Adrian Wallwork

Adrian Wallwork
English for Academics, Pisa, Italy

About

333
Publications
25,451
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
203
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
161 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230102030
20172018201920202021202220230102030
20172018201920202021202220230102030
20172018201920202021202220230102030

Publications

Publications (333)
Chapter
She let us to leave early.
Chapter
To write well, your students need to know exactly how people read.
Chapter
There are few occasions in our lives where we get immediate feedback on something that we have just done. Students can feel very embarrassed and exposed when giving a presentation. It is absolutely imperative that you give everyone positive feedback and that everyone has the feeling that - sooner or later - they will be able to give a reasonable pr...
Chapter
You and your students will find your course much more rewarding if you don't continually focus on the academic world. Students spend most of their day buried in their research, so doing a language course is an opportunity to break away from this for a while. This chapter and the previous chapter are designed to show you ways to teach what you need...
Chapter
\( \boxed{\mathrm{Thepartinthebox}} \) = what you need to read in preparation for the lesson. You can then select from the various exercises suggested.
Chapter
A PhD student is someone who has already done one or more bachelor or Master's degrees.
Chapter
The table below shows how the same topic may be covered across three books in the English for Academia series. The rest of this chapter is designed to show you how to exploit this cross coverage.
Chapter
According to Sally Koutsoliotas of Bucknell University and David W. Farmer of the American Institute of Mathematics there are three typical misconceptions that students (in their case native English speaking students) have:
Chapter
The use of TED is discussed in Chapter 2 of English for Presentations. So your best introduction to TED is to read that chapter.
Chapter
A US expert on presentations in the 1980s wrote an incredibly non-PC observation on the talents of non-native speakers:
Chapter
I am a firm believer that your job as an EAP teacher - and the same is true of Business English or any specialist area - is not only to teach English but to give your students strategies to enable them to do their work better (irrespective of whether a task is language related or not).
Chapter
This section provides some notes on a few exercises in the What's the Buzz? sections of the various books.
Chapter
In terms of this book, academic English means any English used in formal texts and presentations by students, researchers and teaching staff of any discipline. For me, scientific English is a subset of academic English, and is the English used by those studying scientific subjects (e.g. chemistry, biology, engineering, mathematics) rather than huma...
Chapter
Don't fall into the trap of trying to teach your students everything. I still cringe when I look back at the first scientific English course I held. I gave ten 2-hour lectures in which I gave the audience rules for just about everything they might need in order to write a paper, with very little interaction with the participants. The result was tha...
Chapter
Students learn better from analyzing what they themselves have produced, rather than what some publisher presents them in a textbook.
Chapter
\( \boxed{\mathrm{Thepartinthebox}} \) = what you need to read in preparation for the lesson
Chapter
Google Translate (GT) seems to have a bad reputation.
Chapter
In my Scientific English courses I always tell my PhD students to write short sentences. After the lesson, I often receive emails from my students containing examples of very long sentences written by American and British researchers. This usage of long sentences is confirmed by a survey of biomedical literature which showed that native English spe...
Chapter
To give you an idea of the kind of progress students can and should be making over the duration of a course, below are the second, third and fourth slides from one of my PhD students who is studying technology transfer.
Chapter
Academic/Scientific English courses do not follow the same standardized approach as, for example, an exam course within a general English course. The objective of an exam is the same for everyone - to pass it - and all the coursebooks involved cover pretty much the same ground and path.
Chapter
This chapter is designed to help you make decisions with when to use a visual aid, and what type of aid is most appropriate for your purpose. The key to whether an image, photo, figure, chart etc is necessary for a presentation is whether it will add value for the audience relate to what you are saying look good
Chapter
This chapter is designed to make native English speaking readers of this book more aware of the difficulties that their non-native counterparts have at international conferences. It focuses on how native speakers should deliver presentations and conduct workshops with non-native audiences. Sections 19.2-19.6 describe what it's like to be a non-nati...
Chapter
You may find social events much more difficult to manage than work/technical-related events. When you are talking about your research, you will generally have more command over the vocabulary that you need in order to conduct a discussion. However, even in a social situation, you can shift the conversation to topics where you have greater command o...
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to plan for participation in lectures, meetings, seminars etc use your English in the most effective way possible, even if your level is not high or when you are in group of native speakers use appropriate phrases not just for relations with fellow students, but that will also serve you well at workshops at confer...
Chapter
This chapter is simply designed to be fun. It outlines many of the typical abbreviations used when writing very informal emails and text messages and when chatting. Most of this chapter originally appeared in Email and Commercial Correspondence, which is part of the Springer series: A Guide to Professional English.
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to show interest in your interlocutor make small talk and have informal discussions improve your listening skills by taking a more active part in conversations and by perceiving listening as a productive rather than passive activity involving everyone in the conversation directing the conversation to areas where y...
Chapter
This chapter outlines various ways to have good relationship with professors by: addressing them face to face an appropriate manner understanding differences between professors in various cultures knowing what questions to ask them when you first meet them being aware what professors like and do not like in students making the most effective use of...
Chapter
This chapter lists some useful phrases to be used in presentations, posters and while socializing and networking.
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to decide whether and when to phone your professor make formal phone calls plan in order to make the call more effective react when you don’t understand your interlocutor conclude the call
Chapter
This chapter analyses the benefits for you of presenting at a conference. It also identifies some of the basic differences between a good and bad presentation. The What's the buzz? also contains three key (and perhaps controversial) points to think about: (i) not being obsessed about the level of your English; (ii) preparing two versions of your pr...
Chapter
Although the logic of your presentation is clear to you, it won’t necessarily be clear to your audience. Having an agenda slide and using the right transition phrases will help to guide your listeners. In this chapter you will learn how to move from your first slide into the main part of the presentation introduce each new section and thus highligh...
Chapter
This chapter is designed to provide you with useful phrases for many of the verbal and email interactions you will have on campus with academic staff and fellow students. Most of the phrases are either neutral or slightly formal - this means that you can use them with practically everyone. This chapter does not cover slang expressions or phrases th...
Chapter
How you introduce yourself and how the audience react to your introduction determine at least 30% of the success of your presentation. Audiences form their impressions of a presenter within approximately 90 seconds, after which it is difficult to change their opinion. This chapter outlines how to gain an audience's attention and how to connect with...
Chapter
Handling your nerves generally comes with practice—the more presentations you do the less nervous you will become. This chapter addresses how to: deal with your anxiety evaluate the quality of your presentation and the quality of your delivery rehearse and practise
Chapter
This chapter covers: what it is like to live in another country some of the cultural problems many students encounter how host students might interact with foreign students how important it is to try and let go of your own stereotypical views
Chapter
This chapter is designed to help you to: explain your results using graphs show how your results fit in with the wider context be open about your results and their difficulty of interpretation be honest about apparently 'negative' results encourage the audience to collaborate with you
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn the type of questions you can ask during a lecture how many native speakers have difficulty understanding each other how to recognize key words in English, which tend to be enunciated more clearly, with greater stress and louder volume. By focusing on these key words rather than trying to understand each individual wo...
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn that your listening skills will improve dramatically if you improve your pronunciation even though English pronunciation seems quite random, there are a few basic rules
Chapter
This chapter highlights that you are probably not equipped to judge the merits and defects of your own presentations and of how your deliver them. This chapter suggests what to look out for while you are rehearsing. It then proposes ways to get others to assess your performance, plus means to self-evaluate.
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to interrupt your interlocutor and ask for clarification without losing face identify for the interlocutor exactly what part of their sentence you did not understand find a way to help your native-English-speaking interlocutor be sensitive to the fact communication is a two-way process, in which both parties are r...
Chapter
This chapter outlines how to: attract and retain your audience’s attention throughout your presentation understand when audience attention is at its highest and lowest maintain eye contact with the audience present statistics that are personally relevant to the audience
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn that: you need to be realistic when setting yourself listening tasks watching movies is more frustrating and less productive than watching most other types of TV programs how much you will understand will depend on the type of TV series you watch there are endless resources on the web to help you improve your listenin...
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to write your speech and that by doing so you can: email your speech to an English-speaking colleague to revise or you can even submit it to a professional service show your speech to a colleague. This is a quick way to see if your presentation is clear and interesting. insert your speech into the space for notes...
Chapter
Explaining the methods is the part of the presentation is where the audience is most likely to get lost, so clear explanations are fundamental. Bear in mind that your audience will only absorb about 20% of the information you give them. In this chapter will learn how to: explain a process / methodology bring diagrams and figures alive for the audie...
Chapter
This chapter deals with how to establish a relationship with other students. It covers how to introduce yourself and break the ice typical areas of conversation and areas to avoid establishing a sense of solidarity with other students being curious about where people come from understanding what is and is not acceptable to talk about
Chapter
This chapter will help you how to assess whether or not to use automatic software to translate documents and emails. The last section refers to two wonderful online resources which you can use for translating words and phrases (and thus for checking your English): Reverso and Linguee.
Chapter
This chapter addresses some fundamental issues related to correspondence with professors via email: how to address a prof in an email how to choose the most appropriate subject line whether to write friendly emails to your prof how to make requests, ask favors, and send reminders thanking and apologizing
Chapter
This chapter discusses the benefits of TED by analysing some typical TED presentations. It also provides checklists to enable you to assess the slides and presentation styles of various presenters (not just TED, but your colleagues too, and of course yourself).
Chapter
This chapter discusses what to write on your slides. Audiences will potentially see thousands of bullets during a conference. An audience will be more attentive if they believe you have made a special effort for them to make your talk not just useful, but also interesting and entertaining: limiting the amount of text and number of bullets is a sign...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the purpose (and opportunities) of a poster, the content, and your role in explaining your poster. Design issues are crucial but are outside the scope of this book.
Chapter
This chapter is designed to help you improve your pronunciation and intonation. It will teach you a few tricks for dealing with the difficulties you may have.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on typical ways that Anglos introduce themselves and set up meetings. You will learn how to: introduce yourself face to face in a variety of situations walk up to a complete stranger and ask to arrange a meeting set up and conduct informal meetings with key people ensure the best possible outcome of the meeting follow up on the...
Chapter
This chapter contains a mini grammar on a very selected number of grammar and vocabulary items.
Chapter
This chapter provides rules for deciding where to put various types of words within a sentence.
Chapter
Plagiarism in its simplest terms means cutting and pasting from other studies and papers. It also means taking credit for work that others have done. If a referee thinks you may have plagiarized other people’s work or your own, then there is a very high probability that he or she will recommend rejecting your paper. This chapter is designed to help...
Chapter
Referees are famous for asking for revisions before accepting a paper. These revisions often involve what you might consider as trivial details, such as typos and spelling mistakes. Such delays cost you time and money and may also mean that another paper on the same topic gets published before yours. This chapter covers what you should look for whe...
Chapter
In various sections of your paper, you need to compare your methodology or results with what has already been established in the literature. You must make it 100% clear to the reader whose methodology or results you are talking about. If you don’t, you will make it difficult for the referee to: identify your contribution decide how useful the contr...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on ambiguity, i.e. where a word or phrase has more than one possible interpretation. The first seven subsections in this chapter give some general ideas on how to avoid ambiguity. The other subsections highlight particular grammar and vocabulary misusages that can lead to ambiguity. If you read nothing else in this chapter, ens...
Chapter
Every word in your title is important. This chapter will help you create a title that: will immediately make sense to the referee will easily be found by a search engine or indexing system will attract the right kind of readers is not a string of nouns and will be immediately comprehensible to anyone in your general field has a definite and concise...
Chapter
This chapter covers how to structure a paragraph by linking sentences together in the most logical order possible. It also suggests ways to break up long paragraph. You will learn that good writing means always thinking about a reader-perspective: how can I make it easier for the read to follow what I am saying and clearly understand the benefits o...
Chapter
This chapter analyses the benefits for you of publishing your research, and suggests various approaches for choosing the right journal and understanding what the editor expects from a paper in terms of content, style and structure deciding the order in which to write the various sections (Introduction, Method.6s, etc) keeping the referees happy
Chapter
This chapter shows you how to: decide what literature to mention structure your review differentiate your work from the literature highlight the level of innovation in your work along with its limitations
Chapter
This chapter highlights the importance to the scientific community of discussing the possible 3 limitations in your research and explains how to present your negative results.
Chapter
The underlying message of this chapter is: Don’t think that using complex terms will make you sound more intelligent. Write using the simplest most direct terminology. Cut everything that is not essential – this will let your key ideas stand out (be seen) more easily. The chapter begins by giving you good reasons to avoid redundancy, and then shows...
Chapter
You will learn from this chapter that you should: first to decide what results are representative, and then to organize them in a sequence that highlights the answers to the aims, hypotheses or questions that you set yourself at the beginning of the paper report your results simply and clearly. If the referees of your paper cannot understand your r...
Chapter
Your findings may be extremely valid and important. However, if the referees are not able to see or understand your findings because you have neither highlighted nor described them clearly enough, then your paper may not be published. Your contribution to the community may thus vanish into oblivion. This chapter outlines how to use visual technique...
Chapter
You will learn from this chapter that you should: describe the materials you used in your experiments and/or the methods you used to carry out your research, in a way that is sufficiently detailed to enable others in your field to easily follow your method and, if desired, even replicate your work. ensure the descriptions are complete and yet are a...
Chapter
When you present subjective or unproven propositions, you should avoid sounding arrogant or 100% certain of what you state. This approach, known as ‘hedging’ is the subject of this chapter, which is designed to help you to: learn to anticipate (i.e. predict) possible objections to your claims. This means being able to make claims about your finding...
Chapter
The first six sections of this chapter explain why and how long sentences get created, the pros AND cons of using short sentences for your readers, and the benefits of using short sentences for both your readers and co-authors. The other sections focus on how to convert a long sentence into short sentences.
Chapter
This short chapter explains: what a reference is how to get a reference how to write a reference
Chapter
This chapter presents lists of frequently used phrases that have a general acceptance in all types of emails, not just in academia. This means that they are phrases that your recipients will frequently encounter.
Chapter
This chapter outlines how to write an informal but critical assessment of a colleague's work. Writing a review for someone you know is tricky. You certainly don’t want to offend them in any way, but at the same time if you find problems in their manuscript, it is clearly beneficial for them to know what these problems are and also how to remedy the...
Chapter
In this chapter you will read some suggestions on how to write: a research proposal for external funding a research proposal for a PhD program a research proposal for a Postdoc position a statement of purpose or research interest
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn that how you structure and specify your request is a strong determinant of whether your request will be met intelligent use of numbering and white space can increase the chances of your recipient replying with the correct information you should avoid focusing just on your own needs, but also try to understand the reci...
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to address someone—whether you know them, don’t know them, or don’t even know their name pay attention to titles (e.g. Mr, Dr, Professor) make it clear who your email is intended for use standard English phrases rather than translating directly from your own language
Chapter
In this chapter will learn how to write a subject line that will be easily recognizable and distinguishable from other emails in your recipient’s inbox prompt your recipient to want to know more and thus to open your mail help establish a personal connection with your recipient summarize the content of the email so that your recipient will know wha...
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to: follow the recommendations of your journal on how to write a peer review focus on constructive feedback rather than negative criticism use a “sandwich” approach, in which your criticisms are sandwiched between positive comments choose a style and layout that is easy to follow and comment on for the authors
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn that: your prime aim should be to have your paper published rather than to protect your pride the tone of your reply will have a big impact on whether your paper is accepted it generally makes sense to do what the reviewers suggest
Chapter
This chapter covers a wide area of academic correspondence including: cover letters for job applications motivational letters for internships, summer schools, workshops, Erasmus exchanges etc applications for PhD and Postdoc programs Bad examples are provided followed by good templates.
Chapter
This chapter is designed to help you: minimize the number of mistakes that you make in English understand the importance of writing in a clear, simple, unambiguous manner be aware of the dangers of using Google Translate … and also the benefits remember to check your spelling
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn: some key differences between formal and informal English in emails that establishing a good relationship can lead to useful meetings and collaborations that although English uses you in both formal and informal relationships, it adopts other devices to show respect toward the recipient of an email how to adopt an app...
Chapter
In this chapter you will learn how to write from the recipient’s point of view plan your email organize the information in the clearest and most logical (and grammatical) order be concise and use short sentences avoid ambiguity
Chapter
You will learn how to use the most common tenses in English differentiate the subtle shades of meaning between one tense and another avoid ambiguity and misunderstandings in misusage of tenses distinguish between various modal verbs put words in the correct order link sentences together
Chapter
It is vital not to underestimate the importance of establishing and maintaining a positive relationship with your editor. This chapter teaches you how to do that and thus improve your chances of having your research published. The chapter highlights: the importance of the cover letter in affecting the outcome of your paper to avoid saying anything...
Book
Publishing your research in an international journal is key to your success in academia. This guide is based on a study of over 1000 manuscripts and reviewers' reports revealing why papers written by non-native researchers are often rejected due to problems with English usage and poor structure and content. With easy-to-follow rules and tips, and...
Book
This volume covers the day-to-day activities of a non-native English speaking student carrying out research, attending lectures, socializing, and living in a foreign country. Whether on a US campus as a foreign student, or in a non-English speaking country where classes are given in English, this book will help students build confidence in interact...
Book
Good presentation skills are key to a successful career in academia. This guide provides examples taken from real presentations given both by native and non-native academics covering a wide variety of disciplines. The easy-to-follow guidelines and tips will teach you how to: • plan, prepare and practice a well-organized, interesting presentation...
Book
Scientific English is possibly the most rewarding area of EFL teaching. It differs from English for Academic Purposes (EAP) as it is directed to a much smaller audience: PhD and postdoc students. Courses on Scientific English are held in universities throughout the world, yet there is very little support for teachers in understanding what to teach...
Chapter
Things to mention: • your academic qualifications • previous and current positions • previous, present and future projects • publications and conferences • committees, patents and awards Style • third person (i.e. he developed rather than I developed) for conferences and book chapters • first person for home pages Be concise, accurate and factual.
Chapter
Templates are worth using. To convince yourself, look at a variety of CVs that do not follow a standard template—how easy would they be for a recruiter to compare? Templates make it easier for recruiters and HR, as the information provided by candidates follows the same pattern and is thus easier to locate. Modify your chosen template to keep it to...
Chapter
Separate each experience. List as follows: i) date ii) company / organization iii) position iv) key roles played (plus a web link to the company, so the HR person can find out more about where you work / have worked) Dates: reverse chronological order. Grammar and conciseness: verbs without pronouns at beginning of sentences (e.g. Developed rather...
Chapter
Put each experience into a separate mini section. List as follows: i) date ii) place iii) qualification (i.e. type of degree, certificate) iv) details of qualifications – provide links to relevant webpages so that HR can understood more about the university / qualification Dates: reverse chronological order. High school: only mention if you are a r...
Chapter
You are not normally obliged to put a photo. However, a good simple black and white photo is unlikely to detract from your CV and may satisfy the curiosity of the hirer. Choose a black and white photo. Head shot only, centered on a white background. Make sure your hair and any visible clothes look professional. If possible, have a natural smile. In...
Chapter
From your cover letter the recruiter wants to know: ○ what job you are applying for (and perhaps where you saw the advertisement); alternatively, who gave you their name ○ why you are interested in this field / company ○ how your skills and experience directly apply to the advertised job ○ the benefits for the company / institute of employing you t...
Chapter
Your CV and cover letter are two of the most important documents you will write during your lifetime. They are the route to your financial security. Ensure that they are laid it very clearly, are completely accurate, and do not include any spelling mistakes or typos. Given that you are not the best person to judge the quality of the English in your...
Chapter
Your CV / resume is one of the most important documents you will ever write. Before writing your CV, research your chosen organization and find out what they expect to see in a CV. It should be designed exclusively to get you a job. Leave aside your own personal opinions of how a CV should be written and laid out, stick to what will be familiar for...
Chapter
• Ensure you have a Personal Interests section—this enables interested HR people to get a clearer picture of you as a person. In any case, the uninterested HR person can ignore this section if they wish. • Only mention activities and interests that have a positive connotation for the majority of people. • Only use a paragraph if you have excess spa...
Chapter
• Have a separate section for references at the bottom of your CV, or if you have no space mention them in your cover letter. • A reference letter increases your credibility as a suitable candidate as it is written by a (presumably) objective third party who has had direct experience of working with you and who can substantiate both your technical...
Chapter
Select key words for insertion in your profile, by analysing typical job specifications in your field. Exploit the full character count in each section by inserting your key words for search engines to capture. Use the same basic content as in your CV, but present it in more detail and in a slightly more informal and sales-like form. Avoid words an...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
I am interested in the effects of poor translation in terms of the financial yield of the company that commissioned the translation. Does it actually make any difference to a visitor's choice of, for example, a bed and breakfast website, if he/she finds a description in poor English but shows wonderful photographs of the location?
Question
I have two totally bilingual children (Italian / English), but they make some (very very few) mistakes in English and Italian when they have clearly used a literal translation from the other language. To me this indicates that they are not necessarily 'thinking' in the language that they are speaking at the time. Instead they are on a kind of automatic pilot that usually gets it right but sometimes doesn't. There are billions of sites that tell you how to 'think' in another language, but these seem to me little tricks to use the target language in your head, but they are not really 'thinking' in the target language. On the other hand, dreaming in the target language is common. Any ideas? Is there any research that actually proves we can think in another language?

Projects

Project (1)
Project
There are around half a billion native speakers as against 6 billion or more non natives. Traditionally the non-natives had done all the hard of work of communicating in English. Now it's pay back time!!! Native speakers will finally be informed how to communicate slowly, simply and effectively in English, with no jargon and minimal regional accent.