Agnes Agunos

Agnes Agunos
Public Health Agency of Canada | PHAC · Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

DVM, DipPathology, MSc, DiplACPV

About

51
Publications
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Introduction
Agnes Agunos currently works at the Public Health Agency of Canada, Center for Foodborne, Infectious and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Current research interests: antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in avian species. Veterinary specializations: avian pathology and poultry preventive health/ medicine, veterinary public health.

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
The acknowledgment of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a major health challenge in humans, animals and plants, has led to increased efforts to reduce antimicrobial use (AMU). To better understand factors influencing AMR and implement and evaluate stewardship measures for reducing AMU, it is important to have sufficiently detailed information on th...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously described the importance of using multiple indicators for reporting national farm-level antimicrobial use (AMU) information, but the distribution of flock-level AMU and how these indicators relate to each other has not yet been fully explored. Using farm-level surveillance data (2013–2019), for broiler chickens (n = 947 flocks) a...
Article
Campylobacter infections in humans are usually self-limiting; however, antibiotic intervention may be necessary in the case of severe infection. Fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice for treatment of campylobacteriosis; however, resistance to these drugs can develop rapidly, complicating treatment protocols. Increasing resistance to fluoroq...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial use contributes to the global rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In 2014, the poultry industry in Canada initiated its Antimicrobial Use Reduction Strategy to mitigate AMR in the poultry sector. We monitored trends in antimicrobial use and AMR of foodborne bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter) in broiler chic...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores methodologies for the data integration of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) results within and across three food animal species, surveyed at the farm-level by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). The approach builds upon existing CIPARS methodology and princ...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in enteric bacteria continues to be detected in turkey flocks and retail products worldwide, including in Canada. However, studies assessing linkages between on-farm antimicrobial use (AMU) and the development of AMR are lacking. This study aims to identify AMU characteristics that impact the development of AMR in the...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex problem that is a threat to global public health. Consumption of turkey meat may be an important source of foodborne exposure to resistant bacteria; recent outbreaks of multi-drug-resistant Salmonella Reading in Canada and the USA have implicated raw turkey products. To better understand the epidemiology...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Enterococcus spp., a main cause of untreatable nosocomial infection, in food animals and dissemination to humans is a public health risk. The study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance, and virulence characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in food a...
Article
Full-text available
Surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a core component of the 2017 Pan-Canadian Framework for Action. There are existing AMU and AMR surveillance systems in Canada, but some stakeholders are interested in developing their own AMU monitoring/surveillance systems. It was recognized that the establishment of cor...
Article
Full-text available
The use of antimicrobials in the livestock sector has been identified as a driver for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and AMR has become a growing public health and economic threat in the Lao PDR. We conducted surveillance for AMR in five provinces of the Lao PDR, in order to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichi...
Article
Full-text available
Using the methodology developed for integrated analysis and reporting of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data, farm-level surveillance data were synthesized and integrated to assess trends and explore potential AMU and AMR associations. Data from broiler chicken flocks (n = 656), grower–finisher pig herds (n = 462) and tu...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance surveillance targeting agricultural animals is practiced in many countries but does not often include media selective for cephalosporin resistance. Here, we compared the frequency of recovery of resistant Escherichia coli using selective and non-selective media from the cecal contents of 116 chickens collected by the Canadi...
Article
Full-text available
In response to the global call to mitigate risks associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), new regulations on the access and use of veterinary antibiotics are currently being developed by the Lao government. This study aims to explore how the implementation of these new regulations might effectively reduce and adapt the sale, distribution and...
Article
Salmonella infections are a major human health concern. In the elderly and immunocompromised, infections can be life‐threatening and may require antibiotic therapy. Where antibiotic therapy is required, antimicrobials of choice include fluoroquinolones and extended‐spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). The aim of this study is to utilize data from the Can...
Article
Full-text available
Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism which facilitates bacterial populations in overcoming antimicrobial treatment. In this study, a total of 120 Escherichia coli and 62 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates were isolated from broiler chicken farms in Alberta. Fourteen serovars were identified among Salmonella isolates. Thirty...
Article
Eggs are important to the diet of Canadians. This product is one of the supply-managed commodities in Canada, but unlike other commodities, where food safety risks are extensively explored and reported, information on the prevalence of enteric organisms (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in layers in Canada are lim...
Article
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The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacterales from turkeys in Canada and characterize the associated resistance determinants. Pooled fecal samples were collected in 77 turkey farms across British Columbia, Québec, and Ontario. Isolates we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism which facilitates bacterial populations in overcoming antimicrobial treatment. In this study, a total of 120 Escherichia coli and 62 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates were isolated from poultry farms in Alberta. Fourteen serovars were identified among Salmonella isolates. Thirty one perc...
Article
Full-text available
Chicken and pork are the most frequently consumed meat products in the Philippines. Swine and poultry are reared in either commercial farms (CMf) or backyard farms (BYf); the latter production system is relatively common and essential to food security in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as the Philippines. Similar to resource-limited L...
Article
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources according to the food safety risk associated with each hatchery falling under its jurisdiction. In a previous study, 29 factors contributing to the food safety risk of hatcheries were identified and grouped...
Article
Codex published the 'Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance' to standardise the approach for evaluating risk posed by foodborne antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. One of the first steps in the guidelines is to compile a risk profile, which provides the current state of knowledge regarding a food safety issue, describes ri...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the development of a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC)-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg, a compartmental (SEIR) model for S. Heidelberg transmission within a typical Canadian commercial broiler chicken flock was developed. The model was constructed to estimate the within-flock pre...
Article
Towards the continuous improvement of its inspection system, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment‐based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources based on the food safety risk associated with the Canadian hatcheries falling under its jurisdiction. The objectives of the current study w...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial use surveillance data need to be analyzed and reported in a standardized and harmonized way. In veterinary medicine, one approach is to use defined daily doses (DDD) for animals. DDD for animals are technical standards used in various measures or metrics that quantify antimicrobial use. The European Medicines Agency published principl...
Article
Food-producing animals are recognized to play a role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in Canada. However, the presence of resistant organisms in particular groups of animals, such as chickens raised in small-holder flocks, has not been studied. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to identify and characterize Escherichia coli po...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from a Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS), we aimed to describe trends in antimicrobial use (AMU) in broiler chickens and turkeys, to compare AMU across species, to compare with trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to assess the effects of various AMU/AMR units of measurement (metrics...
Article
Since 2013, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) has collected antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance data from sentinel broiler chicken flocks (Br, five provinces) and sentinel turkey flocks (Tk, one province 2013-2015, three provinces 2016-2017). The objectives of this paper were to desc...
Article
Full-text available
We report a novel RNase H2-dependent PCR (rhPCR) genotyping assay for a small number of discriminatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that identify lineages and sub-lineages of the highly clonal pathogen Salmonella Heidelberg (SH). Standard PCR primers targeting numerous SNP locations were initially designed in silico, modified to be RNase...
Article
Full-text available
Poultry has been identified as a reservoir of foodborne enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to describe and compare antimicrobial resistant isolates from an Ontario broiler chicken farm-level baseline project (2003 to 2004) to the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillan...
Article
The extra-label use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries was cause for concern due to an increased prevalence of ceftiofur resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in chickens and humans in Québec. Due to ongoing concerns related to human health the use of ceftiofur was eventually phased out of the poultry production industry in 2014-2015. Simultaneous resis...
Article
Full-text available
Surveillance is an important component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistant bacteria in food animals and the food chain. The poultry market has many points of entry into the Canadian food chain, and some production practices are underrepresented in terms of surveillance. For example, pathogen carriage and antimicrobial resistan...
Article
Full-text available
There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly afte...
Presentation
Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to global public health. Although no longer used, use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries has been associated with an increased prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg in humans and poultry. The A2C pattern of resistance occurs when an isolate displays simultaneous resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxiti...
Article
Full-text available
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S . Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain s...
Article
Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to di...
Poster
This study used data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) broiler surveillance program to examine the risk factors for an A2C resistant E.coli isolate (A2C-REI) among broiler flocks in Canada.
Article
The objective of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to provide a unified approach to monitor national trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use (AMU) in humans and animals and to facilitate the assessment of the public health impact of antimicrobial use. CIPARS is a combination...
Article
Full-text available
This case study outlines the patterns of ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter isolated from retail chicken meat in Canada. Campylobacter is the third most common cause of foodborne enteric illness in Canada; it usually causes a self-limited illness, but in some cases antimicrobials may be indicated. Ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) is an anti...
Article
Full-text available
Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critica...
Article
Full-text available
This paper identifies common poultry diseases requiring antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobials deemed efficacious to treat these diseases, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in these commodity-pathogen combinations, and describes current residue issues and minor use minor species (MUMS) guidelines. Veterinarians with turkey/layer expertise and diagn...
Article
Full-text available
This paper identifies common poultry diseases requiring antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobials deemed efficacious to treat these diseases, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in these commodity-pathogen combinations, and describes current residue issues and minor use minor species (MUMS) guidelines. Veterinarians with turkey/layer expertise and diagn...
Article
During 2005-2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%-17%) and Saskatchewan (6%-11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic sig...
Article
Full-text available
Salmonella enteritidis has emerged as the most prevalent cause of human salmonellosis in Canada. Recent trends of S. enteritidis subtypes and their potential sources were described by integrating Salmonella data from several Canadian surveillance and monitoring programmes. A threefold increase in S. enteritidis cases from 2003 to 2009 was identifie...
Article
Full-text available
The potential public and animal health impact of antimicrobial use and resistance in food animals is a contentious issue for industry, producers and veterinarians. To build collaboration in the development and implementation of a farm-based surveillance system that protects the biosecurity and confidentiality of data providers requires extensive co...
Article
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1. This study investigated the effects of beta1-4 Mannobiose (MNB)-supplemented feeds on the kinetics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in broilers and the ensuing histopathological changes. D-Mannose (MAN) was used for comparison. The diets supplemented with MNB or MAN were fed during the first two weeks after hatching to investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Two commercial layer chicken flocks that were fed a flax-based diet beginning at 28 weeks of age for the production of omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched eggs experienced increased mortality when the birds reached 37 weeks. The average weekly mortality was 0.34% over a 20-week period, with peak mortality of 0.9% for 1 week. Reduced feed consumption, reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in humans. SE is widely distributed in commercial chicken flocks and high levels of cecal carriage and shedding may lead to broiler meat contamination. In the present study, the preventive and eliminative effect of nonimmunized freeze-dri...

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