Adriano Mazzarella

Adriano Mazzarella
University of Naples Federico II | UNINA

professor of climatology

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86
Publications
21,033
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984
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
399 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
We study whether the shallow volcanic seismic tremors related to the bradyseism observed at the Phlegraean Fields (Campi Flegrei, Pozzuoli, and Naples) from 2008 to 2020 by the Osservatorio Vesuviano could be partially triggered by local rainfall events. We use the daily rainfall record measured at the nearby Meteorological Observatory of San Marce...
Article
This paper investigates what may have been the cosmological and religious inspirations for the plan of the city of Parthenope-Neapolis (the historic centre of Naples, Italy), which was founded in the early fifth century BC by Greek colonists. Neapolis anticipated the strict orthogonal Hippodamian street grid plan. We argue that its geometry and geo...
Article
Full-text available
Severe weather events cause considerable disruptions to social and economic activities. Thus, high-precision meteorological products and services should be provided in order to forecast high-impacting weather conditions a few hours in advance such as those causing flash-floods. Today, this goal is mainly fulfilled by nowcasting. However, to fully c...
Article
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We study the yearly values of the length of day (LOD, 1623–2016) and its link to the zonal index (ZI, 1873–2003), the Northern Atlantic oscillation index (NAO, 1659–2000) and the global sea surface temperature (SST, 1850–2016). LOD is herein assumed to be mostly the result of the overall circulations occurring within the ocean-atmospheric system. W...
Article
Mazzarella and Scafetta (2016) showed that the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian station from 1999 to 2014 suggests a higher nocturnal seismic activity. However, this station is located at about 50 m from the main road to the volcano's crater and since 2009 its seismograms also record a significant diurnal cultural noise d...
Article
Full-text available
We characterize the meteo-climate data of the urban area of Naples to determine the areal and seasonal distribution of energy demand needed to heat or cool its buildings. Naples is a one million people city facing the Tyrrhenian Sea in Central Italy with a complex morphology made of hills and valleys, spanning in altitude from 0 to 400 m asl. We us...
Article
We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic par...
Article
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Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a physical process getting more and more hazardous for people living in a large city. It can be influenced by several factors such as geomorphological context, the presence of lakes, rivers or sea, the land use and urban features with special regard to the presence of extended green areas/infrastructures. The metropolitan...
Article
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During the partial (~50%) solar eclipse occurred on March 20, 2015, morning, various meteorological parameters were monitored to study their evolution above the urban area of Naples, central Italy. The experimental conditions were optimal because of the clear sky situation all over Italy, and in Naples in particular. The eclipse last about 2 hours...
Article
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was inadequate to measure the alluvial event occurred at Sarno on 5 May 1998, when a low rainfall amount of 101 mm was considered responsible for a dramatic landslide. To improve the measuring capability of this network, 50 new monitoring stations were later on added and located in such a way to increase significantly the fractal dimension of their...
Conference Paper
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An eddy covariance tower has been installed on the rooftop of the Meteorological Observatory of Largo San Marcellino A fast response ultrasonic anemometer (Gill WindMaster) located on a terrace, 35m height above the irregular street level, resulting in an overall measuring height of 45 m. Mixing ratios of CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O are measured by a fas...
Article
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Here we study the Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice area records provided by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). These records reveal an opposite climatic behavior: since 1978 the Arctic sea-ice area index decreased, that is, the region has warmed, while the Antarctic sea-ice area index increased, that is, the region has cooled. During the la...
Article
We compare the NOAA Significant Earthquake Historical database versus typical climatic indices and the length of the day (LOD). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) record is mainly adopted because most of the analyzed earthquakes occurred at the land boundaries of the Pacific Plate. The NOAA catalog contains information on destructive earthquakes...
Article
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By applying fractal geometry analysis to the drainage network of three large watercourses in America and Europe, we have calculated for the first time their fractal dimension. The aim is to interpret the geomorphologic characteristics to better understand the morphoevolutionary processes of these fluvial morphotypes; to identify and discriminate ge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
By applying fractal geometry analysis to the hydrographic pattern of three large watercourses in America and Europe, we have calculated for the first time their fractal dimension. The aim is to interpret their geomorphologic characteristics to better understand the morphoevolutionary processes of these fluvial morphotypes; to identify and discrimin...
Article
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The time-integrated yearly values of North Atlantic Oscillation (INAO) are found to be well correlated to the sea surface temperature. The results give the feasibility of using INAO as a good proxy for climate change and contribute to a more complete picture of the full range of variability inherent in the climate system. Moreover , the extrapolati...
Article
The El Ni\~no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the Earth's strongest climate fluctuation on inter-annual time-scales and has global impacts although originating in the tropical Pacific. Many point indices have been developed to describe ENSO but the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) is considered the most representative since it links six different meteo...
Article
The volcanic seismicity occurring in Campi Flegrei during the 1983–1984 volcanic crisis is quantitatively analyzed by means of fractal (scale invariant) geometry in all its five dimensional set (magnitude, time and space). The significant power laws, relating the number of earthquakes to magnitude, time and space, within a limited range of scales,...
Article
Full-text available
The El Niño phenomenon is the Earth’s strongest climatic fluctuation on an interannual timescale and has a quasi-global impact, although originating in the tropical Pacific Ocean. A very strong El Niño is recognized to cause extreme dryness and wetness in different parts of the world. We show that all the eight well-documented influenza pandemics,...
Article
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The equatorial-stratospheric wind that shows a Quasi Biennial Oscillation (22-32 months) has been revisited using a dual statistical detail regarding the search of the dominance harmonics. Data were used from the Freie Universitat of Berlin since 1953 for different heights combining the observations of the three radiosonde stations. The dominant pe...
Article
Full-text available
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) obtained using instrumental and documentary proxy predictors from Eurasia is found to be characterized by a quasi 60-year dominant oscillation since 1650. This pattern emerges clearly once the NAO record is time integrated to stress its comparison with the temperature record. The integrated NAO (INAO) is found t...
Article
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The Quasi Biennial Oscillation, the downward propagating easterly and westerly wind regimes in the equatorial stratosphere, has been investigated according to robust statistics that utilizes the amplitude/vector probable error ratio to provide the confidence level of the investigated harmonic. The amplitude-to-noise ratio is found to be the highest...
Article
The lunar semidiurnal term L2(p) has been investigated in detail on both a local and planetary basis and was found to be sensitive to the local diffusive character of the lowest layers of the atmosphere. Accordingly it is possible to explain the solar modulation of the M2 pressure tide represented by the lunisolar diurnal term L,1(p) and the season...
Article
Full-text available
Many point indices have been developed to describe El Niño/Southern Oscillation, but the multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (MEI) is considered the most representative since it links six different meteorological parameters measured over the tropical Pacific. Spectral analysis with appropriate data reduction techniques of monthly...
Article
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p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 9.0px Times;">Many point indices have been developed to describe the El Niño/Southern Oscillation but the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) is considered the most representative since it links different meteorological parameters measured over the tropical Pacific. The monthly values of the positive featur...
Article
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We are experiencing a period of intense anthropocentrism: humans flatter themselves they can govern the thermal machine of the ocean-atmosphere system and build models of atmospheric circulation (that solve hundreds of non-linear equations for each box of a three-dimensional grid covering the globe) to demonstrate that Earth's recent warming is att...
Article
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An exhaustive daily rainfall and extreme air temperature series (1883-2000) was reconstructed for Agnone, a small town in Molise (Central Italy). Long-term analysis identified an increasing trend of 1.3 ± 0.4°C per 100 years, statistically confident at the 95% level, only for minimum air temperature, and of a seasonal march, reasonably stationary a...
Article
Full-text available
Cross analysis of available historical series of solar wind turbulence, atmospheric circulation, Earth's rotation and sea surface temperature, when smoothed from the secular trend and periods shorter than 23 years, allowed a cascade climatological model to be set up that integrates the Sun-atmosphere-Earth system as a simple unit and ties solar cor...
Article
The 11-yr signal in the variation of length of day has been successfully identified and significantly linked to solar activity. A physical mechanism involving meteorological and oceanic variation is proposed.
Article
Full-text available
Spectral analysis of geomagnetic activity, global air temperature, Earth’s rotation rate and zonal circulation, when smoothed from secular trend and periods shorter than 23 years, shows a concentration of energy around the 60-year period explaining more than 80% of the entire variance. This information has enabled the set-up of a cascade physical m...
Article
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Two strong heat waves in the summer of 2003 determined elevated heat discomfort conditions all across the Western Europe. In this context, the analysis of hourly Heat Index values in the city of Naples (Southern Italy) showed prolonged heat discomfort conditions during the second half of June 2003 and from the second half of July 2003 up to the fir...
Article
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Two statistical methods, fractal geometry and geometric morphometrics, are tested for their applicability to ostracod sysmatic. For this comparison, two morphologically similar ostracod species (Krithe compressa and Krithe iniqua) whose genus-level systematics is still incompletely resolved, are selected. Twenty-nine right valves of each species we...
Article
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By applying fractal geometry to Italy's coastline, with its differing geology and geomorphology, we were able to calculate the fractal dimension both of the whole coast and of some coastal sectors as well as highlight the geomorphic processes strictly related to its evolution. We analysed six different coastal sectors, subdivided along regional tec...
Article
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Rank-ordering analysis is applied to the intertimes between seismic events recorded in the Apennine belt between 40–42 N and 14–16 E from the 15th century onwards. It shows a power law capable of governing the intertimes between 1529 and 368months and another power law which approximates a random simulation, for the intertimes shorter than 368month...
Article
Full-text available
An exhaustive daily rainfall and extreme air temperature series (1883-2000) was reconstructed for Agnone, a small town in Molise (Central Italy). Long-term analysis identified an increasing trend of 1.3 ± 0.4°C per 100 years, statistically confident at the 95% level, only for minimum air temperature, and of a seasonal march, reasonably stationary a...
Article
Full-text available
Application of fractal geometry on emerged and submerged coastlines of the Sorrento Peninsula (Tyrrhenian Sea) and of Porto Cesàreo (Ionian Sea), which have different geological and geomorphological features, has shed light on the morphological processes closely connected to their evolution. The results of the fractal dimension analysed along the S...
Article
The floods that have occurred in the upper valley of the Po river (northern Italy) were classified according to an index of strength on the basis of documentary sources available at the meteorological observatory of Moncalieri since 1780. The catalogue was ascertained to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate. Application of Ca...
Article
Volcanic events have been, up to now, traditionally predicted through deterministic or probabilistic linear methods. Here a new non-linear approach is carried out, based on artificial neural networks (ANN), a non-linear physical mathematical model to interconnect data emulating animal brain behaviour. Being an artificial intelligence system, this m...
Article
At Vesuvius, the intervals between final effusive eruptions since 1631 AD and those between successive plinian eruptions since 25 000 yr BP follow the same power law, when separately ranked in decreasing order. So, shifts from small to large scales are possible and this might be very helpful for the assessment of hazards of future strong volcanic a...
Article
The up–down motion at Campi Flegrei may be due to the internal dynamics of the system and does not necessarily require a push, such as a new input of magma, from outside. The different eruptive phases which have occurred at Campi Flegrei might be related to deterministic chaotic magma flows, similar to those studied in simple experimental systems a...
Article
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In past and recent years, the town of Sarno, Southern Italy, about 17 km E from the Vesuvio volcano, has been devastated by alluvial events with abrupt slippings of the volcanoclastic mantle covering the surrounding mountains. The succession of these calamities has been accurately reconstructed since 1794 on the basis of old documents and tentative...
Article
The Vesuvius volcano is a complex system that shows fractal and turbulent behaviours on short time-scales. To capture the intrinsic non-linear dynamic processes of the volcano on longer time-scales, a hybrid system consisting of an Artificial Neural Network and an Evolutionary Algorithm was applied to the well-documented eruptive activity occurring...
Article
The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the...
Article
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In the early hours of September 15, 2001 the city of Naples and some of the sur- rounding towns were hit by a violent storm (max value 167 mm) which lasted about 3 hours. It was clustered in two very intense showers (with a mean intensity higher than 50 mm/h) that occurred between 01:40 and 02:30 and 03:20 and 04:00 UTC. More than 350 million Euro...
Article
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In the first hours of the morning on September 15th 2001, a squall line and a subsequent NW cold front caused sequentially a rainfall on Naples and Pozzuoli of about 150 mm. This extreme event was clustered in two very intense showers (with a mean intensity larger than 50 mm/h) occurred between 01:40 and 02:30 and 03:20 and 04:00 UTC. The compariso...
Article
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The 4–5 May 1998 rainfall over the hills of Sarno has induced a large landslide phenomenon responsible for 150 victims and for considerable damage to buildings. It involved the inhabited areas of the towns of Sarno, Quindici, Siano, Bracigliano and S. Felice a Cancello, located on the northern, western and southern slopes of Pizzo d’Alvano, respect...
Article
 The catalogue of eruptions occurring at Vesuvio during the period 1631–1944 is shown to be complete for the range Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) between 1.5 and 4.0. The time clustering of eruptive events, as indicated by the catalogue, shows a fractal dimension and a scaling region largely dependent on VEI. This might reflect the turbulence of...
Article
The digitized lava-flow margins of well-defined extended eruptions occurring at Vesuvio in 1760, 1794, 1861, 1906, 1929 and 1944 are found to follow fractal behaviours inside a scaling region enclosed between 50 and 400m. Although the invariance region is well respected, the fractal dimension D varies from one lava flow to another: the more irregul...
Article
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The locations of measuring stations are often inhomogeneously distributed in space, possibly because of both geophysical interests and access problems. The areal inhomogeneity of a network can be well characterised by its fractal dimension, that is an index ranging progressively from 0 (when all stations are distributed on a single point or on isol...
Article
 Historical daily rainfall events, measured at different Italian stations, are found to follow fractal relationships within specific time ranges. It is found that the fractal dimension D describes the strength of the clustering of daily rainfall events in a more realistic way than the commonly used number of daily rainfall events: the more isolated...
Article
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Riassunto: La distribuzione areale delle stazioni di misura nelle reti di rilevamento è sempre disomogenea perchè l'ubicazione delle stazioni segue prevalentemente motivi di interesse fisico e logistico. È qui dimostrato che la dimensione frattale è un ottimo indicatore della distribuzione areale di una rete potendo assumere valori compresi tra 0,...
Article
The underlying complex physical processes associated with the generation of sea-surges in Venice and in Trieste, located in the Northern Adriatic Sea, are found to be sufficiently scale invariant in respect of their magnitude-time patterns. This provides a rational basis (i) for the computation of the relative sea-surge risk normally underestimated...
Article
The catalogue of sea-floodings in Venice, accurately reconstructed for a period of 12 centuries (interval: 872–1996) has been analysed according to the Cantor Dust method. This provides a means of testing whether clustering in time is a scale-invariant process: if the fraction R of the intervals of length t containing flooding events is related to...
Article
Summary The high-speed particle flux (solar wind) escaping from the Sun controls the geomagnetic activity at middle latitudes. The latter is found to be negatively correlated to the difference of atmospheric pressure between January and April averaged out in the area of the Northern Adriatic. This difference is again related to the water volume flo...
Article
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High-quality shallow, intermediate and deep shocks from the Southern Tyrrhenian area (interval: 1985-1995) are analysed to draw inferences on the complex shape of the underlying Benioff zone. The hypothesis of an active NW-oriented subduction of the lithosphere, generated and stressed by the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin, is confirmed. The fracta...
Article
The catalogue of volcanic earthquakes recorded at Vesuvio (1972–1993) is shown to be complete for events with magnitude enclosed between 1.8 and 3.0. Such a result is converted in significant fractal laws (power laws) relating the distribution of earthquakes to the distribution of energy release, seismic moment, size of fractured zone and linear di...
Article
A highly significant lunar nodal tidal term has been obtained in climatic (atmospheric pressure, rainfall, evaporation, river discharge, air temperature) and oceanic (sea surface temperature, mean sea level) data from the Western Mediterranean area. Analysis of the waveforms for the examined parameters shows a sudden switch of phase at the turn of...
Article
Selected records from hundreds of raingauges located along the river basins of the largest Italian rivers, throughout the whole of Italy, show a fairly similar interannual variability. Analysis of the historical time series of these data determined very significant 11-yr, 22-yr and 44-yr variabilities that are possibly linked to coherent fluctuatio...
Article
Traditional storm-surge risk analysis assumes sea level data to be identically distributed throughout the year and interannually independent. This may be due to the fact that until now little attention has been given to sea level variations owing to their small amplitudes. But, sea level maxima show seasonal, biennal, 11-yr and secular signals whic...
Article
The altitudes of the Sun and Moon have been calculated for the 541 great earthquakes (those with magnitude ⩾ 7.5) that occurred between 1897 and 1985. There is a tendency for more earthquakes to occur when the Sun or Moon is at an altitude of 30–50° above the horizon than would be expected by chance. Though neither the lunar nor the solar result is...
Article
Summary The analysis of total ozone series recorded at high Northern latitude stations has shown a significant correlation with the 11-y solar cycle. The results have ascribed to solar activity a large portion of ozone depletion recently observed in high latitudes. Climatic and oceanic consequences are also discussed.
Article
An 11-yr modulation of worldwide large volcanic and seismic activity has been successfully identified and significantly linked to sunspot activity, using cross-spectral analysis.
Article
The opposite effect of the total ozone on daily maximum and minimum air temperatures is one of the reasons for the failure of the correlation between solar activity and surface air temperature by means of mean daily values. The solar-related fluctuations in the atmospheric total ozone are found to be responsible for the observed correlations betwee...
Article
The mean sea level observed in the Mediterranean area has been analysed on different time scales in order to infer probable scenarios on the future evolution of sea level changes determined by anthropogenic and/or natural causes. -Authors
Article
The surface air temperature recorded at Vesuvian Observatory has evidenced a significant 11y cycle related to total ozone variation, which in turn has been coherently linked to sunspot activity. Such a correlation has not been found in the series of Naples (few km apart), where it is masked by the large long-period variations related to the growth...
Article
An 11-y modulation of large Italian earthquakes has been successfully identified and found to be positively linked to sunspot activity. The seismic activity appears to be modulated by the 11-y sunspot cycle through the coherent variation of geomagnetic activity. It is proposed that the two phenomena are linked by the influence of a magnetostriction...
Article
The analysis of selected long tide-gauge records located along the Mediterranean coastlines has allowed the determination of the interannual variability of mean sea level in the Mediterranean area over the last hundred years. The spectral analysis of Mediterranean global sea level and surface air temperature curves has provided statistically signif...
Article
Statistical significant determinations of the 11 y wave in historical surface air temperature series have been obtained. This weak solar-induced signal has been successfully related to total ozone fluctuations. L'analisi delle serie storiche della temperatura superficiale dell'aria ha permesso di calcolare significativamente la variazione undecenna...
Article
Summary The seasonal cycle of rainfall, evaporation and local effect of Atlantic water inflow explains the annual variation of mean sea-level and of surface salinity.
Article
The joint variation of monthly mean sea level, rainfall, and evaporation recorded in Naples and in other western Mediterranean stations is analyzed. The mass balance among sea level, rainfall, and evaporation and the application of the Wiener filter methods show that the major portion of sea level variance concentrated at annual and semiannual comp...
Article
Daily minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in Naples (1872–1982) and in surrounding areas have been analysed in order to set up a statistical model for investigating climatic changes of extreme air temperature. We have analysed on various time-scales the mean values of minimum air temperature lower than the 10th percentile (Tmin10) and the...
Article
Dialy mean sea level time series recorded in Naples (1959-1976) and the joint variation of sea level, atmospheric pressure, and wind together with the values of water density and marine currents are analyzed. The daily mean sea level series adjusted according to the hydrostatic hypothesis shows a pronounced seasonal cycle, principally explained by...
Article
Future legislation in developed countries may require short-range forecasting of pollutant ground level concentration. All available models describe concentration as a function of meteorological inputs. Extensive data from Naples of such inputs have been analysed and found to show highly significant diurnal cycles. The dominance of diurnal variatio...
Article
Full-text available
eIn order to collect further information about recent microclimatic changes in urban areas, an analysis of the secular variations of rainfall intensity has been worked out. A significant increase in rainfall due to urbanization process has been ascertained in the last years. A detailed investigation was performed by studying the records of rainfall...
Article
The lunar semidiurnal term L2(p) has been investigated in detail on both a local and planetary basis and was found to be sensitive to the local diffusive character of the lowest layers of the atmosphere. Accordingly it is possible to explain the solar modulation of the M2 pressure tide represented by the lunisolar diurnal term L,(p) and the seasona...
Article
The determination of lunar tides obtained by combination of a filtering process and the fixed lunar age technique is proposed. It is shown that such a method allows a reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio without altering the amplitude and the phase angle of the signal. It consequently allows the significant determination of the lunar semidiurnal...

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The occurrence of intense and alluvial phenomena in autumn and winter over the Mediterranean area depends on meteorological systems which, together with convective systems and orographic rainfall, can be intensified by a big contribution of heat at the surface and, often, determine sudden alluvial events on the coast and the mountains exposed to the winds of sea.