Adrian Schwaninger

Adrian Schwaninger
University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | FHNW · School of Applied Psychology

Prof. Dr.

About

165
Publications
193,996
Reads
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3,197
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
1327 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
University of Zurich MSc in Psychology 1998, Doctoral Degree 2003. Research activities at University of Zurich (1999-2008) and at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany (2001-2008). Lecturing at University of Zurich (1999-2015), FHNW (since 2008), ETH Zürich (1999-2008), and ZHAW (2009-2012). Chairman of the Center for Adaptive Security Research and Applications (CASRA) since 2008 (www.casra.ch). Professor at FHNW since 2008. Head of the Institute Humans in Complex Systems since 2009 (www.fhnw.ch/miks).
Additional affiliations
May 2009 - present
University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Position
  • Head of Department
January 2008 - present
University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Position
  • Professor
January 2001 - August 2008
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study compared the visual inspection performance of airport security officers (screeners) when screening hold baggage with state-of-the-art 3D versus older 2D imaging. Background: 3D imaging based on computer tomography features better automated detection of explosives and higher baggage throughput than older 2D X-ray imaging tec...
Article
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In visual inspection tasks, such as airport security and medical screening, researchers often use the detection measures d' or A' to analyze detection performance independent of response tendency. However, recent studies that manipulated the frequency of targets (target prevalence) indicate that da with a slope parameter of 0.6 is more valid for su...
Article
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Current EU regulation restricts continuously reviewing X-ray images of passenger baggage to 20-min duration as a precautionary measure to prevent performance decrements in airport security officers (screeners). However, this 20-min limit is not based on clear empirical evidence on how well screeners can sustain their performance over time. Our stud...
Article
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Using a simulated X-ray screening task, we tested 122 airport security screeners working with the support of explosives detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) as low-level automation. EDSCB varied systematically on three automation reliability measures: accuracy, d', and positive predictive value (PPV). Results showed that when unaid...
Article
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As found in studies of aircraft structural inspection, the time used for judging if a part of an aircraft shows tiny cracks is composed of search time, used for actively scanning, and non-search time, used for matching and decision while fixating a region of interest (Drury et al. 19979. Drury , C. G. , Spencer , F. W. and Schurman , D. . Measur...
Article
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Automated explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) highlight areas in X-ray images of passenger bags that could contain explosive material. Several countries have implemented EDSCB so that passengers can leave personal electronic devices in their cabin baggage. This increases checkpoint efficiency, but also task difficulty fo...
Article
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This study examined whether an interviewer’s nonverbal behavior influences observers’ competence ratings in a recruitment interview using 360-degree videos experienced with immersive virtual reality (VR-cardboard) and 2D screen displays. Participants ( n = 110) observed a recruitment interview and assessed three competences of the applicant (behavi...
Article
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At airports, security officers (screeners) inspect X-ray images of passenger baggage in order to prevent threat items (bombs, guns, knives, etc.) from being brought onto an aircraft. Because threat items rarely occur, many airports use a threat-image-projection (TIP) system, which projects pre-recorded X-ray images of threat items onto some of the...
Article
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Digital technologies have gained much popularity in education thanks to the cost efficiency they gain through scalability. While the acceptance of some of these new digital technologies has been investigated, there are few direct comparisons. The most established model for measuring acceptance is the technology acceptance model, which can predict t...
Article
Large university classes often face challenges in enhancing active learning, repetition and feedback in the classroom which are essential for promoting student learning. In this study, we evaluated the implementation of digital tools (lecture recordings, question tool, classroom response system and virtual reality) regarding their perceived impact...
Article
Acute stress can have both detrimental and beneficial effects on cognitive processing, but effects on concentration performance remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on concentration performance and possible underlying physiological and psychological mechanisms. The study sample comprised 47 healthy male part...
Preprint
Currently, it is not clear how long security officers can maintain their performance when inspecting X-ray images of passenger bags for prohibited items. New technologies and working environments in airport security screening could profit from longer screening durations, and they might also facilitate performance upkeep. In our study, two groups of...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of cue plausibility in a baggage screening task. 120 participants had to indicate whether a prohibited item was present in a series of grey-scaled X-ray im-ages of baggage. They were assisted by a support system, which pointed at the location of a suspicious object. A 2×2×2 between-subjects design was used. Cue p...
Article
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This study investigated whether there is empirical support for the current EU regulation mandating breaks of at least 10 min after each period of 20 min continuously reviewing X-ray images in airport security screening. As a second goal, it examined whether providing more autonomy to airport security officers (in the form of spontaneous rest breaks...
Article
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The act of looking for targets amongst an array of distractors is a cognitive task that has been studied extensively over many decades and has many real-world applications. Research shows that specific visual-cognitive abilities are needed to efficiently and effectively locate a target among distractors. It is, however, not always clear whether the...
Conference Paper
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Kurzfassung: Threat-Image-Projection (TIP) ist eine weitverbreitete Software -Applikation für Röntgenmaschinen, die bei Sicherheitskontrollen an Flughäfen eingesetzt werden. Während der Sicherheitskontrolle projiziert TIP in Echtzeit zuvor aufgenommene Bilder von verbotenen Gegenstän-den (engl. fictional threat images, FTIs, hauptsächlich Pistolen,...
Conference Paper
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Kurzfassung: Für die Sicherheitskontrolle von registriertem Gepäck ver-wenden Flughäfen 2D multi-view Röntgentechnologie. Neue Technologien basieren auf 3D CT und ermöglichen eine 360 Grad Ansicht des Gepäck-stücks. Für den Wechsel von 2D auf 3D Screening stellt sich die Frage, ob Screener für diese Technologien dieselben visuell-kognitiven Fähigke...
Conference Paper
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2D Röntgensysteme mit multi-view Technologie werden an Flughäfen zur Erkennung von Sprengstoff bei registriertem Gepäck verwendet. Neuere Röntgensysteme basieren auf Computer Tomographie (CT), wobei Gepäckstücke als 3D-rotierbare Bilder dargestellt werden. Es steht zur Diskussion, ob Screener mit 2D Erfahrung spezifisches Training benötigen, bevor...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray screening of passenger baggage is a key component in aviation security. The current study investigated how experts and novices performed in an X-ray baggage screening task while being assisted by an adaptable diagnostic aid. Furthermore, it examined how both groups operated and trusted this automated system. 30 experts (certified screeners) a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In airport security screening, passenger baggage that is transported in the hold of an aircraft (hold baggage) is screened using X-ray machines with explosive detection technology. Older systems are based on 2D multi-view imaging whereas newer systems are based on computer tomography (CT) that features 3D rotatable images (3D imaging). Regulators,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
2D multi-view X-ray imaging technology is widely used for security screening of hold baggage at airports. Newer technology is based on 3D CT imaging. Such systems offer the possibility to rotate a bag around 360 degrees. With the transition from 2D multi-view to advanced CT imaging, the question arises whether airport security officers (screeners)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Threat image projection (TIP) is a widely used software function of X-ray machines at airport security checkpoints. TIP projects fictional threat images (FTIs) of actual pre-recorded threat items (mainly guns, knives and improvised explosive devices) into the X-ray images of passenger baggage before they are displayed to security officers (screener...
Article
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The present study evaluated three automation modes for improving performance in an X-ray luggage screening task. 140 participants were asked to detect the presence of prohibited items in X-ray images of cabin luggage. Twenty participants conducted this task without automatic support (control group), whereas the others worked with either indirect cu...
Article
Full-text available
Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide s...
Article
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Children are immature in face recognition, particularly in face configural decoding. This study examines the developmental difference of face recognition in another mechanism: viewpoint transformation processing. Adults and sixth‐grade children were instructed to match a series of one‐tone black face silhouettes to their corresponding front‐view fa...
Article
Full-text available
Customs continue to use a wide range of technology in protecting against terrorism and the movement of illicit trade and prohibited imports. The throughput of scanned vehicles and cargo increases and just keeps on growing. Therefore, the need of automated algorithms to help screening officers in inspection, examination or surveillance of vehicles a...
Conference Paper
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This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning and blended learning for airport security officers (screeners) aimed at increasing their detection of novel prohibited items in X-ray images of passenger bags. 80 screeners from a large European airport conducted a simulated X-ray baggage screening task (SXBST). Based on hit-and false alarm ra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The screening of passenger bags at airports can be understood as a visual inspection task that consists of visual search and decision. Security officers (screeners) visually search for prohibited items in X-ray images and decide whether secondary search (e.g. using manual search or explosive trace detection) is needed. A screener's decision ca...
Article
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Countries’ effective and efficient border security is becoming increasingly important in today’s global world of economy and trade. To ensure these, customs organisations are responsible for the prevention of illicit goods’ transportation across borders, particularly upon entry. The predicament of the customs administrations will soon be aggravated...
Conference Paper
Mit Luftsicherheitskontrollstellen (LSK) soll verhindert werden, dass Fluggäste verbotene Gegenstände an Bord von Flugzeugen bringen. Diese Studie evaluiert mit ereignisorientierten Simulationsmodellen die Effizienz von vier LSK-Szenarien, in welchen Fluggäste zu Beginn der Kontrolle - bspw. basierend auf Verhaltensanalysen - in eine von drei Risik...
Conference Paper
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Die Analyse von Gepäckstücken durch Luftsicherheits-beauftragte (Screener) wird als visuelle Inspektionsaufgabe verstanden, bei der verbotene Gegenstände in Röntgenbildern von Gepäckstücken detektiert werden müssen. In mehreren Studien konnte gezeigt werden, dass Wissen über das Aussehen verbotener Gegenstände in Röntgen-bildern wichtig für ein erf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Customs continue to use a wide range of technology in protecting against terrorism and the movement of illicit trade and prohibited imports. The throughput of scanned vehicles and cargo increases and just keeps on growing. Therefore, the need of automated algorithms to help screening officers in inspection, examination or surveillance of vehicles a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Customs administrations are responsible for the enforcement of fiscal integrity and security of movements of goods across land and sea borders. In order to verify whether the transported goods match the transport declaration, X-ray imaging of containers is used at many customs site worldwide. The main objective of the research and development proje...
Conference Paper
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The ongoing FP7 project " ACXIS-Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning " delivers enhanced inspection procedures for customs. A manufacturer independent reference data base for X-ray images of illegal and legitimate cargo is developed. One of the X-ray image recording work flow is to use 3D-CT data of illegal cargo mockups and to a...
Article
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The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners’ job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the...
Conference Paper
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Kurzfassung: Es wird angenommen, dass das Wissen über das Aussehen von Alltagsgegenständen Luftsicherheitsassistenten helfen könnte, effizienter zu arbeiten, indem weniger Fehlalarme generiert werden. Im ersten Experiment wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen dem Wissen über Alltagsgegenstände und der Fehlalarmrate mit 15 Screenern untersucht, wobei sich...
Conference Paper
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Kurzfassung: Die Kontrolle des Handgepäcks von Flugpassagieren leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Flugsicherheit. Sprengstofferkenn-ungssysteme (explosive detection systems, EDS) bieten bezüglich Sicherheit eine wertvolle Ergänzung zur Röntgenbildbeurteilung durch Sicherheitspersonal, können aber zu mehr Fehlalarmen führen, was wiederum den Durchs...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Secure air transportation is vital for economy and society and it relies heavily on airport security screening. Passenger bags and other belongings are screened using X-ray machines to ensure that they do not contain prohibited items. Human operators (X-ray screeners) visually inspect X-ray images to decide whether they are harmless or whether they...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Airport security screening is vital for secure air transportation. Screening of cabin baggage heavily relies on human operators reviewing X-ray images. Explosive detection systems (EDS) developed for cabin baggage screening can be a very valuable addition security-wise. Depending on the EDS machine and settings, false alarm rates increase, which co...
Conference Paper
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Die visuelle Beurteilung von Röntgenbildern von Cargo Containern zur Sicherheitskontrolle und dem Auffinden von Schmuggelwaren hat in den letzten Jahren weltweit mehr und mehr an Bedeutung gewonnen. Die Erkennung von verbotenen Gegenständen in Röntgenbildern stellt für das Kontrollpersonal (Screener) jedoch keine leichte Aufgabe dar. Beispielsweise...
Conference Paper
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Die Hauptaufgabe des Luftsicherheitskontrollpersonals besteht aus der visuellen Inspektion und Beurteilung von Gepäckstücken in Hinblick auf verbotene Gegenstände mit Hilfe von Röntgenbildern. Mit dieser Studie wurde untersucht, welche situativen Faktoren sich auf diese Hauptaufgabe auswirken und welche Relevanz diese Faktoren aufweisen. Dazu wurde...
Data
Full-text available
X-ray screening of containers and unit load devices in the area of cargo shipping is becoming an essential and common feature at ports and airports all over the world. The detection of prohibited items in X-ray images is a challenging task for screening officers as they need to know which items are prohibited and what they look like in X-ray images...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the last decade, large investments have been made to improve airport security for safeguarding air transportation. X-ray screening of passenger bags is a key component of airport security procedures. State-of-the art X-ray screening systems provide high quality images, yet the decision whether a passenger bag has to be further investigated (e.g....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Initial and recurrent certification of aviation security officers (screeners) is mandatory in Europe as specified in the EU regulation 185/2010 and in national regulations. The certification includes a practical test, an X-ray image interpretation test as well as a theoretical test. This paper focuses on theoretical tests which are used to evaluate...
Article
Full-text available
The decoupling of eye vergence and accommodation (V/A) has been found to negatively impact depth interpretation, visual comfort and fatigue. In this paper, we explore a hypothesis that placement of visual cues within a scene can assist a viewer in the process of maintaining the V/A decoupling. This effect is demonstrated through the use of a contin...
Article
Full-text available
Aviation security strongly depends on screeners' performance in the detection of threat objects in x-ray images of passenger bags. We examined for the first time the effects of stress and stress-induced cortisol increases on detection performance of hidden weapons in an x-ray baggage screening task. We randomly assigned 48 participants either to a...
Data
Full-text available
X-ray screening of passenger bags is one of the core elements in aviation security in order to prevent terrorist attacks. Large investments have been made into new technologies, for example in multi-view X-ray systems. Because of several X-rays, multi-view systems provide more than one X-ray image of the same passenger bag and hence present the sec...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e., 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of...
Article
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In the last decade, security measures have been strenthened substantially in passenger screening. Interestingly, cargo screening did not quite follow suit at the same pace, despite its relevance to the global economy and the fact that cargo is often transported by passenger aircraft. Most parts and airports now use X-ray security screening for unit...
Article
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The performance of 5,717 aviation security screeners in detecting prohibited items in x-ray images of passenger bags was analyzed over a period of 4 years. The measure used in this study was detection performance on the X-Ray Competency Assessment Test (X-Ray CAT) and performance on this measure was obtained on an annual basis. Between tests, scree...
Article
Full-text available
Security screening at airports is a highly relevant topic for more than a decade. Large amounts of money are still being invested to continuously improve the efficiency and effectiveness of passenger and baggage screening processes. State-of-the-art x-ray screening machines provide good quality images with high resolutions. Yet, the detection of pr...
Article
Full-text available
With the currently implemented high standards in passenger screening, air cargo is being perceived as the security chain’s weakest link in civil aviation and therefore becomes an attractive target for terrorists. Detailed regulations exist to harden air cargo against terrorist attacks. Blended learning training methods can be used to enable screene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Container security and contraband interdiction in air cargo have become highly relevant topics at airports all over the world. The European Union (EU, 2010) requires detailed measures for standards in the field of aviation security that also cover training and certification of security personnel. In Sury, Riesen, Nef & Schwaninger (2011) we demonst...