Adrian D Manning

Adrian D Manning
Australian National University | ANU · Fenner School of Environment & Society

Bachelor of Science (Hons), PhD

About

124
Publications
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Publications

Publications (124)
Article
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Reintroduction biology is a key tool for mitigating the catastrophic reduction in species’ ranges, caused by humans over the last 500 years. To assess where reintroduction biology scientific research is targeted, we used text-analysis methods to extract taxonomic and geographic mentions from animal reintroduction-focused articles published between...
Article
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Invasive predators are responsible for declines in many animal species across the globe. To redress these declines, conservationists have undertaken substantial work to remove invasive predators or mitigate their effects. Yet, the challenges associated with removal of invasive predators mean that most successful conservation programs have been rest...
Article
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Abstract Predation of threatened fauna by native and introduced predators can drive extinction and prevent population recovery. Most predator management involves exclusion or culling. Evidence suggests that exclusion may have detrimental effects on a prey species' predator awareness. At the same time, culling can cause selection of control‐resistan...
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A large component of the anthropogenic biodiversity crisis is the loss of animal species. In response, there has been significant investment in reintroductions of species to their historical ranges. Predation by native and exotic predators, however, remains a barrier to success. Over the past 200 years, Australia has seen the highest rate of mammal...
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Threatened species recovery programs are increasingly turning to reintroductions to reverse biodiversity loss. Here we present a real-world example where tactics (techniques which influence post-release performance and persistence) and an adaptive management framework (which incorporates feedback between monitoring and future actions) improved rein...
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Egg-laying mammals (monotremes) are a sister clade of therians (placental mammals and marsupials) and a key clade to understand mammalian evolution. They are classified into platypus and echidna, which exhibit distinct ecological features such as habitats and diet. Chemosensory genes, which encode sensory receptors for taste and smell, are believed...
Article
Reintroductions involve the relocation of animals into their historical range following extinction or extirpation. In this context, individuals with certain personalities may be more successful than others. For example, proactive individuals may dominate by being bolder, exploratory and more willing to take risks in familiar, stable environments (i...
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Incorporating genetic data into conservation programmes improves management outcomes, but the impact of different sample grouping methods on genetic diversity analyses is poorly understood. To this end, the multi-source reintroduction of the eastern bettong was used as a long-term case study to investigate how sampling regimes may affect common gen...
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Invasive mammalian predators have had a devastating effect on native species globally. The European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is one such species where it has been introduced in Australia. A novel but unexplored tactic to reduce the impact of mammalian predators is the use of unrewarded prey odors to undermine the effectiveness of olfactory hunting b...
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Human influence extends across the globe, from the tallest mountains to the deep bottom of the oceans. There is a growing call for nature to be protected from the negative impacts of human activity (particularly intensive agriculture); so-called “land sparing”. A relatively new approach is “rewilding”, defined as the restoration of self-sustaining...
Article
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The vision of rewilding is to return ecosystems to a “natural” or “self-willed” state with trophic complexity, dispersal (and connectivity) and stochastic disturbance in place. The concept is gaining traction, particularly in Europe where significant land abandonment has taken place in recent years. However, in reality, the purest form of rewilding...
Chapter
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This case study details the reintroduction of the eastern quoll to Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australia, using trials, tactics, and adaptive management. Ideal for use by reintroduction practitioners, the sections include background, goals, success indicators, project feasibility, implementation, post-release monitoring, major difficulties f...
Article
Non-excavating species that prefer rare combinations of cavity traits are limited to only a fraction of the available tree cavity resource. Understanding animal preferences and quantifying the abundance of suitable cavities is fundamental to protecting non-excavators. We aimed to identify the traits of trees and cavities selected by a vulnerable, n...
Article
Amphibians are proportionately over-represented in the current wave of global biodiversity loss. Disease and habitat loss are implicated in many amphibian species declines, but amphibians are also predicted to be sensitive to changes in climate, particularly changes in temperature and loss of moisture. These changes could severely impact frog use o...
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Simplification of stand structure of forests and woodlands through human-induced modification is a serious threat to biodiversity. Restoring lost habitat complexity and heterogeneity, such as woody debris, requires an understanding of the relationships between different elements that contribute to stand structure. In this study, we examine the stru...
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Grasslands and grassy woodlands worldwide have experienced declines in extent and condition, with substantial changes to their ground-layer biodiversity. In Australia, this decline has coincided with the extinction of many digging mammals that may have once created regeneration niches for native ground layer plants. These digging mammals are widely...
Article
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We evaluated the health of 31 (eight males, 23 females) founder eastern quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus), translocated to a fenced reserve in the Australian Capital Territory between February 2016 and July 2017. Quolls were wild caught in Tasmania (16 animals) or captive bred at Mount Rothwell Biodiversity Interpretation Centre, Victoria (15 animals)....
Article
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When does a reintroduced population of animals become self-regulating? Quantifying this is critical in determining when interventions can be tapered off, or when they may need to be reinstated. We tracked the growth trajectory of a reintroduced population to establish whether it was irruptive and/or had transitioned to self-regulation. In 2012, we...
Article
A ‘refugee’ species is one with a current distribution that has been restricted to a subset of their former niche by threatening processes. Conservation opportunities for such species can be limited by a poor understanding of habitat requirements, where habitat models are based on current distributions and not the innate capacity of the animal to s...
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Long-term faunal responses to restoration efforts can be very different from those in the short term, but are often not quantified systematically to identify ways that maximise restoration outcomes. We report on a 9-year landscape-scale ecological experiment that tests the long-term responses of reptile populations to coarse woody debris (CWD) addi...
Article
Ecosystem restoration can play a vital role in conserving biodiversity, but its effectiveness can be difficult to assess for hyperdiverse biota such as insects. Species traits of insects can be used to understand their functional responses to restoration, but their use often requires considerable effort, and few studies have examined what additiona...
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Temperate grasslands and woodlands are the focus of extensive restoration efforts worldwide. Reintroduction of locally extinct soil-foraging and burrowing animals has been suggested as a means to restore soil function in these ecosystems. Yet little is known about the physical and chemical effects of digging on soil over time and how these effects...
Article
The eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi), a medium-sized digging marsupial, was reintroduced to a predator-free reserve after 100 years of absence from the Australian mainland. The bettong may have the potential to restore temperate woodlands degraded by a history of livestock grazing, by creating numerous small disturbances by digging. We investig...
Technical Report
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Maintaining mammal populations on havens – whether they are naturally occurring or translocated – has helped to prevent further mammal extinctions, and consolidated protection for other species. These havens fall under the management of many organisations, ranging from local councils, community groups and small private organisations to large non-go...
Technical Report
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Many Australian mammal species are highly susceptible to predation by introduced cats and foxes. At least 34 Australian endemic mammal species have been made extinct since 1788, about 10% of Australia's terrestrial fauna, and predation by cats and foxes was a major contribution to most of those extinctions. Maintaining mammal populations on havens...
Article
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In the last 30 years, islands and fenced exclosures free of introduced predators (collectively, havens) have become an increasingly used option for protecting Australian mammals imperiled by predation by introduced cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). However, Australia's network of havens is not expanding in a manner that maximizes repres...
Article
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Context: Many Australian mammal species are highly susceptible to predation by introduced domestic cats (Felis catus) and European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). These predators have caused many extinctions and have driven large distributional and population declines for many more species. The serendipitous occurrence of, and deliberate translocations...
Article
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Context: Over the last 230 years, the Australian terrestrial mammal fauna has suffered a very high rate of decline and extinction relative to other continents. Predation by the introduced red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus) is implicated in many of these extinctions, and in the ongoing decline of many extant species. Aims: To assess...
Article
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Aim The biodiversity value of scattered trees in modified landscapes is often overlooked in planning and conservation decisions. We conducted a multitaxa study to determine how wildlife abundance, species richness and community composition at individual trees are affected by (1) the landscape context in which trees are located; and (2) the size of...
Article
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Soil microbial communities are often overlooked in the context of ecological restoration. Given their central role in a broad range of ecosystem processes, however, understanding their response to restoration activities is critical to predicting restoration trajectories. In this study, we quantified the response of soil bacterial and fungal communi...
Article
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Stress is important in reintroduction biology because it can influence mortality, dispersal and recruitment and determine establishment success. As stress is unavoidable during reintroduction, it requires deliberate management. Release tactics (e.g. ‘delayed- and immediate-release’) are often selected specifically based on their presumed effect on...
Article
Environmental gradients have been shown to affect animal diversity, but knowledge of fine-scale drivers of insect diversity is, in many cases, poorly developed. We investigated the drivers of beetle diversity and composition at different microhabitats, and how this may be mediated by past agricultural activities. The study was undertaken in tempera...
Article
Questions How does ground‐layer plant composition respond to the imposition of woodland habitat restoration treatments following the removal of long‐term pastoral management? Do different vegetation types have different trajectories of change? Location A long‐term ecological research site comprising temperate eucalypt grassy woodland and forest in...
Article
The relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers of animal diversity varies across scales, but identifying these scales can be difficult if a sampling design does not match the scale of the target organisms' interaction with their habitat. In this study, we quantify and compare the effects of environmental variation and spatial proximit...
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The decomposition of large vertebrate carcasses generates small-scale disturbances characterized by changes in soil chemistry and new opportunities for plant establishment. Yet few studies have examined whether this effect is still evident several years after death, or has consequences for landscape-scale heterogeneity. We examined soil chemistry a...
Article
The eastern bettong Bettongia gaimardi , a potoroid marsupial, has been extinct on the Australian mainland since the 1920s. Sixty adult bettongs were reintroduced from the island of Tasmania to two predator-free fenced reserves on mainland Australia. We examined baseline health parameters (body weight, haematology and biochemistry, parasites and in...
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Carbon dioxide off-setting policy in the agricultural sector is focused on manipulating the terrestrial carbon cycle by reafforestation and increasing the retention of carbon within agricultural soils. We quantified the amount of carbon stored in the living and dead biomass and the surface soils of a previously grazed woodland ecosystem. We demonst...
Article
Large trees support unique habitat structures (e.g. hollows) that form over centuries and cannot be provided by small trees. Large trees are also declining in human-modified landscapes worldwide. One restoration strategy gaining popularity involves adding nest boxes to smaller trees to replicate natural hollows. However, limited empirical research...
Article
Australia's urban landscapes offer opportunities to marry socio‐economic and biodiversity conservation objectives. Yet, information is needed on what urban landscape and habitat features are important for wildlife. In this article, we draw together our research from southeastern Australia to describe key lessons for biodiversity‐sensitive cities an...
Article
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Reintroductions are used to re-establish populations of species within their indigenous range, but their outcomes are variable. A key decision when developing a reintroduction strategy is whether to include a temporary period of confinement prior to release. Pre-release confinement is primarily used for the purpose of quarantine or as a delayed-rel...
Article
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Summary 1. Translocation is a popular conservation tool, but the outcomes are variable. Many tactics can be used to improve the probability of success, but a comprehensive summary of these does not exist. This increases the risk that valuable tactics will be overlooked, and inhibits effective communication. 2. We assess the diversity of ‘translocat...
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Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investi...
Article
AimUrban expansion significantly alters fringe environments often with undesirable impacts on biodiversity. Consequently, there is a need to define clear conservation objectives for areas subject to urban encroachment. Urban fringe development is a highly dynamic process, both spatially and temporally, but few studies are equipped to examine its te...
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We describe new radiocarbon-dated evidence for the late survival of beavers from an upland site in northern England. A wood specimen with beaver gnaw marks was recovered from the bank of the Scaup Burn in Kielder Forest in Northumberland. The marks were analysed, the tree species were identified and the sample was radiocarbon dated to between 1269...
Article
Global population growth and associated urban development are having profound effects on biodiversity. Two major outcomes of expanding development that affect wildlife are light and noise pollution. In this paper, we review literature reporting the effects of light and noise on biodiversity, and assess implications for conservation planning in Aust...
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Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically p...
Article
Carrion decomposition is a critical component of the biogeochemical cycling of energy and nutrients within the biosphere. Two important and currently overlooked nitrogen (N) pools likely to be affected by carrion are free amino acid (FAA) and peptide pools, which are a newly recognised point of competition between plants and microorganisms for the...
Article
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Abstract Sixty (19 male, 41 female) free-ranging adult eastern bettongs (Bettongia gaimardi) were captured in Tasmania and translocated to the Australian Capital Territory between July 2011 and September 2012 for reintroduction into fenced, predator-proof reserves. The bettongs were anesthetized for physical examination and screened for selected di...
Article
Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for sustaining biodiversity is crucial to achieving conservation outcomes. While studies of effectiveness have improved our understanding of protected-area design and management, few investigations (< 5%) have quantified the ecological performance of reserves for conserving species. Here, we present a...
Article
Large old trees are critical organisms and ecological structures in forests, woodlands, savannas, and agricultural and urban environments. They play many essential ecological roles ranging from the storage of large amounts of carbon to the provision of key habitats for wildlife. Some of these roles cannot be replaced by other structures. Large old...
Article
We report on the effects of broad-scale restoration treatments on the ground layer of eucalypt grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. The experiment was conducted in two conservation reserves from which livestock grazing had previously been removed. Changes in biomass, species diversity, ground-cover attributes and life-form were analysed over...
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Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We exami...
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New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals we...
Article
Reintroductions are conducted to re‐establish a self‐sustaining population of a species and contribute to ecosystem restoration. The brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus) reintroduction into two nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory in south‐eastern Australia failed to meet its predetermined criteria for success. This occurred desp...
Article
Tree hollows are a critical breeding resource for many organisms globally. Where hollow‐bearing trees are in decline, population limitation can be a serious conservation issue. A particular problem in addressing hollow limitation is the long time that hollows take to form. This means there can be a significant lag time between detecting a species'...
Article
Beta diversity is an important concept used to describe turnover in species composition across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and it underpins much of conservation theory and practice. Although substantial progress has been made in the mathematical and terminological treatment of different measures of beta diversity, there has been li...
Article
Functional diversity, an important element of avian biodiversity, can be examined by quantifying foraging guild composition. Understanding the ecological processes that underpin functional diversity of birds in oil palm Elaeis guineensis landscapes is important because different foraging guilds are likely to be influenced in different ways by land...
Article
Management practices in the landscape matrix can have significant effects on the spatial distribution of animals within adjacent protected areas. This has been well established in agricultural and forested areas, but less is known about how management of the suburban matrix affects adjacent reserves. We argue that it is critically important to unde...