Adriano Barra

Adriano Barra
Università del Salento | Unisalento · Department of Mathematics and Physics "Ennio De Giorgi"

Professor

About

144
Publications
15,321
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,454
Citations
Introduction
I am currently working mainly in: -statistical mechanics for machine (deep) learning -extensive parallel processing & sleeping phenomena in neural networks -information processing in reaction kinetics
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - June 2013
Sapienza University of Rome
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Classic Physics 1 (Mechanics & Thermodynamics)
October 2012 - January 2013
Sapienza University of Rome
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Classic Physics 2 (Electromagnetic field)
March 2011 - June 2011
Sapienza University of Rome
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Classic Physics 1 (Mechanics & Thermodynamics)
Education
January 2005 - December 2007
King's College London
Field of study
  • Applied Mathematics
September 1998 - July 2004
Sapienza University of Rome
Field of study
  • Theoretical Physics

Publications

Publications (144)
Preprint
Full-text available
As well known, Hebb's learning traces its origin in Pavlov's Classical Conditioning, however, while the former has been extensively modelled in the past decades (e.g., by Hopfield model and countless variations on theme), as for the latter modelling has remained largely unaddressed so far; further, a bridge between these two pillars is totally lack...
Article
Inspired by a formal equivalence between the Hopfield model and restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), we design a Boltzmann machine, referred to as the dreaming Boltzmann machine (DBM), which achieves better performances than the standard one. The novelty in our model lies in a precise prescription for intralayer connections among hidden neurons wh...
Preprint
Full-text available
The homeostatic control of their environment is an essential task of living cells. It has been hypothesized that when microenvironmental pH inhomo-geneities are induced by high cellular metabolic activity, diffusing protons act as signaling molecules, driving the establishment of cross-feeding networks sustained by the cell-to-cell shuttling of ove...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The work focuses on high-performing optical ratiometric pH sensors based on fluorescent spherical microparticles. Using a fully and rapid automated computational approach, the organelle acidification dynamics of living tumor cells are precisely and noninvasively measured by tracking the position of the sensors and quantifying their response to the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The gap between the huge volumes of data needed to train artificial neural networks and the relatively small amount of data needed by their biological counterparts is a central puzzle in machine learning. Here, inspired by biological information-processing, we introduce a generalized Hopfield network where pairwise couplings between neurons are bui...
Article
Full-text available
pH balance and regulation within organelles are fundamental to cell homeostasis and proliferation. The ability to track pH in cells becomes significantly important to understand these processes in detail. Fluorescent sensors based on micro- and nanoparticles have been applied to measure intracellular pH; however, an accurate methodology to precisel...
Article
Full-text available
We consider restricted Boltzmann machine (RBMs) trained over an unstructured dataset made of blurred copies of definite but unavailable “archetypes” and we show that there exists a critical sample size beyond which the RBM can learn archetypes, namely the machine can successfully play as a generative model or as a classifier, according to the opera...
Preprint
Full-text available
In neural network's Literature, {\em Hebbian learning} traditionally refers to the procedure by which the Hopfield model and its generalizations {\em store} archetypes (i.e., definite patterns that are experienced just once to form the synaptic matrix). However, the term {\em learning} in Machine Learning refers to the ability of the machine to ext...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the glassy nature of neural networks is pivotal both for theoretical and computational advances in Machine Learning and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. Keeping the focus on dense associative Hebbian neural networks, the purpose of this paper is two-fold: at first we develop rigorous mathematical approaches to address properly a s...
Preprint
Full-text available
We consider restricted Boltzmann machine (RBMs) trained over an unstructured dataset made of blurred copies of definite but unavailable ``archetypes'' and we show that there exists a critical sample size beyond which the RBM can learn archetypes, namely the machine can successfully play as a generative model or as a classifier, according to the ope...
Article
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) with a binary visible layer of size N and a Gaussian hidden layer of size P have been proved to be equivalent to a Hopfield neural network (HNN) made of N binary neurons and storing P patterns ξ, as long as the weights w in the former are identified with the patterns. Here we aim to leverage this equivalence to...
Preprint
Organ-on-a-chip (OoCs) platforms could revolutionize drug discovery and might ultimately become essential tools for precision therapy. Although many single-organ and interconnected systems have been described, the immune system has been comparatively neglected, despite its pervasive role in the body and the trend towards newer therapeutic products...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we apply statistical mechanics tools to infer cardiac pathologies over a sample of M patients whose heart rate variability has been recorded via 24 h Holter device and that are divided in different classes according to their clinical status (providing a repository of labelled data). Considering the set of inter-beat interval sequences...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we study the properties of the quenched pressure of a multi-layer spin-glass model (a deep Boltzmann Machine in artificial intelligence jargon) whose pairwise interactions are allowed between spins lying in adjacent layers and not inside the same layer nor among layers at distance larger than one. We prove a theorem that bounds the qu...
Conference Paper
While 3D cell cultures have been used as suitable representatives of in vivo conditions compared to 2D systems, scalability and flexibility in designing such platforms has been a major challenge¹. Micron-sized 3D culture platforms offer the possibility of high throughput analysis, however major challenges exist with respect to their overall design....
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we develop statistical algorithms to infer possible cardiac pathologies, based on data collected from 24 h Holter recording over a sample of 2829 labelled patients; labels highlight whether a patient is suffering from cardiac pathologies. In the first part of the work we analyze statistically the heart-beat series associated to each p...
Conference Paper
Background: In cancer research, studying cell motility is fundamental to investigate cancer invasion and drug resistance. In solid tumors constituted by a huge stroma component, such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the ability to quantify cell movement and interactions is mandatory to better understand the complex crosstalk between canc...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we adapt the broken replica interpolation technique (developed by Francesco Guerra to deal with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, namely a pairwise mean-field spin-glass whose couplings are i.i.d. standard Gaussian variables) in order to work also with the Hopfield model (i.e., a pairwise mean-field neural-network whose couplings are...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we develop analytical techniques to investigate a broad class of associative neural networks set in the high-storage regime. These techniques translate the original statistical–mechanical problem into an analytical-mechanical one which implies solving a set of partial differential equations, rather than tackling the canonical probabili...
Article
Full-text available
Migration of cells can be characterized by two prototypical types of motion: individual and collective migration. We propose a statistical inference approach designed to detect the presence of cell-cell interactions that give rise to collective behaviors in cell motility experiments. This inference method has been first successfully tested on synth...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we study the properties of the quenched pressure of a multi-layer spin-glass model (a deep Boltzmann Machine in artificial intelligence jargon) whose pairwise interactions are allowed between spins lying in adjacent layers and not inside the same layer nor among layers at distance larger than one. We prove a theorem that bounds the qu...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a three-layer Sejnowski machine and show that features learnt via contrastive divergence have a dual representation as patterns in a dense associative memory of order P=4. The latter is known to be able to Hebbian store an amount of patterns scaling as N^(P−1), where N denotes the number of constituting binary neurons interacting P wise...
Preprint
Migration of cells can be characterized by two, prototypical types of motion: individual and collective migration. We propose a statistical-inference approach designed to detect the presence of cell-cell interactions that give rise to collective behaviors in cell-motility experiments. Such inference method has been first successfully tested on synt...
Preprint
Full-text available
We consider a three-layer Sejnowski machine and show that features learnt via contrastive divergence have a dual representation as patterns in a dense associative memory of order P=4. The latter is known to be able to Hebbian-store an amount of patterns scaling as N^{P-1}, where N denotes the number of constituting binary neurons interacting P-wise...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we develop analytical techniques to address, in the high-storage regime, phase diagrams for a broad class of neural networks (whose cost functions may include various, polynomial, contributions both in the neurons and the patterns, hence {\em dense}). The techniques translate the original statistical-mechanical problem into a pure anal...
Article
Full-text available
The standard Hopfield model for associative neural networks accounts for biological Hebbian learning and acts as the harmonic oscillator for pattern recognition, however its maximal storage capacity is α∼0.14, far from the theoretical bound for symmetric networks, i.e. α=1. Inspired by sleeping and dreaming mechanisms in mammal brains, we propose a...
Article
Full-text available
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) constitute one of the main models for machine statistical inference and they are widely employed in artificial intelligence as powerful tools for (deep) learning. However, in contrast with countless remarkable practical successes, their mathematical formalization has been largely elusive: from a statistical-mech...
Article
The relativistic Hopfield model constitutes a generalization of the standard Hopfield model that is derived by the formal analogy between the statistical-mechanic framework embedding neural networks and the Lagrangian mechanics describing a fictitious single-particle motion in the space of the tuneable parameters of the network itself. In this anal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently a daily routine for associative neural networks has been proposed: the network Hebbian-learns during the awake state (thus behaving as a standard Hopfield model), then, during its sleep state, optimizing information storage, it consolidates pure patterns and removes spurious ones: this forces the synaptic matrix to collapse to the projecto...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we consider the {\em analog bipartite spin-glass} (or {\em real-valued restricted Boltzmann machine} in a neural network jargon), whose variables (those quenched as well as those dynamical) share standard Gaussian distributions. First, via Guerra's interpolation technique, we express its quenched free energy in terms of the natural ord...
Preprint
Full-text available
The standard Hopfield model for associative neural networks accounts for biological Hebbian learning and acts as the harmonic oscillator for pattern recognition, however its maximal storage capacity is $\alpha \sim 0.14$, far from the theoretical bound for symmetric networks, i.e. $\alpha =1$. Inspired by sleeping and dreaming mechanisms in mammal...
Preprint
Full-text available
The relativistic Hopfield model constitutes a generalization of the standard Hopfield model that is derived by the formal analogy between the statistical-mechanic framework embedding neural networks and the Lagrangian mechanics describing a fictitious single-particle motion in the space of the tuneable parameters of the network itself. In this anal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) constitute one of the main models for machine statistical inference and they are widely employed in Artificial Intelligence as powerful tools for (deep) learning. However, in contrast with countless remarkable practical successes, their mathematical formalization has been largely elusive: from a statistical-mech...
Article
Full-text available
Organ-on-a-chip (OoCs) platforms could revolutionize drug discovery and might ultimately become essential tools for precision therapy. Although many single-organ and interconnected systems have been described, the immune system has been comparatively neglected, despite its pervasive role in the body and the trend towards newer therapeutic products...
Article
We propose a modification of the cost function of the Hopfield model whose salient features shine in its Taylor expansion and result in more than pairwise interactions with alternate signs, suggesting a unified framework for handling both with deep learning and network pruning. In our analysis, we heavily rely on the Hamilton-Jacobi correspondence...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years Italy has been involved in massive migration flows and, consequently, migrant integration is becoming a urgent political, economic and social issue. In this paper we apply quantitative methods, based on probability theory and statistical mechanics, to study the relative integration of migrants in Italy. In particular, we focus on th...
Article
Full-text available
Complex biochemical pathways or regulatory enzyme kinetics can be reduced to chains of elementary reactions, which can be described in terms of chemical kinetics. This discipline provides a set of tools for quantifying and understanding the dialogue between reactants, whose framing into a solid and consistent mathematical description is of pivotal...
Article
Full-text available
We study the phase diagram of a minority game where three classes of agents are present. Two types of agents play a risk-loving game that we model by the standard Snowdrift Game. The behaviour of the third type of agents is coded by {\em indifference} w.r.t. the game at all: their dynamics is designed to account for risk-aversion as an innovative b...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a modification of the cost function of the Hopfield model whose salient features shine in its Taylor expansion and result in more than pairwise interactions with alternate signs, suggesting a unified framework for handling both with deep learning and network pruning. In our analysis, we heavily rely on the Hamilton-Jacobi correspondence...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss the applicability of numerical descriptors and statistical physics concepts to characterize complex biological systems observed at microscopic level through organ on chip approach. To this end, we employ data collected on a microfluidic platform in which leukocytes can move through suitably built channels toward their targe...
Article
Full-text available
Restricted Boltzmann Machines are key tools in Machine Learning and are described by the energy function of bipartite spin-glasses. From a statistical mechanical perspective, they share the same Gibbs measure of Hopfield networks for associative memory. In this equivalence, weights in the former play as patterns in the latter. As Boltzmann machines...
Article
Full-text available
Restricted Boltzmann Machines are described by the Gibbs measure of a bipartite spin glass, which in turn corresponds to the one of a generalised Hopfield network. This equivalence allows us to characterise the state of these systems in terms of retrieval capabilities, at both low and high load. We study the paramagnetic-spin glass and the spin gla...
Article
Full-text available
We study generalised restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors for units and weights, interpolating between Boolean and Gaussian variables. We present a complete analysis of the replica symmetric phase diagram of these models, which can be regarded as generalised Hopfield models. We show the way the paramagnetic phase boundary is directly r...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between natives and foreign-born individuals may help to stimulate the development and the diversification of bilateral trade relationships. In fact, migrants act as trade facilitators reducing transaction costs in export activities and, consequently, more local firms are able to establish new trade relationships abroad. The pro-trade...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-)cooperative collective behaviors} in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cyb...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we apply techniques and modus operandi typical of Statistical Mechanics to a large dataset about key social quantifiers and compare the resulting behaviors of five European nations, namely France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. The social quantifiers considered are i. the evolution of the number of autochthonous marriages (i.e....
Article
Full-text available
Hierarchical networks are attracting a renewal interest for modelling the organization of a number of biological systems and for tackling the complexity of statistical mechanical models beyond mean-field limitations. Here we consider the Dyson hierarchical construction for ferromagnets, neural networks and spin-glasses, recently analyzed from a sta...
Article
Full-text available
Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), p...
Article
Full-text available
We consider extensive data on Spanish international trades and population composition and, through statistical-mechanics and graph-theory driven analysis, we unveil that the social network made of native and foreign-born individuals plays a role in the evolution and in the diversification of trades. Indeed, migrants naturally provide key informatio...
Article
Full-text available
Since its unification, more than a century ago, Italy has experienced strong social and economical diversities between its southern and northern regions. In the last decades, Italy has undergone a severe economical and political crisis reflecting corruption at various levels of social stratification as well as a poor involvement of its population i...
Article
Full-text available
We consider statistical-mechanics models for spin systems built on hierarchical structures, which provide a simple example of non-mean-field framework. We show that the coupling decay with spin distance can give rise to peculiar features and phase diagrams much richer than their mean-field counterpart. In particular, we consider the Dyson model, mi...
Article
Full-text available
Inspired by the theory of nonlinear conservation laws, we propose a novel approach, in the framework of statistical mechanics, that naturally extends the van der Waals model to the critical region. Starting from an effective microscopic description, we derive the general functional form of its mean field partition function under the assumption name...