Adrian Clive Newton

Adrian Clive Newton
James Hutton Institute · Ecological Sciences Research

BSc Hons (Agricultural botany); PhD (Genetics)

About

192
Publications
41,076
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,093
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - December 2012
October 1985 - March 2011
James Hutton Institute
Position
  • Cereal Pathologist

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing climate change is resulting in increasing areas of salinity affected soils, rising saline groundwater and droughts resulting in irrigation with brackish water. This leads to increased salinity stress in crops that are already grown on marginal agricultural lands, such as barley. Tolerance to salinity stress is limited in the elite barley cu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The key message from this research, in light of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, is the need for preparation and contingency planning with national food system strategies and internationally agreed measures to protect food and nutrition security. Fundamentally, prevention, in the form of reducing climate risks through deep and rapid miti...
Article
Full-text available
Ramularia collo-cygni is the causal agent of Ramularia leaf spot disease (RLS) on barley and became, during the recent decades, an increasing threat for farmers across the world. Here, we analyze morphological, transcriptional, and metabolic responses of two barley cultivars having contrasting tolerance to RLS, when infected by an aggressive or mil...
Article
Full-text available
Enhancing host defences through induced resistance, disease tolerance, and/or escape, in combination with current disease management regimes may be a valuable strategy to reduce pesticide use. Since both 'on-farm' seed priming (OSP) and chitosan priming (CHP) have been reported to confer varying levels of host defence, this study sought to investig...
Article
Full-text available
Barley 'Scald' is an economically damaging fungal disease that is a global problem, causing significant yield and economical losses in the UK barley feed and malting industries. Presently, a limited number of Rhynchosporium resistance genes exist, but selective pressures on the fungi cause the demand for new sources of resistance. Landraces, such a...
Article
Enhancing diversity within crop systems can have benefits including increased resource use efficiency and productivity, and increased control of weeds, pests and diseases. Some benefits are expected to operate through biodiversity-driven insurance effects, whereby enhanced diversity increases the chance that a system component can compensate for th...
Article
A low-cost technique named ‘on-farm’ seed priming is increasingly being recognized as an effective approach to maximize crop establishment. It consists of anaerobically soaking seeds in water before sowing resulting in rapid and uniform germination, and enhanced seedling vigour. The extent of these benefits depends on the soaking time. The current...
Preprint
Control of cereal foliar diseases depends largely on the application of non-sustainable chemical fungicides. Enhancing host defences, i.e. through induced resistance, disease tolerance and/or escape, in combination with current disease management regimes may be a valuable strategy to reduce pesticide use. Since both ‘on-farm’ seed priming (OSP) and...
Data
Appendix material for "Can 'on-farm' seed priming and chitosan seed treatments induce host defences in winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under field conditions?" Content: Figure S1. Changes in seed respiration rate during priming 'on-farm' seed priming for each cultivar. Figure S2. Illustration of seedling counting method. Figure S3. Flowchart o...
Article
Full-text available
Since the discovery that the plant immune system could be augmented for improved deployment against biotic stressors through the exogenous application of chemicals that lead to induced resistance (IR), many such IR‐eliciting agents have been identified. Initially it was hoped that these chemical IR agents would be a benign alternative to traditiona...
Article
Full-text available
The intercropping of two or more crop species on the same piece of land at a given time has been hypothesized to enhance crop yield stability. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the grain yield stability of various barley-pea and wheat-faba bean mixtures grown in seven experimental field trials (locations) across Europe during two years with c...
Article
Full-text available
A low-cost technique named ‘on-farm’ seed priming is increasingly being recognized as an effective approach to maximize crop establishment. It consists of anaerobically soaking seeds in water before sowing resulting in rapid and uniform germination, and enhanced seedling vigour. The extent of these benefits depends on the soaking time. The current...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID‐19 pandemic is a major shock to society in terms of health and economy that is affecting both UK and global food and nutrition security. It is adding to the ‘perfect storm’ of threats to society from climate change, biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, at a time of considerable change, rising nationalism and breakdown in internati...
Article
Full-text available
Cereal-legume intercropping can increase yields, reduce fertilizer input and improve soil quality compared with pure culture. Designing intercropping systems requires the integration of plant species trait selection with choice of crop configuration and management. Crop growth models can facilitate the understanding and prediction of the interactio...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Reduced tillage has been advocated as a practical measure to increase soil carbon in long-term cropping soils. We examine three medium-term experiments in sites with contrasting soil and climatic characteristics in the UK. The objectives were to determine the effects of different reduced and zero tillage practices on bulk density and soil carb...
Article
1. We review the need for increasing agricultural sustainability, how this can in part be delivered by positive biodiversity–ecosystem function (BEF) effects, the role within these of plant–plant facilitation, and how a better understanding of this role may help to deliver sustainable crop (particularly arable) production systems. 2. Major challeng...
Article
Full-text available
Modern cereal cultivars are highly adapted to, and normally bred and trialled under, high input, high soil disturbance conditions. On-farm conditions are often suboptimal for high yield and frequently use minimal soil tillage, sometimes no-tillage, and therefore, cultivars may be differentially adapted to such conditions. We report a series of tria...
Article
Full-text available
Current crop protection strategies against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea rely on a combination of conventional fungicides and host genetic resistance. However, due to pathogen evolution and legislation in the use of fungicides, these strategies are not sufficient to protect plants against this pathogen. Defence elicitors can stimulate plant...
Article
Full-text available
Cultivars and some cultivar mixtures of spring barley were grown under inversion and non-inversion tillage conditions for three or four years and assessed for disease and yield in order to obtain genotypes that can be used to determine the mechanisms of cultivation adaptation. In general, the higher-yielding cultivars under inversion tillage condit...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Manganese (Mn) deficiency in barley is a global problem. It is difficult to detect in the early stages of symptom development and is commonly pre-emptively corrected by Mn foliar sprays that can be costly. Landraces adapted to marginal lands around the world represent a genetic resource for potential sustainability traits incl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current crop protection strategies against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea rely on a combination of conventional fungicides and host genetic resistance. However, due to pathogen evolution and legislation in the use of fungicides, these strategies are not sufficient to protect plants against this pathogen. Defence elicitors can stimulate plant...
Article
There is a drive to improve the sustainability of agricultural systems including the biodiversity component. Cultivar mixtures offer yield benefits from the same land area, but the mechanisms behind this overyielding have not been completely worked out. One potential mechanism is improved competition with weeds. We use an experimental approach of v...
Article
Cultivar mixtures of winter barley and spring barley, together with their component monocultures, were grown in field trials to assess the effect of cultivar combinations on both straw and grain yield. The overall grain yields for all trials were significantly higher for the cultivar mixtures than for the corresponding component monocultures. Also,...
Data
Figure S1. Barley leaves and leaf zones. A: Numbering of leaves. B: Leaf segments of second leaf harvested for the analysis Figure S2. Pathogen symptoms and inoculation procedure. A: Lesions caused by R. commune 12 days after inoculation. B: Colonies of B. graminis 12 days after inoculation. C: Setup for applying B. graminis spores to leaf segments...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the interactions between mineral nutrition and disease is essential for crop management. Our previous studies with Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that potassium (K) deprivation induced the biosynthesis of jasmonate (JA) and increased the plant's resistance to herbivorous insects. Here we addressed the question how tissue K affects...
Article
Microbes constantly challenge plants, and some can successfully infect their host and cause disease. Basal immunity against plant pathogens in many cases is not enough for survival and leads to disease and, ultimately, a premature death of the host plant. However, the plant immune system can be temporarily and even trans‐generationally primed; this...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intensive farming affects farmland biodiversity, and some arable plants in particular. Increasing crop genetic diversity can increase crop productivity or resilience and could also benefit rare arable plants. Aims: We examined whether barley presence, sowing density and genetic diversity impacted the rare plant Valerianella rimosa and e...
Article
Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil man...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Three long term and one newer soil management experiments from eastern Britain were used to answer several key questions relevant for cereal growers. The questions focused on soil physical and chemical conditions (including possible carbon accumulation) for crop growth and comparing cultivar, yield and economic performance under different tillage r...
Article
A range of wheat cultivars, including elite cultivars, older cultivars and some preferred by organic growers, were trialled under high and low nitrogen (N) conventional and organic conditions to determine whether cultivars that yield highly under organic conditions have the same relative yield under conventional conditions. A range of cultivar mixt...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding species coexistence and regulation of biodiversity are major research challenges, yet there is no consensus on the effects of diversity on diversity, including their mediation through plant–plant interactions. 2.We examined how the diversity of recipient communities impacted on the establishment of colonising species. We ran a greenho...
Article
In order to ensure higher sustainability of winter wheat and maize production in Europe, cropping systems featuring different levels of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) need to be tested in the field and validated for their sustainability before being adopted by farmers. However, the sustainability evaluation of cropping systems is difficult to per...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ‘Soil Platforms’ project (AHDB Project 3786 - Platforms to test and demonstrate sustainable soil management: integration of major UK field experiments) works with some of the longest running contemporary UK soil tillage experiments. The four sites within the ‘Soil Platforms’ project are at Mid Pilmore (Perthshire, Scotland, established 2003), t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mouldboard ploughing affects soil bulk density, aeration, drainage, thermal regimes, and soil microorganisms (Sun et al., 2011). Tillage breaks up plant residues, may degrade previously protected organic matter and potentially release CO2 to the atmosphere (Farina et al., 2011). Reduced tillage through either no till or non-inversion tillage to sha...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY The yields of spring barley during a medium-term (7 years) compost and slurry addition experiment and the soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, bacterial community structure, soil microbial biomass and soil respiration rates have been determined to assess the effects of repeated, and in some cases very large, organic amendments on soil...
Article
Full-text available
Tolerance, defined as the ability of a crop to maintain yield in the presence of disease, is a difficult characteristic to measure, and its component traits are generally undefined. It has been studied as a characteristic of plant genotypes grown singly or in monoculture crop stands. However, it is similarly valid as a characteristic of ecosystems,...
Article
Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) is a newly important disease of barley across temperate regions worldwide. Despite this recent change in importance, the infection biology of the causal agent Ramularia collo-cygni (Rcc) remains poorly understood. Confocal microscopy of the infection process of two transgenic Rcc isolates, expressing either GFP or DsRed re...
Article
Full-text available
Phytohormones are involved in diverse aspects of plant life including the regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as governing biotic and abiotic stress responses. We have generated a comprehensive transcriptional reference map of the early potato responses to exogenous application of the defence hormones abscisic acid, br...
Article
Understanding the mechanisms of community assembly may provide evidence to improve crop management, and in particular how weeds impact on crop yields. Focussing on plant functional traits and their diversity, we analysed a crop–weed interaction study with different levels of weed species and barley cultivar diversity to assess how weed species and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European Directive 2009/128/EC requires the reduction of risks for human health and the environment as well as the mandatory implementation of the general principles on IPM. To meet the challenge European farmers may need to adapt their cropping systems. The EU project PURE (Pesticide Use-and-risk Reduction in European farming systems with Int...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within the framework of the EU project PURE, long-term experiments were conducted to evaluate two IPM strategies (IPM1 and IPM2) against current practice (CP) in winter wheat based (6 locations) and maize-based (3 locations) cropping systems. Furthermore 15 on-farm experiments were set up in grain maize to study the effect of specific IPM tools on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) emphasizes physical and biological regulation strategies to control pests while reducing the reliance on pesticides. It is often based on combinations of control measures, because each available alternative measure might have a moderate efficiency. Field experiments are required to analyse the interactions between c...
Article
Full-text available
Food security is currently considered a major global problem. However, increasing intensity of food production in agricultural systems has driven reductions in farmland biodiversity. A major challenge is to enable biodiversity conservation whilst addressing the problem of food security.Here we describe how facilitative plant-plant interactions in c...
Article
Full-text available
Methods used to assess climate change risk for crop diseases often assume that both host and pathogen are present. Consequently, model output may misrepresent future growing seasons, due to a failure to reflect likely change at the landscape- and farm-scale and its impact on disease risk. In this study, data defining the spatial coverage of crops i...
Article
The genetic basis of resistance to Rhynchosporium commune was investigated in a winter barley mapping population derived from a cross between cultivars Saffron (moderately susceptible) and Retriever (moderately resistant). Resistance was assessed in field trials through total infection (measured using qPCR), and visible disease symptoms. Phenotypic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within the European Project PURE, long-term on-station experiments were conducted to evaluate wheat- and maize-based rotations with different IPM level against the conventional cropping system. IPM strategies aimed at reduction in or sustainable use of pesticides (e.g. band application of herbicides, mechanical weeding, bio-insecticides). The ex-po...
Article
Biodiversity regulates ecosystem functions such as productivity, and experimental studies of species mixtures have revealed selection and complementarity effects driving these responses. However, the impacts of intraspecific genotypic diversity in these studies are unknown, despite it forming a substantial part of the biodiversity.In a glasshouse e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Six multiyear field experiments were conducted comparing the agronomic, economic and environmental performance of current practice and two IPM strategies (named intermediate and advanced IPM, respectively) in winter-wheat based crop rotations. In this presentation, the results of the agronomic performance are presented. The experiments were conduct...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281374090_Economic_and_environmental_evaluation_of_IPM_strategies_in_winter_wheat_and_maize_cropping_systems_PURE_2011-15
Article
Full-text available
Plants contain a sophisticated innate immune network to prevent pathogenic microbes from gaining access to nutrients and from colonizing internal structures. The first layer of inducible response is governed by the plant following the perception of microbe- or modified plant-derived molecules. As the perception of these molecules results in a plant...
Book
Plant diseases worldwide are responsible for billions of dollars worth of crop losses every year. With less agrochemicals being used and less new fungicides coming on the market due to environmental concerns, more effort is now being put into the use of genetic potential of plants for pathogen resistance and the development of induced or acquired r...
Conference Paper
Induced resistance has great potential as an effective and environmentally benign means of crop protection. It exploits a plant’s own defence mechanisms, enhancing its ability to resist infection or damage by controlled application of substances that signal biotic or abiotic challenges. Defence elicitation should be proportionate to the threat, ide...