteur-director, as presented in the screenplay. Two fi lms: Volver by Pedro Almodóvar and Dzień Świra (The Day of the Wacko) by Marek Koterski, are used to highlight the main f...
Article
In this paper we present a set of strategies for rendering the presence of multiple languages in multilingual films in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH): vehicular matching, explicit attribution, colourcoding and linguistic homogenisation. We also report on an online study among deaf and hard of hearing Polish participants regarding...
Article
Audiodeskrypcja do filmu zagranicznego z tłumaczeniem w wersji lektorskiej na przykładzie filmu pt. Duża ryba Audiodeskrypcja (AD) rozwija się w Polsce od 2006 r. Do niedawna filmy obcojęzyczne praktycznie nie były udostępniane osobom z dysfunkcją wzroku. Powodem braku dostępności filmów obcojęzycznych było przekonanie, iż wersja lektorska – czyli...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we address the question whether shot changes trigger the re-reading of subtitles. Although it has been accepted in the professional literature on subtitling that subtitles should not be displayed over shot changes as they induce subtitle re-reading, support for this claim in eye movement studies is difficult to find. In this study we...
Article
In this article, we examine different ways in which multilingualism can be manifested in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH). First, we propose a set of strategies to tackle multilingualism in SDH. We then present the results of an online survey conducted among deaf and hard of hearing Poles (N=135) on their preferences regarding the...
Article
In this paper we present a set of strategies for rendering the presence of multiple languages in multilingual films in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH): vehicular matching, explicit attribution, colour-coding and linguistic homogenisation. We also report on an online study among deaf and hard of hearing Polish participants regardin...
Article
The article examines interlingual subtitling for the deaf and the hard of hearing (SDH) as a self-contained audiovisual translation modality. Although interlingual SDH shares some common ground with its elder siblings, i.e. standard interlingual subtitling for hearing viewers and monolingual subtitling for the deaf and the hard of hearing, it diffe...
Article
In this article, we examine different ways in which multilingualism can be manifested in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH). First, we propose a set of strategies to tackle multilingualism in SDH. We then present the results of an online survey conducted among deaf and hard of hearing Poles (N=135) on their preferences regarding the...
Article
The paper explores the effects of adding audio description to an educational film on children's learning behaviour, manifested by a visual recognition task. We hypothesize that the multimodal educational setting, consisting of both verbal (film dialogue and audio description) and non-verbal (motion pictures) representations of knowledge, fosters kn...
Article
Audio description (AD) has become a cultural revolution for the visually impaired; however, the range of AD beneficiaries can be much broader. We claim that AD is useful for guiding children's attention. The paper presents an eye-tracking study testing the usefulness of AD in selective attention to described elements of a video scene. Forty-four ch...
Chapter
In this paper we report on the results of the study aimed at examining the reception and acceptability of an educational programme made accessible through text-to-speech audio description by young visually impaired viewers. The audiovisual material employed for the purpose of the research is an episode entitled Blood from the educational animation...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most frequently recurring themes in captioning is whether captions should be edited or verbatim. The authors report on the results of an eye-tracking study of captioning for deaf and hard of hearing viewers reading different types of captions. By examining eye movement patterns when these viewers were watching clips with verbatim, standa...