Adrien A Eshraghi

Adrien A Eshraghi
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine | UM · Department of Otolaryngology and Neurological Surgery

MD, MSc, FACS

About

186
Publications
32,767
Reads
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4,602
Citations
Citations since 2017
72 Research Items
2875 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
October 2020 - present
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 2019 - present
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Full)
March 2016 - present
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
January 2020 - March 2020
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Field of study
  • Neurotology and Skull Base Fellowship
June 1995 - September 1996
University of California, Los Angeles
Field of study
  • Head and Neck Surgery Fellowship
November 1990 - June 1995

Publications

Publications (186)
Article
Full-text available
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a high prevalence and a significant economic impact. Our knowledge regarding neurosensory disorders and co-occurring medical conditions in the ASD population is limited, particularly for autistic women. Most of the studies include male participants or do not make comparisons w...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication, and social skills, as well as repetitive and/or restrictive interests and behaviors. The severity of ASD varies from mild to severe, drastically interfering with the quality of life of affected individuals. The current occurrence of ASD in th...
Article
The gut microbiota, composed of numerous species of microbes, works in synergy with the various organ systems in the body to bolster our overall health and well-being. The most well-known function of the gut microbiome is to facilitate the metabolism and absorption of crucial nutrients, such as complex carbohydrates, while also generating vitamins....
Article
Introduction The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and surgical outcomes of a large surgical series of vestibular schwannoma from North America over 20 years. Methods After institutional review board approval a retrospective review of the senior author’s personal case logs to identify patients who had operations for...
Article
Background Papaverine, a vasodilator approved for use by the FDA, has demonstrated efficacy in treating vasospasm in cardiology, urology, and nephrology. The vasodilatory effect of papaverine is also hoped to protect the facial nerve from ischemic damage and nerve manipulation during vestibular schwannoma surgery. Our institution uses intracisterna...
Article
The gut microbiome and its dynamic association with organ systems beyond the gastrointestinal tract, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems, is an emerging area of research. Although the role of the gut microbiome has been extensively characterized in the gut-brain axis, the implications of gut dysbiosis in inner ear inflammation and hearin...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic’s disruptions to daily routines and services have proven especially challenging for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families. The current retrospective study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic’s social environmental changes on parental ratings of personal and child concerns about fami...
Article
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Given the non-labile, terminal differentiation of inner-ear sensory cells, preserving their function is critical since sensory cell damage results in irreversible hearing loss. Gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity is one of the major causes of sensory cell damage and consequent sensorineural hearing loss. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and ta...
Article
Objective: Evaluating the association between arterial hypertension and tinnitus while controlling for gender, race, diabetes, hearing loss, and depression as potential confounders. Study design: The present study employed a cross-sectional design. Setting: Health interviews were conducted in the respondents' homes. Patients: Respondents rep...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by three core symptoms, specifically impaired social behavior, stereotypic/repetitive behaviors, and sensory/communication deficits. Although the exact pathophysiology of ASD is still unknown, host genetics, oxidative stress, and compromised blood brain barrier (BBB) have...
Preprint
Objectives: As institutions modified medical practices to mitigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, providers were forced to modify care through the implementation of telemedicine. The objective of this article is to review the current practices of otolaryngology during the COVID-19 pandemic and the limitations of telemedicine in current practic...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Cell-based models play an important role in understanding the pathophysiology and etiology of auditory disorders. For the auditory system, models have primarily focused on restoring inner and outer hair cells. However, they have largely underrepresented the surrounding structures and cells that support the function of the hair cells....
Article
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive, neuromodulating technique for brain hyperexcitability disorders. The objective of this paper is to discuss the mechanism of action of rTMS as well as to investigate the literature involving the application of rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus. The reviewed aspects of the protoco...
Article
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Hyperacusis is highly prevalent in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population. This auditory hypersensitivity can trigger pragmatically atypical reactions that may impact social and academic domains. Objective: The aim of this report is to describe the relationship between decreased sound tolerance disorders and the ASD population. Topics covere...
Article
There is a potential association between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given this correlation, the possible impact of probiotics and prebiotics have been explored in research studies to modify the gut microbiome and ameliorate behavioral manifestations of ASD via modulating the gut-brain-microbio...
Article
Full-text available
Exosomes are small extracellular membrane particles that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling. Research shows that exosomes have the potential to be used as biomarkers or drug delivery systems in specific organs, such as the neurological system and the inner ear. Exosomes in neurological and auditory systems release different molecules wh...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To systematically appraise the implementation of cochlear implantation (CI) in Usher Syndrome (USH) Types 1, 2, and 3 patients, and analyze who would benefit from CI. Data sources: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library electronic databases from inception through June 2020 was performed. There were no l...
Article
Background Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a significant cause of morbidity worldwide and currently has no curative treatment. Technological advancements in stem cell therapy have led to numerous studies that examine the generation of otic sensory cells from progenitors to restore inner ear function. Recently, organoids have emerged as a promi...
Article
Objectives: Recent advancements in robotics have set forth a growing body of evidence for the clinical application of the robotic cochlear implantation (RCI), with many potential benefits. This review aims to summarize these efforts, provide the latest developments in this exciting field, and explore the challenges associated with the clinical imp...
Article
Diet has been shown to play an important role in maintaining normal homeostasis in the human body. Milk and milk products are a major component of the Western diet, but their consumption may predispose sensitive individuals to adverse health outcomes. Current literature about milk products recognizes various bioactive components including lactate,...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the gut microbiome has gained considerable interest as one of the major contributors to the pathogenesis of multi-system inflammatory disorders. Several studies have suggested that the gut microbiota plays a role in modulating complex signaling pathways, predominantly via the bidirectional gut-brain-axis (GBA). Subsequent in vivo studies...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus, is a persistent global pandemic. It is crucial to examine existing reports to effectively summarize and characterize its clinical course. We used a large-scale meta-analysis to establish prevalence rates for loss of olfaction and gustation in COVID-19 positive patients. PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Web of Sci...
Article
Full-text available
Background Congenital hearing loss is remarkably heterogeneous, with over 130 deafness genes and thousands of variants, making for innumerable genotype/phenotype combinations. Understanding both the pathophysiology of hearing loss and molecular site of lesion along the auditory pathway permits for significantly individualized counseling. Electrophy...
Article
Full-text available
The use and utility of cochlear implantation has rapidly increased in recent years as technological advances in the field have expanded both the efficacy and eligible patient population for implantation. This review aims to serve as a general overview of the most common hearing disorders that have favorable auditory outcomes with cochlear implants...
Article
Full-text available
Cochlear implants (CIs) are widely used to provide auditory rehabilitation to individuals having severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, insertion of electrode leads to inner trauma and activation of inflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascades resulting in loss of residual hearing in implanted individuals. Pharmaceutical in...
Article
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Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Study Design Multicenter case series. Setting Five tertiary care hospitals (3 in China, 1 in France, 1 in Germany). Subjects and Methods In total, 394 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–confirmed COVID-19-p...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advancements in stem cell therapy have led to an increased interest within the auditory community in exploring the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of inner ear disorders. However, the biocompatibility of MSCs with the inner ear, especially when delivered non-surgically and in the immunocompetent cochlea, is not co...
Preprint
Objective: Evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients Study Design: Multicenter Case Series Setting: 5 tertiary care hospitals (3 in China, 1 in France, 1 in Germany) Subjects and Methods: 394 PCR confirmed COVID-19 positive patients were screened, and those with olfactory or gustatory dys...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Electrode insertion trauma (EIT) during cochlear implantation (CI) can cause loss of residual hearing. L-N-acetylcysteine (L-NAC) and dexamethasone (Dex) have been individually shown to provide otoprotection albeit at higher concentrations that may be associated with adverse effects. Objective/Aims: The aim of this study is to determin...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. With no cure for the disorder, treatments commonly center around speech and behavioral therapies to improve the characteristic social, behavioral, and communicative symptoms of ASD. Gastrointestinal disturbances are comm...
Article
Full-text available
Cochlear implantation (CI) is now widely used to provide auditory rehabilitation to individuals having severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, CI can lead to electrode insertion trauma (EIT) that can cause damage to sensory cells in the inner ear resulting in loss of residual hearing. Even with soft surgical techniques where...
Poster
Full-text available
Noninvasive and targeted drug delivery to the cochlea is challenging due to anatomic inaccessibility of the inner ear and poor penetration of systemically-delivered drugs. A method for targeted drug delivery that can be performed in an outpatient setting will provide less invasive approach and reduce complications associated with surgical approache...
Article
Major advancements in targeted gene therapy have opened up avenues for the treatment of major neurological disorders through a range of versatile modalities varying from expression of exogenous to suppression of endogenous genes. Recent technological innovations for improved gene sequence delivery have focused on highly-specific viral vector design...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To develop a clinical consensus statement on the use of balloon dilation of the eustachian tube (BDET). Methods: An expert panel of otolaryngologists was assembled with nominated representatives of general otolaryngology and relevant subspecialty societies. The target population was adults 18 years or older who are candidates for BDET...
Article
Full-text available
Hearing loss is the most common neurosensory impairment worldwide. While conductive hearing loss can be managed by surgery, the management of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), related to the damage of sensory cells of the inner ear is more challenging to manage medically. Many causes of SNHL such as sudden idiopathic SNHL, Meniere’s disease, noise...
Article
Noise‐induced hearing loss (NIHL) poses a significant burden on not only the economics of health care but also the quality of life of an individual, as we approach an unprecedented age of longevity. In this article, we will delineate the current landscape of management of NIHL. We discuss the most recent results from in vitro and in vivo studies th...
Article
Objective: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the ears or head without any external or internal acoustic stimulation, and it is usually associated with hearing loss. In addition, it has been reported that there is a relationship between vestibular problems and sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular func...
Article
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an emerging treatment modality for various human diseases. Although induced pluripotent stem cells have been explored for the restoration of hearing, the potential of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy for various cochlear insults is not precisely known. MSCs possess anti‐inflammatory, anti‐apoptotic and neuroprot...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Precise techniques to find the facial nerve (FN) and recess are lacking. Objectives: We aimed to define incus-spine and incus-FN angles which can be used to localize the FN and recess during mastoidectomy. Material and methods: Thirty adult cadaveric temporal bones were studied. Canal-wall up mastoidectomy with a facial recess approach...
Article
Objective In the management of facial nerve schwannoma (FNS), surgical tumor resection is now often being replaced with more conservative approaches, such as observation with serial imaging or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Given the scarcity of these lesions, determining the optimal management of FNS remains challenging and subject of debate wit...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core domains: persistent deficits in social communication and interaction; restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. ASDs comprise heterogeneous and complex neurodevelopmental pathologies with well-defined inflammatory conditions and immune system dysfunction. Due to...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, 1 out of every 59 children in the United States is diagnosed with autism. While initial research to find the possible causes for autism were mostly focused on the genome, more recent studies indicate a significant role for epigenetic regulation of gene expression and the microbiome. In this review article, we examine the connections betw...
Article
Hypothesis: Merlin-deficient Schwann cells (MD-SC) and primary human vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells exhibit selective uptake of sodium-fluorescein (SF), allowing for fluorescent detection and improved visualization of tumor cells, when compared with Schwann cells (SC). Background: SF is a fluorescent compound used for fluorescence-guided resec...
Article
Full-text available
The etiology and underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are still largely unknown. In this manuscript, a comprehensive review of the studies which are relevant to ASD and CAPD is conducted and the relationship of ASD and central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) is discussed in the light of recent studies on this su...
Article
Diagnosis and treatment of advanced otosclerosis can be controversial. In 1961, House and Sheehy defined advanced otosclerosis as hearing loss in air conduction threshold by 85 dB with nonmeasurable bone conduction. Recently, the definition of advanced otosclerosis is mostly based on the decrease of speech recognition. There are some treatment moda...
Article
The current advancements in otosclerosis therapy cannot be fully appreciated without studying the history, rediscovery, and modification of a once-forgotten procedure. The evolution of stapes surgery can be best summarized into 4 noteworthy eras: the preantibiotic era (which was forgotten and then rediscovered), the fenestration era (mainstreamed b...
Article
The cochlear implant (CI) is currently the standard rehabilitation strategy for individuals who have severe to profound hearing loss (HL) because elements of the inner ear and neurons are not able to regenerate spontaneously.¹ The CI electrode array is inserted surgically in the scala tympani of the cochlea. Sound received by the device is then con...
Article
Objective: The present study is aimed at determining the efficacy and exploring the mechanisms by which l-N-acetylcysteine (l-NAC) provides protection against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced oxidative stress damage and hair cell loss in 3-day-old rat organ of Corti (OC) explants. Previous work has demonstrated a high level of oxidative s...
Article
There is a growing interest in the auditory community to develop novel prophylactic and therapeutic drugs to prevent permanent sensorineural hearing loss following acute cochlear injury. The jun-N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway plays a crucial role in acute sensory hearing loss. Blocking the JNK pathway using the cell-penetrating peptide D-J...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The limits of cochlear implantation candidacy have been expanding over the last decade and recent studies show that patients with inner ear anomalies, significant residual hearing, ossified cochlea, or far advanced otosclerosis can benefit from implant. The cochlear implant companies are coming up with various electrode designs. T...
Article
Full-text available
Neurosensory responses of hearing and balance are mediated by receptors in specialized neuroepithelial sensory cells. Any disruption of the biochemical and molecular pathways that facilitate these responses can result in severe deficits, including hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Hearing is affected by both environmental and genetic factors...
Article
The use of stem cells in cell-based therapy is an emerging concept for the treatment of ear disorders. Tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) and inner ear disorders are some of the most commonly presented otologic disorders that can benefit from advances in cell-based therapy. Studies have already demonstrated that stem cell-based therapy can potenti...
Article
Hearing loss (HL) is a common sensory impairment in humans, with significant economic and social impacts. With nearly 20% of the world's population, China has focused on economic development and health awareness to improve the care for its hearing-impaired population. Recently, the Chinese government has initiated national programs such as the Chin...
Article
Introduction: Preservation of facial nerve function is an important goal after acoustic neuroma resection. Multiple variables have been studied for their association with satisfactory facial nerve function following the three classic approaches to this tumor. Tumor size, preoperative radiation, experience of the surgical team, intraoperative nerve...
Article
Conclusions: This study recommends using soft surgical principal and round window insertion to protect residual hearing with favorable anatomical exposure. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the electrical stimulation on the organ of corti and hearing. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze various factors that impac...
Article
Ear is a sensitive organ involved in hearing and balance function. The complex signaling network in the auditory system plays a crucial role in maintaining normal physiological function of the ear. The inner ear is comprised of a variety of host signaling pathways working in synergy to deliver clear sensory messages. Any disruption, as minor as it...
Article
Ear is a complex system where appropriate ionic composition is essential for maintaining the tissue homeostasis and hearing function. Ion transporters and channels present in the auditory system plays a crucial role in maintaining proper ionic composition in the ear. The extracellular fluid, called endolymph, found in the cochlea of the mammalian i...
Article
Neurotransmitters including catecholamines and serotonin play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Studies on these neurotransmitters mainly revolved around their role in the “fight or flight” response, transmitting signals across a chemical synapse and modulating blood flow throughout the body. However, recent research has...