Agnes Blaye

Agnes Blaye
Aix-Marseille Université | AMU · Laboratoire de psychologie cognitive UMR 7290

PhD

About

102
Publications
21,022
Reads
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3,174
Citations
Introduction
As a developmental psychologist, I am interested in cognitive development and more specifically in the development of cognitive control in children. My most recent research interests are in the within_task dynamics of cognitive control and its changes with age.
Additional affiliations
September 2007 - present
Aix-Marseille Université
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Full-text available
How does cognitive control change with age, and what are the processes underlying these changes? This question has been extensively studied using versions of the task-switching paradigm, which allow participants to actively prepare for the upcoming task (Kray, Eber, & Karbach, 2008). Little is known, however, about age-related changes in this abili...
Article
Emerging executive control supports greater autonomy and increasingly adaptive behavior during childhood. The present study addressed whether children’s greater monitoring of how they engage control drives executive control development. Gaze position was recorded while 25 six-year-olds and 28 ten-year-olds performed a self-paced task-switching...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic, trial-by-trial modulations of inhibitory control are well documented in adults but rarely investigated in children. Here, we examined whether 5-to-7 year-old children, an age range when inhibitory control is still partially immature, achieve such modulations. Fifty three children took flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks. Above and beyond clas...
Article
Interference control is central to cognitive control and, more generally, to many aspects of development. Despite its importance, the understanding of the processes underlying mean interference effects across development is still limited. When measured through conflict tasks, mean interference effects reflect both the strength of the initial automa...
Article
Full-text available
The maturation of processes involved in performance monitoring, crucial for adaptive behavior, is a core aspect of developmental changes. Monitoring processes are often studied through the analysis of error processing. Previous developmental studies generally focused on post-error slowing and error-related EEG activities. Instead, the present stud...
Article
To what extent can cognitive control, self-regulation, and the underlying midfrontal theta oscillatory activity of preschool children be modified by an ecologically realistic training based on pretend play? To answer this question, 70 children aged 4–6 years (37 boys) were assigned to a training group or a control group using a pairing randomizatio...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental improvement of cognitive control is partly grounded in a transition from reactive control (waiting for a critical stimulus to occur) to proactive control (preparing control in advance based on active maintenance of contextual information). Whereas older children and adults spontaneously use proactive control, children younger than 5–6...
Article
Full-text available
Goal‐oriented behavior can be disrupted by irrelevant information that automatically activates incorrect responses. While behavioral errors reveal response capture in such situations, they are only the tip of the iceberg. Additional subliminal activations of the incorrect responses (partial errors) can be revealed on correctly responded trials than...
Chapter
This chapter deals with cognitive flexibility as one of the manifestations of a controlled and goal‐directed cognitive functioning. The development of flexibility is long and progressive throughout childhood, up to and including adolescence. This development is particularly dependent on brain maturation. The chapter focuses on the diversity of the...
Article
Preschoolers are well known for their poor working memory (WM) performance. This could result from goal neglect, which would hamper the setting of maintenance strategies. Previous studies have shown that preschoolers’ WM performance can be improved in game-like tasks, because they provide cues to support goal maintenance. However, in these studies,...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to a change in liking of a conditioned stimulus (CS) consecutive to its repeated pairing with a valent unconditioned stimulus (US). We relied on a multinomial processing tree model to compare the processes underlying EC in middle-aged children (n = 57, Mage = 8.65, range = 6.94-11.03; 31 females) and young adults...
Poster
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that false memories could occur within 4 seconds after stimuli perception (e.g. Atkins & Reuter-Lorenz, 2008). These false memories are a well-established episodic memory phenomenon. Additionally, Abadie & Camos (2019) showed that maintenance mechanisms could decrease false memories in working memory tasks in adults. This...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas much of the developmental literature has focused on the difficulties of young children in regulating their behavior, an increasing base of evidence suggests that children may be capable of surprisingly flexible engagement of cognitive control when based on implicit experience with the situation. One of the most fine-grained examples of impl...
Article
Full-text available
Describing the maturation of information processing in children is fundamental for developmental science. Although non-linear changes in reaction times have been well-documented, direct measurement of the development of the different processing components is lacking. In this study, electromyography was used to quantify the maturation of premotor an...
Article
Objective: A deficit in interference control is commonly reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This has mainly been interpreted as a difficulty in inhibiting inappropriate responses. However, it could be due to at least two distinct and independent processes, which are often confounded: The activation or suppre...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive control can be triggered by explicit or implicit events; it has been proposed that these two possibilities tap into dissociable mechanisms. In this study, we investigate this idea by testing whether young children, who struggle with explicitly triggered control, can demonstrate proportion congruency effects-which are based on implicit lea...
Article
Full-text available
The development of cognitive control enables children to better resist acting based on distracting information that interferes with the current action. Cognitive control improvement serves different functions that differ in part by the type of interference to resolve. Indeed, resisting to interference at the task‐set level or at the response‐prepar...
Preprint
Working memory (WM) development is considered as a major source of cognitive development. Nevertheless, preschoolers are well known for their poor performance in WM tasks. We suggested that this poor performance results from goal neglect, which would hamper the setting of maintenance strategies. Previous studies have shown that preschoolers’ WM per...
Article
Goal neglect has been shown to contribute to kindergarteners’ poor executive control. Hence, presenting goal cues during a task improves children’s performance in inhibition and switching tasks. The current study aimed at extending these findings to working memory (WM) by examining the extent to which kindergarteners’ poor WM performance can result...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory is a key component of human cognition and its development throughout childhood a major predictor of cognitive development and school achievement. Noticeably, preschoolers exhibit poor performance in working memory tasks. The present study aimed at testing different means to improve working memory performance in preschoolers. To this...
Article
Setting goals in advance of upcoming tasks is a critical aspect of proactive control. Using this mode of control is particularly challenging in young children, and increases in efficiency during school years. We tested the extent to which two self-cueing strategies can help kindergarteners, first- and fourth graders to set the goal in advance in a...
Article
Full-text available
As they age, children tend to get more effective at regulating their behavior in complex situations; this improvement in cognitive control is often interpreted as a shift from predominantly reactive control to proactive control. There are three issues with this interpretation. First, hard evidence is lacking that younger children actually rely on r...
Article
The development of cognitive control is known to follow a long and protracted development. However, whether the interference effect in conflict tasks in children would entail the same core processes as in adults, namely an automatic activation of incorrect response and its subsequent suppression, remains an open question. We applied distributional...
Poster
Full-text available
Goal maintenance has been shown to be crucial in preschoolers’ executive control (Chevalier, 2015). Presenting goal cues during a task improves preschoolers' flexibility and inhibition (Blaye & Chevalier, 2011) due to a better goal maintenance. In working memory (WM), although preschoolers have poor WM capacity, a game context can improve their per...
Poster
Full-text available
While some studies showed that presenting goal cues during a task improves preschoolers’ performance in task switching (Blaye & Chevalier, 2011), others reported working memory (WM) improvement during goal oriented motor activity (Bertrand & Camos, 2015), both suggesting that goal neglect contributes greatly to preschoolers performance. The current...
Poster
Full-text available
Goal neglect has been shown to contribute to preschoolers’ poor executive control (Chevalier & Blaye, 2009; Blaye & Chevalier, 2011). Yet, it is possible to improve their inhibition and flexibility performance using goal cues during the task (i.e. a colour palette to activate a colour categorisation goal). The current study aimed at extending these...
Poster
Full-text available
This study revealed that as early as five years of age, children’s cognitive control efficiency, as assessed with a child-adapted version of the Stroop task, varies as a function of context (i.e., proportion of congruent trials). Proportion congruency effects were evidenced in both 5- and 8-year-olds. Analyses suggest that these effects might rely...
Article
Emerging cognitive control supports increasingly adaptive behaviors and predicts life success, while low cognitive control is a major risk factor during childhood, making it essential to understand how it develops. The present study provides evidence for an age-related shift in the type of information that children prioritize in their environment,...
Data
Full-text available
An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order...
Poster
Full-text available
Goal neglect has been shown to contribute to preschoolers’ poor executive control. Is it also involved in their poor working memory capacity? To address this question, we tested two forms of goal cueing with visual animations. During the retention delay of a Brown-Peterson task, one hundred fifty-seven 4-and 5- year-old children had to maintain ver...
Article
The main goal of this study was to examine whether different types of verbal labeling can influence age-related changes in the dynamic control of behavior by inducing either a proactive or reactive mode of control. Proactive control is characterized by a strong engagement in maintaining task-relevant information to be optimally prepared while react...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver et al., 2007), this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Con...
Article
Full-text available
An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction to the special issue of "Psychologie Française" on Executive control and development
Article
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In this study we examined whether developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing for task-goal maintenance are dependent on the amount of task practice and task-sequencing demands. To measure task-goal maintenance we applied a switching paradigm in which children either performed only task A or B in single-task blocks or switched between them on...
Article
This study investigated the processes involved in the aging of semantic categorical flexibility. A previous study revealed the effects of aging on the flexible use of taxonomic relations. We aimed to explain our previous results regarding the performance of older adults; we carried out investigations into the respective roles of executive and conce...
Article
This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories a...
Article
Full-text available
Analogical reasoning (AR) is a cornerstone of human cognition. Two main theories have historically been proposed to account for the ontogeny of AR. They propose that analogical skills are constrained by children's logical skills or limited knowledge of the relations to be considered. We adopt an alternative perspective in this review paper suggesti...
Article
Implementation of executive control over thought and action can only be guided by the goals that one desires to reach. Over the last decade, research has pointed out the central role of goal representation in executive control both during childhood and adulthood. The present paper reviews these findings, emphasizing the developmental dynamics obser...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analogical reasoning is commonly recognized as essential to human cognition, but young children often perform poorly in the classical A:B::C:? analogical reasoning task. Previous eye-tracking results have shown that children did not visually explore the A:B pair as much as adults in this task. We hypothesized that this lack of exploration could hel...
Article
Cognitive control abilities substantially improve from early childhood to adulthood. The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of stimulus-set size on developmental changes in cognitive control abilities such as task switching, interference control, and conflict adaptation. We assumed that a small stimulus set used in a task-switch...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments exploring the effects of the activation of pragmatic schemas on children's reasoning performance are reported. Pragmatic schemas are defined as clusters of rules concerning actions and goals. Previous results indicated that by evoking ‘permission’ and ‘obligation’ schemas it is possible to facilitate adults' performance on Wason's...
Article
Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals' extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined wh...
Article
This study addressed the role of goal representation in preschoolers' inhibition and flexibility performance. A total of 56 4- and 5-year-olds were tested in an adapted version of the Shape School task where the difficulty of goal representation was manipulated by varying the degree of transparency of task cues. The findings showed that both age gr...
Article
Full-text available
The authors studied the effects of aging on the flexible use of categorization rules based on thematic and taxonomic relations. Two components of flexibility were distinguished: maintenance of a categorical relation, and switching between two relations. Results showed that age affects these two components. In older adults, an effect of the nature o...
Article
Recent concern in the developmental psychology literature with peer facilitation of children's learning is matched by a corresponding concern in the cognitive science literature with user-user interactions in the context of computer use. A study is reported in which 11-year-old children (N = 39) worked over three successive sessions on a problem-so...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies in neuroimagery and cognitive psychology support the view of sensory-motor based knowledge: when processing an object concept, neural systems would re-enact previous experiences with this object. In this experiment, a conceptual switching cost paradigm derived from Pecher, Zeelenberg, and Barsalou (2003, 2004) was used to investigate...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we examined (a) whether verbal self-instructions can enhance task-switching performance in younger and older adults, and (b) whether verbal self-instruction benefits on task switching are smaller when memory demands on keeping track of the task sequence are reduced by spatial task cueing. Task-switching ability was measured as the dif...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4½-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers, m...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the visual information that children and adults consider while switching or maintaining object-matching rules. Eye movements of 5- and 6-year-old children and adults were collected with two versions of the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between shape- and color-matching rules. In addition to...
Article
The current study evaluated the relative roles of conceptual knowledge and executive control on the development of categorical flexibility, the ability to switch between simultaneously available but conflicting categorical representations of an object. Experiment 1 assessed conceptual knowledge and executive control together; Experiment 2 different...
Article
This study addressed preschoolers’ cognitive flexibility in an inductive task requiring response feedback processing to infer relevant task goals. A total of 63 4- to 6-year-olds were tested on a perceptual matching task in which they needed to switch attention among three colors. A computational model was designed to track down how responses to po...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments examined the difficulty of translating cues into verbal representations of task goals by varying the degree of cue transparency (auditory transparent cues, visual transparent cues, visual arbitrary cues) in the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between color- and shape-sorting rules on the basis of cu...
Article
Full-text available
This research addresses the role of the level of conceptualization of categorical rules in the development of categorical flexibility in children. Experiment 1 and 2 compared categorical flexibility on three versions of a match-to-sample task differing in terms of a priori estimated levels of abstraction of the matching rules. Children aged between...
Article
This research addresses the role of the level of conceptualization of categorical rules in the development of categorical flexibility in children. Experiment I and 2 compared categorical flexibility on three versions of a match-to-sample task differing in terms of a priori estimated levels of abstraction of the matching rules. Children aged between...
Article
Preschoolers' lack of cognitive flexibility has often been attributed to perseverative processing. This study investigates alternative potential sources of difficulty such as deficits in activating previously ignored information and in maintaining currently relevant information. In Experiment 1, a new task tapping attentional switching was designed...
Article
Preschoolers have long been thought to be unable to coordinate multiple representations for a single object. This paper presents recent empirical data that, in contrast, highlight a major increase in cognitive flexibility in children between 3 and 5. It then provides a critical review of the competing theoretical proposals regarding the processes i...
Article
Full-text available
Preschoolers’difficulty in the false-belief task has generally been attributed to a deficit in false-belief representations. However, the standard version of the task does not allow one to distinguish between the ability to represent and the ability to attribute false beliefs. In order to disentangle these two abilities, 114 3- and 4-year-olds were...
Article
The data base BD2I provides the first French norms for children of 274 pictures of objects (150 from Snodgarss and Vanderwart, 1980). Correct picture identification and naming, and identification of taxonomic and thematic associations were evaluated between 3 and 8 years. Verbal justification and strength of the associations were assessed between 4...
Article
Full-text available
La base de données informatisée BD2I fournit les premières normes françaises chez l’enfant pour 274 images d’objets (150 de Snodgrass et Vanderwart, 1980). L’identification et la dénomination correctes de l’objet ainsi que l’identification d’associations taxonomiques et thématiques ont été testées entre 3 et 8 ans, la justification et la force de c...
Article
Full-text available
This research explored the development of children's use of multiple conceptual organizations (thematic, taxonomic) in sorting sets of pictures. Experiment 1 revealed that between 5 and 9 years, two forms of categorical flexibility can be distinguished: response and conceptual flexibility. It appeared that children's multiple sorts do not necessari...
Article
Full-text available
When categorization behaviour is compared between young and elderly adults, results usually show a decrease in taxonomic choices along with an increase in thematic choices. This can be interpreted in two ways: a decline in the ability to perceive and use taxonomic relations, or a modification of conceptual preferences with aging related to a bias s...
Article
Full-text available
Picture naming has become an important experimental paradigm in cognitive psychology. Young children are more variable than adults in their naming responses and less likely to know the object or its name. A consequence is that the interpretation of the two classical measures used by Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) for scoring name agreement in adul...
Article
Full-text available
Three-year-old children were tested on three categorization tasks of increasing levels of abstraction (used with adult baboons in an earlier study): the first was a conceptual categorization task (food vs toys), the second a perceptual matching task (same vs different objects), and the third a relational matching task in which the children had to s...
Article
Full-text available
The associative strength between target and associates, a factor assumed to be critical but generally not controlled, and the type of conceptual relation (thematic and taxonomic) were manipulated independently in a matching to sample task to determine their respective effects on the matching behaviour of 4- and 6-year-old children. Perceptual simil...