Adrian Treves

Adrian Treves
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies

PhD

About

146
Publications
70,713
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
9,228
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Full-text available
Poaching is the major cause of death for large carnivores in several regions, contributing to their global endangerment. The traditional hypothesis used in wildlife management (killing for tolerance) suggests reducing protections for a species will decrease poaching. However, recent studies suggest reducing protections will instead increase poachin...
Article
Full-text available
When humanity confronts the risk of extinction of species, many people invoke precautions, especially in the face of uncertainty. Although precautionary approaches are value judgments, the optimal design and effect of precautions or lack thereof are scientific questions. We investigated Wisconsin gray wolves Canis lupus facing a second wolf-hunt in...
Article
Full-text available
Poaching is the main cause of mortality for many large carnivores, and mitigating it is imperative for the persistence of their populations. For Wisconsin gray wolves (Canis lupus), periods of increased risk in overall mortality and poaching seem to overlap temporally with legal hunting seasons for other large mammals (hunting wolves was prohibited...
Preprint
Full-text available
Given the ecological importance of top predators, societies are turning to non-lethal methods for coexistence. Coexistence is challenging when livestock are released within wild predator habitats, even when people supervise or use lethal methods. We report a randomized, controlled design to evaluate low-stress livestock handling (L-SLH), a form of...
Article
Transformed landscapes caused by human activity leave remnant patches of natural habitat for wildlife. The persistence of species in the face of such transformation depends on individuals’ ability to adapt to novel habitat, and to secure resources and reproductive opportunities despite habitat alterations. The leopard, Panthera pardus, is the last...
Article
Full-text available
Predators and their protection are controversial worldwide. Gray wolves, Canis lupus , lost U.S. federal protection (delisting) and the State of Wisconsin began lethal management first among all states and tribes that regained authority over wolves. Here we evaluated the initial success of reaching the state’s explicit objective, “…to allow for a s...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, unsustainable use of nature threatens many ecosystems and the services they provide for a broad diversity of life, including humans. Yet, governments commonly claim that the best available science supports their policies governing extraction of natural resources. We confront this apparent paradox by assessing the complexity of the inters...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To prevent and mitigate human-carnivore conflicts associated with livestock losses it is important to predict hazards from carnivores to target interventions. However, when constructing models of risk, we must account for uncertainty and bias of livestock kill data. Quality of these data depend on how accurately and precisely verification programs...
Article
Full-text available
Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence (killing for tolerance) or increase i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence ("killing for tolerance") or increase...
Article
Full-text available
The social license to operate framework considers how society grants or withholds informal permission for resource extractors to exploit publicly owned resources. We developed a modified model, which we refer to as the social license to hunt (SLH). In it we similarly consider hunters as operators, given that wildlife are legally considered public r...
Article
Full-text available
Although poaching (illegal killing) is an important cause of death for large carnivores globally, the effect of lethal management policies on poaching is unknown for many populations. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed: liberalizing killing may decrease poaching incidence (‘tolerance hunting’) or increase it (‘facilitated poaching’). For gr...
Article
Recent extinctions often resulted from humans retaliating against wildlife that threatened people's interests or were perceived to threaten current or future interests. Today's subfield of human-wildlife conflict and coexistence (HWCC) grew out of an original anthropocentric concern with such real or perceived threats and then, starting in the mid-...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid, global changes, such as extinction and climate change, put a premium on evidence-based, environmental policies and interventions, including predator control efforts. Lack of solid scientific evidence precludes strong inference about responses of predators, people, and prey of both, to various types of predator control. Here we formulate two...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic mortality among populations of large terrestrial carnivores undermines the health of ecosystems globally, and generally increases when people respond lethally to real or perceived threats to property, including livestock. Reducing such threats through the use of non‐lethal methods could therefore protect both large predators and human...
Article
Full-text available
We are failing to protect the biosphere. Novel views of conservation, preservation, and sustainability are surfacing in the wake of consensus about our failures to prevent extinction or slow climate change. We argue that the interests and well-being of non-humans, youth, and future generations of both human and non-human beings (futurity) have too...
Article
Full-text available
Mawdsley et al. (2018) respond disapprovingly to our 2018 review of 667 wildlife management systems across Canada and the United States, which found that many of these systems lacked the scientific hallmarks of clear objectives, evidence, transparency, and independent review. Although we strongly agree with several of Mawdsley et al.’s points about...
Article
Full-text available
Carnivore predation on livestock often leads people to retaliate. Persecution by humans has contributed strongly to global endangerment of carnivores. Preventing livestock losses would help to achieve three goals common to many human societies: preserve nature, protect animal welfare, and safeguard human livelihoods. Between 2016 and 2018, four ind...
Article
Protecting biodiversity requires that we correctly identify major threats and effective interventions to abate them. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Full-text available
The original Article mistakenly coded the constitutional rights of Australia as containing a governmental duty to protect the environment (blue in the figures); this has been corrected to containing no explicit mention of environmental protection (orange in the figures). The original Article also neglected to code the constitutional rights of the C...
Article
Full-text available
Resource management agencies commonly defend controversial policy by claiming adherence to science-based approaches. For example, proponents and practitioners of the “North American Model of Wildlife Conservation,” which guides hunting policy across much of the United States and Canada, assert that science plays a central role in shaping policy. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Article impact statement: Reporting of population data and associated policies are prone to political influence.
Article
Full-text available
Intergenerational rights to a healthy environment are protected by the constitutions of 75% of the world’s nations. These explicit commitments and similar, ancient principles of sovereign public trust are often overlooked but, if enforced, they o er sustainable protection for the biosphere.
Article
Full-text available
Although participatory planning for conservation has gained prominence over the past few decades, whether this process is successful in protecting biodiversity is still controversial. Moreover, the initial, constitutive decisions about whom to include in the process may undermine the sometimes-implicit goal that non-participants will find the outco...
Article
Starting in the 1970s, many populations of large-bodied mammalian carnivores began to recover from centuries of human-caused eradication and habitat destruction. The recovery of several such populations has since slowed or reversed due to mortality caused by humans. Illegal killing (poaching) is a primary cause of death in many carnivore population...
Article
Full-text available
In our recent perspective article, we noted that most (approximately 0 percent) terrestrial large carnivore and large herbivore species are now threatened with extinction, and we offered a 13-point declaration designed to promote and guide actions to save these iconic mammalian megafauna (Ripple et al. 2016). Some may worry that a focus on saving m...
Article
Full-text available
[ Proc. R. Soc. B 283 , 20152939. (2016; Published online 11 May 2016) ([doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.2939][2])][2] We recently discovered an error in [[1][2]] due to a misalignment of rows between columns in the dataset. Specifically, we misaligned by 1 year the population size with the number of wolves
Article
Full-text available
The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we deve...
Article
Livestock owners traditionally use various non-lethal and lethal methods to protect their domestic animals from wild predators. However, many of these methods are implemented without first considering experimental evidence of their effectiveness in mitigating predation-related threats or avoiding ecological degradation. To inform future policy and...
Article
Full-text available
From the late Pleistocene to the Holocene and now the so-called Anthropocene, humans have been driving an ongoing series of species declines and extinctions (Dirzo et al. 2014). Large-bodied mammals are typically at a higher risk of extinction than smaller ones (Cardillo et al. 2005). However, in some circumstances, terrestrial megafauna population...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivo...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the e...
Article
Full-text available
Rural depopulation has different effects on biodiversity and ecosystems in many regions of the world. For large carnivores such as pumas (Puma concolor) the effects are uncertain. An analysis of relationships between patterns of rural depopulation and perceptions of the risk posed by pumas among Aymara people in the altiplano region of Chile examin...
Research
Full-text available
This letter rebuts a letter by scientists that advocated the removal of wolves in the Great Lakes from federal Endangered Species Act protections.
Article
Full-text available
Many democratic governments recognize a duty to conserve environmental resources, including wild animals, as a public trust for current and future citizens. These public trust principles have informed two centuries of U.S.A. Supreme Court decisions and environmental laws worldwide. Nevertheless numerous populations of large-bodied, mammalian carniv...
Article
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6260/518.1.full
Article
Full-text available
In many areas, wildlife managers are turning to hunting programmes to increase public acceptance of predators. This study examines attitudes measured before and after a hunting and trapping season (wolf hunt) in Wisconsin (WI), USA, and casts some doubt on whether such programmes actually promote public acceptance. In Wisconsin, attitudes toward wo...
Article
American black bears (Ursus americanus) triggered complaints from property owners across much of Wisconsin, USA, from 2008 to 2010. Wildlife managers provided technical assistance and live-trapped bears to mitigate nuisances. We examined the longevity of these management actions as measured by the risk (or hazard) that a conflict site would generat...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies report majorities of survey respondents hold positive attitudes toward wolves. However, a 2001–2009 panel study found declining tolerance of wolves among residents of Wisconsin’s wolf range. Poaching, believed to be increasing, has been an important source of mortality in Wisconsin’s wolf population since the 1980s. We conducted fo...
Article
Full-text available
www.sciencemag.org 476 PERSPECTIVES A round the world, populations of many large, predatory animals are declining, with wide-ranging con-sequences for other species and ecosystem services (1). The declines have a variety of causes, but for mammalian carnivores and sharks, direct human causes of mortality pre-dominate (2). Scientists and policy-make...
Chapter
Full-text available
After their eradication from most of the conterminous United States, large carnivore populations, including grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis), mountain lions/cougars (Puma concolor), and gray wolves (Canis lupus), increased in the last quarter century. However, most of the conservation successes associated with large carnivore recovery came a...
Article
Full-text available
Context In Europe and the United States, wolf-human conflict has increased as wolf populations have recovered and recolonised human-dominated ecosystems. These conflicts may lead to negative attitudes towards wolves and often complicate wolf management. Wolf attacks on bear-hunting hounds (hereafter, hounds) are the second-most common type of depre...
Article
In June of 2013, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) proposed removing gray wolves (Canis lupus, Linnaeus) from Endangered Species Act (ESA) protections 45 throughout the conterminous US. The proposed rule depends on a definition of endangerment that is inconsistent with the legislative history and historical implementation of the ESA, as well a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
1) In 2013, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MI-DNR) began implementing a plan to harvest wolves. The stated purpose of the harvest is to reduce threats to livestock and human safety. While the MI-DNR has indicated that its plan is based on sound science, they have not presented any scientific evaluation of its plan. Moreover, we are u...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes towa...
Article
Tourism imposes costs and benefits on wild primates. Endangered black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) troops with high exposure to tourism had higher levels of botfly (Alouattamyia baeri) parasitism. Edge habitat and juvenile numbers did not seem to confound the observed relationship. To improve the cost/benefit ratio of tourism, we recommend furthe...
Article
Full-text available
p. 1828), I would like to set the record straight. First, state governments have not shown "hostility toward wolves." Rather, each state wolf-management plan was vetted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and each seeks to maintain wolf numbers at or above 150% of offi cial recov-ery levels. Second, although there always will be disagreem...
Article
Full-text available
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...
Article
Full-text available
Gray wolf (Canis lupus) policy is dynamic and involves multiple stakeholders. Attitudinal surveys have historically measured stakeholder attitudes, although Native American views have rarely been studied systematically. We sent a mail-back questionnaire to members of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians (Ojibwe) to asse...
Article
Full-text available
p. 1828), I would like to set the record straight. First, state governments have not shown "hostility toward wolves." Rather, each state wolf-management plan was vetted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and each seeks to maintain wolf numbers at or above 150% of offi cial recov-ery levels. Second, although there always will be disagreem...