Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
Tehran University of Medical Sciences | TUMS · Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS)

MD, MPH, Professor of psychiatry

About

167
Publications
45,214
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,129
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2009 - January 2014
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Position
  • Director, Department for Mental Health and Substance Use

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
Full-text available
In this brief letter, we report a new World Health Organization (WHO)-led project developing gold standard instruments to detect gaming disorder and gambling disorder following their inclusion in the ‘disorders due to addictive behaviours’ section of the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11)
Article
Objective: Gaming motivations are crucial aspects of healthy and problematic video gaming behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the widely used Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ). Methods: Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a sample of 66 university students. Data from 791 participants in...
Article
One in eight adults in Iran is estimated to have major depressive disorder (MDD) – a leading cause of disability in the country. Many remain undiagnosed, and some receive only partial treatment. An estimated 60% of those with MDD were reported to have received no treatment during the past year. In this paper, we have critically reviewed the current...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th most common type of cancer worldwide and the fourth most common type of cancer in Iran. Opium use is considered as one of the risk factors for BC. We aim to assess the association between various parameters of opium use, which in Iran is mainly ingested or smoked in various forms, and the risk of BC. Me...
Article
Background There has been a marked growth in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Iran in the past two decades with positive health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of non-prescribed methadone use, methadone use disorder, and methadone-related poisoning and mortality in Iran. Methods We searched Internati...
Article
While the problematic use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) has been observed in some individuals, few validated and widely accepted measures are available to assess and screen for problematic use. This is an attempt at adapting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–based Internet Gaming Disorder Test-10 (IGDT-10) measure to asse...
Article
Background and Aims There is a paucity of data on outcomes of opioid use disorder (OUD) from low and middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the mortality as well as negative social and health outcomes in a 6-year follow-up study of a cohort of individuals with opioid use including those with OUD, in Iran. Design and setting Participants w...
Article
Full-text available
Online gaming may be associated with adverse outcomes in a minority of players. While some suggest that pathological patterns of online gaming are a public health concern in Iran, the evidence on pathological gaming among Iranian online gamers remains scarce. This study aims to investigate the patterns, motivations, and correlates of pathological o...
Article
Background Comorbid alcohol and illicit drug use disorder is relatively prevalent . We aimed to assess the prevalence, pattern, and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among treatment-seeking individuals with drug use disorders in Iran. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, conducted on 387 male patients from residential drug treatment...
Article
Issues This systematic review aimed to provide an updated estimate on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among non-injecting people who use drugs (PWUD) and the various subgroups and the odds of HIV infection in the injecting compared to non-injecting PWUD. Approach A comprehensive search of international, regional and...
Article
Background and Aims: The objectives of the study were (i) cluster analysis of risky behaviors; (ii) determining correlates; and (iii) comparing clusters with regard to the attitude toward mental health help seeking. Methods: The current cross‑sectional study is a part of the first phase of the Persian Youth Cohort. From October 2014 to January 2017...
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-reported substance use is more likely to be influenced by underreporting bias compared to the biological markers. Underreporting bias or validity of self-reported substance use depends on the study population and cannot be generalized to the entire population. This study aimed to compare the validity of self-reported substance use b...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally. In this systematic review, we examined the prevalence and trends of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder in Iran. Methods We searched International and Iranian databases up to March 2021. Pooled prevalence of use among sex subgroups of the general population, univer...
Article
Background: Several factors may influence the validity of self-report. In this study, we aimed to assess the validity of self-reported drug use compared to urine testing among treatment-seeking patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 293 patients with OUD, referred to the Iranian National Center for...
Article
Introduction: Buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) is widely used in Iran, and its use is growing continuously. We reviewed studies on buprenorphine use, non-prescribed use, use disorder and treatment-seeking for it, buprenorphine-associated poisoning, and mortality in Iran in the current systematic review. Methods: An Iranian database (Sci...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a majority Muslim country, with a culturally low acceptance of high-risk behaviours. Aims: To investigate co-occurrence of risk behaviours in the Iranian general population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from a random subsample of 3508 participants in the Iranian Menta...
Article
Background : The most common drug, illegally used in Iran is opium. The treatment of people with substance use disorder is one of the most important strategies in reducing its burden. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different increasing and decreasing opium treatment coverage on the patterns of abstinence, transition to heroi...
Article
Background There is a high prevalence of substance use disorders, especially among men, in Iran and is associated with a high burden on families. We aimed to systematically review the association between illicit drug use and spouse and child abuse in Iran. Method Comprehensive terms were used to search three international databases (ISI, Medline,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There are relatively scant data to determine whether hospital visitors could serve as a proper source of controls in substance abuse case-control studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate using neighborhood versus hospital visitor controls in reporting opium use. Methods We conducted two independent case-control studies of cancer in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified opium use as a Group 1 carcinogen. However, much remains to be studied on the relation between opium and cancer. We designed the Iranian Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN) study to further investigate the association of opium use and cancers of the head and neck, bladd...
Article
Full-text available
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is diagnosed using the qualitative criteria defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Diagnostic biomarkers for OUD do not currently exist. Our study focused on developing objective biological markers to differentiate chronic opiate users with OUD from chronic opiate users...
Article
Background Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) reduces many of the harms associated with opioid dependence. We use mathematical modelling to comprehensively evaluate the overall health benefits of OAT in people who inject drugs in Perry County (KY, USA), Kyiv (Ukraine), and Tehran (Iran). Methods We developed a dynamic model of HIV and hepatitis C viru...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Following the recognition of ‘internet gaming disorder’ (IGD) as a condition requiring further study by the DSM‐5, ‘gaming disorder’ (GD) was officially included as a diagnostic entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11). However, the proposed d...
Article
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th most common type of cancer worldwide and the 4th most common type of cancer in Iran. Opium use is considered as one of the risk factors for BC. We aim to assess the association between various parameters of opium use, which in Iran is mainly ingested or smoked in various formats, and the risk of BC. Meth...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People who use drugs (PWUD) are considered as one of the main at-risk populations for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We conducted a systematic review on the prevalence of HBV infection among PWUD in Iran. Methods: Consistent with PRISMA guideline, international (Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase) and national (Scientifi...
Article
Background The HIV prevention cascade complements the HIV treatment cascade and helps evaluate the access to and use of harm reduction programs among HIV-negative individuals at risk for HIV, including people who inject drugs (PWID). This study aimed to estimate the HIV prevention cascades among PWID in Iran. Methods Using data from the 2014 natio...
Article
Full-text available
Scant evidence exists to support the association of opium use with head and neck cancer, limited to the larynx and oral cavity. In a multicenter case-control study -Iran Opium and Cancer study (IROPICAN), we recruited 633 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (254 lip and oral cavity, 54 pharynx, 327 larynx, and 28 other sub-sites...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments have introduced steps such as spatial distancing and “staying at home” to curb its spread and impact. The fear resulting from the disease, the ‘lockdown’ situation, high levels of uncertainty regarding the future, and financial insecurity raise the level of stress, anxiety, and depression exp...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This qualitative study was undertaken with the aim to identify the reasons for sharing syringes or needles among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. Methods: We used purposive sampling to recruit 4 groups of participants, male PWID (n = 14), female PWID (n = 6), service providers (n = 8), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ad...
Article
Background and Aims Misuse of tramadol, an opioid prescription analgesic, is known as a public health challenge globally. We aimed to systematically review studies on the prevalence of non‐prescribed use, regular tramadol use and dependence, tramadol‐induced poisoning and mortality in Iran. Methods Consistent with PRISMA guidelines, international...
Article
Backgrounds and aims: Iran has 2.1 and 1.8 percent of its 15-64 years old population living with illicit substance and opioid use disorders, respectively. To address these problems, Iran has been developing a large and multi-modality addiction treatment system, spanning the time before and after the Islamic revolution. Methods: Iran's current dr...
Article
Aims: In Iran, injecting drug use has been the major route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In order to control the HIV epidemic, a harm reduction program was initiated and expanded in recent years. The aim of this study was to provide an updated estimate of HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran, investigat...
Article
We summarise the evidence for medicinal uses of opioids, harms related to the extramedical use of, and dependence on, these drugs, and a wide range of interventions used to address these harms. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study estimated that in 2017, 40·5 million people were dependent on opioids (95% uncertainty inter...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Measuring the amount of opium use is a challenge in epidemiologic studies. Self-report of amount of opium use at each consumption, widely used in the literature, usually fails to provide a good estimate. The purpose of this study is to systematically study the perceived weight units of reported opium use in Iran, and compare them to th...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes both gambling and gaming disorder as disorders due to addictive beha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mental disorders contribute significantly to the burden of diseases in Iran. Therefore, the current study aims to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their associated factors among youth in Kermanshah province of Iran. Methods: The current study is a part of the first phase of Ravansar Cohort (a part of the PERSIAN You...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The current study aimed at determining the pattern of drug dependence and its related factors in mid-term residential treatment centers (MTRCs). Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted on all drug dependent people residing in MTRCs of Tehran, Iran, who were voluntarily seeking treatment from April to August, 2018. Requi...
Article
Background and aims: It is important to incorporate a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use into primary and other health care settings. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is one of the most commonly used of such tests. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of AUDIT,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mental disorders contribute significantly to the burden of diseases in Iran. Therefore, the current study aims to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their associated factors among youth in Kermanshah province of Iran. Methods: The current study is a part of the first phase of Ravansar Cohort (a part of the PERSIAN Youth...
Article
Background: Globally, HCV testing, linkage to care and treatment is sub-optimal among people who use drugs (PWUD). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an innovative intervention to enhance HCV testing, linkage to care, and treatment initiation among PWUD in Tehran, Iran. Methods: ENHANCE is a non-randomized trial evaluating the effect of...
Article
Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: National surveys revealed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran. Province-level estimates are needed to manage the resources and focus on preventive efforts more efficiently. The objective of this study was to provide province-level estimates of psychiatric disorders. Method: In this study, Iranian Mental Health Survey (Ira...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the DSM-5, adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. According to initial studies conducted in 2014, the instrument showed promising psychometric characteristics. T...
Article
Full-text available
Following approval of the ICD‐11 by the World Health Assembly in May 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) member states will transition from the ICD‐10 to the ICD‐11, with reporting of health statistics based on the new system to begin on January 1, 2022. The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse will publish Clinical Descriptions an...
Article
Background: Nonrandomized response (NRR) models are a new generation of surveys for sensitive issues. This study aims to evaluate the validity of estimates from the crosswise model (as one of the efficient models) through employing different response probabilities of nonsensitive questions. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted durin...
Article
Full-text available
Purposes (1) Cluster analysis of psychiatric disorders and partitioning the youth; (2) determining socio-demographic correlates and parental histories for each one of the clusters; and (3) comparing clusters based on the extent and type of using psychotherapeutic services. Methods The current cross-sectional study is a part of the first phase of P...
Article
BACKGROUND: In 2015, it was estimated that the burden of disease in Iran comprised of 19 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 74% of which were due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The observed leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (14.9%), and road traffic injuries (7.4%). Even so, the health resear...
Article
Full-text available
Background In 2015, it was estimated that the burden of disease in Iran comprised of 19 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 74% of which were due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The observed leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (14.9%), and road traffic injuries (7.4%). Even so, the health researc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Several epidemiologic studies have reported that opium consumption is associated with higher risk of cancer and may indeed cause cancer. However, most of these studies were not primarily designed to study the effect of opium on cancer. Therefore, control selection and data collections methods were not optimized for this purpose. Aim: We...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors and cost of CAM practitioner use among traumatic patients in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional household survey of a nationally representative sample of Iranians 15 to 64 yr old was conducted in 2011, using a three-stage cluster sampling. Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7 (SF...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It has been shown in the past two decades that anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders in general population across the world. This study sought to assess the prevalence of major anxiety disorders, their sociodemographic correlates and mental health service utilization as part of the Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS...
Article
Background: Past research suggests that individuals suffering from depressive disorders with bipolar features might have different clinical outcomes resembling bipolar disorders. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of bipolar features among individuals meeting the criteria for 12-month major depressive disorder (MDD) in th...
Article
Full-text available
Considering the scarcity of available science and controversies around effective policies addressing gaming disorder and its health-related consequences, Király et al. have conducted a systematic review on current evidence regarding this issue. We, a group of researchers in this field, would like to express our perspective from Iran. With rapid gro...
Article
Introduction and Aims There is a paucity of data on volume of alcohol use from Muslim majority countries. We aimed to present estimation methods for alcohol consumption with the use of survey data for these societies and provide an estimation for age 15+ per capita consumption of pure alcohol for Iran. Design and Methods The Iranian Mental Health...
Article
Full-text available
The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Entering university is an important developmental milestone that might be associated with behavioral change. The aim of this study was to identify the subgroups of university students on the basis of substance use, and to assess the role of demographic factors, ease of access to substances, and substance use among friends and family mem...
Article
Background: Pharmacologic therapies for management of heroin withdrawal have been studied and reviewed widely. Opium dependence is generally associated with less severe dependence and milder withdrawal symptoms than heroin. The evidence on withdrawal management of heroin might therefore not be exactly applicable for opium. Objectives: To assess...
Article
Objectives The aims of the study were to translate into Persian and culturally adapt the Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, K10 and K6, and to assess their reliability and validity. Method The sample was recruited from primary health care (PHC) settings by quota nonprobability sampling, stratified by sex and age. Validity was assessed against...
Article
Aims: Addiction science has made great progress in the past decades. We conducted a scientometric study in order to quantify the number of publications and the growth rate globally, regionally, and at country levels. Methods: In October 2015, we searched the Scopus database using the general keywords of addiction or drug-use disorders combined w...
Article
Background: HIV and psychiatric disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by some similar risk factors. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric comorbidity and health service utilization for mental problems among people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. Methods: A total of 250 cases were randomly selected from a large...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background and Aims: Previous studies have found associations between specific gaming motives (escapism, achievement, social) and problematic video gaming. Furthermore, it has also been reported that escape, competition, and fantasy motives mediated between psychiatric distress and problematic online gaming (POG). The present study tested the media...