Adrian Linacre

Adrian Linacre
Flinders University · School of Biological Sciences

B.Sc. D.Phil.

About

368
Publications
71,541
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,005
Citations
Citations since 2017
85 Research Items
2712 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
February 2010 - present
Flinders University
Position
  • Chair in Forensic Science

Publications

Publications (368)
Article
The increased sensitivity of current DNA profiling technologies allows the detection of trace amounts of DNA. With these advancements, there is an increased probability of detecting trace levels of DNA from contamination. Studies which investigate the accumulation and transfer of DNA within forensic laboratories provide insight into the possible me...
Article
Full-text available
Falsified medicines are a major threat to global health. Antimalarial drugs have been particularly targeted by criminals. As DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic criminology, we hypothesized that these techniques could also be used to investigate the origins of falsified medicines. Medicines may contain diverse adventitious biological contamina...
Article
Full-text available
We report on a process to record the presence and the location of osteocyte nuclei using two nucleic staining dyes, Diamond™ Nucleic Acids Dye (DD) and DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). Knowledge of the presence and number of osteocytes is key to any success in subsequent DNA profiling. Osteocytes are most numerous cells and thus the main sourc...
Article
In many parts of the world, tablets are a commonly encountered form of illicit drug preparation. Whilst previous research has investigated the feasibility of detecting trace DNA on illicit drug capsules, this has not been performed for tablets. Tablets have a unique substrate surface and therefore the amount of DNA transferring to them and persisti...
Article
Touch DNA deposited on items can be visualised by using fluorescent nucleic acid staining dyes. It might be expected that if a person contacts items multiple times, then at each contact fewer cells should be transferred and deposited. Here we report on the use of Diamond Dye (DD) to monitor any reduction in cellular deposition during multiple conta...
Article
The use of illicit drugs is a continuing blight on society. Detecting DNA from individuals involved in the manufacturing and distribution of drugs can provide valuable investigative information or strategic intelligence which, in turn, can be used to disrupt the supply and distribution of illicit drugs. Our study details the transfer, persistence,...
Article
Latent DNA detection has the potential to transform aspects of DNA collection at scenes and from items. In the absence of being able to visualise the location of cellular material, all collection of samples at crime scenes is currently performed blind. With the advent of the application of a nucleic acid staining dye, the DNA within skin cells (com...
Article
Full-text available
Hog deer were introduced to Australia in the 1860s, where they have spread across the Gippsland region of Victoria. Due to its status as an introduced species and an important game animal within Victoria, management of the species is complex. Given this complexity, genetic studies can provide important information regarding population structure and...
Article
Blood or bloodstains are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Presumptive and more confirmatory tests for peripheral blood are well established, however, similar methods for menstrual blood identification are less so. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product that occurs at high concentration in menstrual blood and therefore a potential...
Article
Capsules are now the main form of ecstasy rather than tablets in Australia and therefore their examination is of interest to forensic drug chemists in Australia and possibly elsewhere. Recently, we used controlled experimental conditions to show that capsules may be a source of DNA that can be used to identify those involved in production and distr...
Article
Profiling of DNA associated with illicit drug packages and paraphernalia is a common investigative tool. In addition, research is being conducted regarding the analysis of trace DNA present within illicit drugs and on capsules. The application of trace DNA analysis to illicit drugs has the potential to identify individuals involved in their manufac...
Article
The application of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data from whole genomes has allowed very many more Y-SNP loci to be genotyped simultaneously than previously possible. Although this greatly increases the resolution of Y-SNP haplogroups to link common ancestors, it remains a great challenge to provide a phylogenetic tree to clearly display the...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of semen and spermatozoa is crucial in the forensic investigation of alleged sexual assault cases. In cases of alleged sexual assault where there is a long time gap between the incident and sample collection, or in cases of low sperm count, current methods have limitations of specificity, in the case of presumptive tests for semen, o...
Article
Full-text available
Bone cells are a suitable substrate for DNA analysis if required to identify the person from whom a sample was taken. Osteocytes, the most abundant cell type in bone, are embedded within mineralized bone matrix. To release DNA from osteocytes for subsequent analyses, either demineralization of the mineral matrix or an overnight incubation is routin...
Article
Touch DNA is pivotal in forensic science therefore understanding the mechanisms and variations of deposition and composition of genetic material in touched deposits is essential. Shedder status is still poorly understood, and the consistency and cohesiveness of research is less developed compared to other transfer and persistence considerations. In...
Article
Rapid DNA technology is being utilized for reference profiles worldwide. There is also strong data in the literature to support its use for high-template DNA sources, the same is not true for low-template sources, such as touch DNA; this is a requirement before wider implementation to forensic casework is considered. We report on the Rapid HIT Inte...
Article
Full-text available
In alleged sexual assault cases, identification of the presence of spermatozoa at the crime scene, or on items of eventual significance, or associated with the body of the victim, is integral to the forensic investigation to support or refute the proposition that sexual act has occurred. A 3-plex MSRE-PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-P...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the use of a DNA staining dye to locate and record nucleated osteocytes and other bone-related cells within sections of archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tibia from which informative DNA profiles were obtained. Eleven of these archived tibia samples were sectioned at a thickness of 5 µm. Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye was...
Article
As the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in a broad spectrum of offences continues, it is vital that research is performed to assess the capabilities of the forensic DNA profiling technology currently available to provide information as to potential perpetrators. This work investigates some of the most important gaps in our understanding s...
Article
Current forensic DNA profiling kits and techniques enable the detection of trace amounts of DNA. With advancements in kit sensitivity, there is an increased probability of detecting DNA from contamination. Research into DNA transfer within operational forensic laboratories provides insight into the possible mechanisms that may lead to exhibit conta...
Article
Although a version of direct PCR is implemented in forensic laboratories for reference material, its incorporation into workflow for the analysis of touch DNA, as a form of latent DNA, from casework exhibits is not. In addition to concerns about increased sensitivity causing more complex mixtures or the generation of more genetic data implicating a...
Article
Purpose The Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT), aided by improved global transport, and the expansion of the internet, has facilitated the international demand for exotic reptiles. The risks associated with trafficking of live reptiles requires robust forensic techniques for detecting housed or transported animals. Detection of species of high IWT demand...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The establishment of non-native populations of threatened and legally protected species can have many implications for the areas where these species have been introduced. Non-native populations of threatened species have the potential to be exploited and therefore the subject of legal protection, while conversely, if they have become i...
Article
With an increase in the application of direct PCR to items of forensic relevance, as well as the array of STR kits available for amplification, the need for a comprehensive investigation into the optimum STR panel for this workflow has arisen. Here we examine the relative STR amplification success of touch DNA on a range of substrates, with surface...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a novel tool to predict temperature-exposure of incinerated pig teeth as a proxy for understanding impacts of fire on human teeth. Previous studies on the estimation of temperature-exposure of skeletal elements have been limited to that of heat-exposed bone. This predictive tool was developed using a multinomial regression model...
Article
The common method of preparing teeth prior to DNA extraction involves cleaning, decontamination, drying and pulverisation. Moisture in post-mortem teeth can promote bacterial growth and hydrolytic damage that could contribute to DNA degradation, whilst also possibly reducing the efficiency of sample pulverisation and DNA release. Here we compared D...
Article
Full-text available
Population and geographic assignment are frequently undertaken using DNA sequences on the mitochondrial genome. Assignment to broad continental populations is common, although finer resolution to subpopulations can be less accurate due to shared genetic ancestry at a local level and members of different ancestral subpopulations cohabiting the same...
Article
DNA profiling from capsules and tablets offers a complementary tool to that of chemical profiling when investigating the manufacture and trade in illicit drugs. By sampling the outside of capsules, individuals who may have handled them during production, assembly or distribution may have deposited their DNA and can be identified if matched to a nom...
Preprint
Full-text available
The establishment of non-native populations of threatened and legally protected species can have many implications for the areas where these species have been introduced. Non-native populations of threatened species have the potential to be exploited and therefore the subject of legal protection, while conversely, if they have become invasive in th...
Article
Full-text available
Animal forensic genetics, where the focus is on non-human species, is broadly divided in two: domestic species and wildlife. When traces of a domestic species are relevant to a forensic investigation the question of species identification is less important, as the material comes from either a dog or a cat for instance, but more relevant may be the...
Article
Full-text available
Through advances in fluorescent nucleic acid dye staining and visualisation, targeted collection of cellular material deposited, for example by touch or within a saliva deposit, is possible. In regard to the potential evidentiary value of the deposit the questions remain: ‘How many cells are required to generate an informative DNA profile?’; ‘How m...
Article
Full-text available
A wide variety of items are submitted as evidence in a forensic investigation. Identifying the location of DNA on such items is central to maximizing DNA profiling success and thus the ability to link a person of interest to a particular item or crime. Recent publications describe a fluorescent staining method using Diamond™ Dye (DD) to visualize c...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife crime is on a massive scale by whatever metric is used. The illegal trade in wildlife and related products is leading to the decline and extinction of many iconic species from rhino to tigers. Almost all countries are signatures to CITES and therefore should enforce national legislation if alleged infringements of trade of wildlife occur....
Article
Full-text available
Direct PCR can be used to successfully generate full STR profiles from DNA present on the surface of objects. STR profiles are only of use in cases where a potential donor profile is available for comparison, and DNA is of sufficient DNA quality and quantity to generate a reliable profile. Often, no donor information is available and only trace DNA...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Elephant populations have greatly reduced mainly due to illegal poaching for their ivory. The trade in elephant products is protected by national laws and CITES agreements to prevent them from further decline. For instance, in Thailand, it is illegal to trade ivory from African elephants; however, the law allows possession of ivory fro...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of semen and then spermatozoa is essential to verify that sexual activity has occurred in alleged cases of sexual assault. Microscopic examination commonly used for spermatozoa identification is however time-consuming and can often lead to false-negative results for samples with deformed and, or, limited number of spermatozoa. To add...
Article
Recovery of touch DNA from fired ammunition casings may provide vital forensic evidence for investigation and/or prosecution of firearm offences. Previous studies employing a direct PCR approach, where the traditional DNA extraction process is bypassed, have demonstrated an improved profiling success rate from some types of ammunition. To assess th...
Article
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has revolutionised the field of genomics enabling substantial advances in human DNA profiling. Further, the advent of MPS now allows biological signatures to be obtained from complex DNA mixtures and trace amounts of low biomass samples. Environmental samples serve as ideal forms of contact trace evidence as dete...
Article
Full-text available
Wolf (Canis lupus) is a species included in appendices of CITES and is often encountered in cases of alleged poaching and trafficking of their products. When such crimes are suspected, those involved may attempt to evade legal action by claiming that the animals involved are domestic dogs (C. l. familiaris). To respond effectively to such claims, l...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic Science international: Genetics and Forensic Science Iinternational: Reports communicate research on a variety of biological materials using genetics and genomic methods. Numerous guidelines have been produced to secure standardization and quality of results of scientific investigations. Yet, no specific guidelines have been produced for t...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic Science International: Genetics and Forensic Science International: Reports communicate research on a variety of biological materials using genetics and genomic methods. Numerous guidelines have been produced to secure standardization and quality of results of scientific investigations. Yet, no specific guidelines have been produced for th...
Preprint
Heat alters colour and crystallinity of teeth by destruction of the organic content and inducing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. The colour and crystallite changes can be quantified using spectrophotometric and x-ray diffraction analyses, however these analyses are not commonly used in combination to evaluate burned dental remains. In this study, th...
Article
Heat alters colour and crystallinity of teeth by destruction of the organic content and inducing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. The colour and crystallite changes can be quantified using spectrophotometric and x-ray diffraction analyses, however these analyses are not commonly used in combination to evaluate burned dental remains. In this study, th...
Article
Tape-lifting is a non-destructive alternative to swabbing for collection of biological materials deposited on surfaces, especially on porous substrates. While there have been a number of studies looking at the efficiency of tapes in terms of recovery and their effect on downstream processes, none has been able to visually monitor cellular material...
Article
The use of a fluorescent dye to visualize cellular material on surfaces offers a targeted sampling approach for locating touch DNA on casework items. However, the current application of such dye is not feasible for examination of relatively large items. As a result, development of an efficient dye application system is required to translate this ap...
Article
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) present a number of challenges in terms of the generation of forensically relevant information. Inhibition to PCR from sub-optimal sample types as well as from specific substrates has historically meant that extraction prior to PCR has been required. Improvements to STR kit buffers lead to the successful introduc...
Article
With the increasing sensitivity of DNA profiling systems, the opportunity to detect incidental DNA transferred between evidential items has increased. Evidence bags are assumed to be DNA transfer vectors which can cause an inadvertent transfer of DNA between items, yet little has been studied to indicate the extent of this transfer. This study aime...
Article
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the ability to detect and analyse low quantity and quality DNA present on touched items. Here, we present MPS identity and intelligence SNP data generated from latent DNA using direct PCR and three different forensic panels: (1) the QIAGEN 140-SNP forensic identification multiplex (2) the 24 SNP HIrisplex...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In Australia, many species have been introduced that have since undergone drastic declines in their native range. One species of note is the hog deer (Axis porcinus) which was introduced in the 1860s to Victoria, Australia, and has since become endangered in its native range throughout South‐East Asia. There is increased interest in using...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the visualization of cellular material within lip-prints using Diamond™ dye (DD). The transfer of cellular material via the lips can occur in cases of contact with food or drinking items as well as cases of alleged sexual assault involving oral contact. DD can effectively detect cellular material transferred by touch. Here we investiga...
Article
A novel technique for the visualisation of cellular material has been published harnessing an external binding nucleic acid fluorescence dye, Diamond™ dye (DD), in combination with a digital fluorescence microscope. This technique can effectively detect cellular material on an object transferred by touch allowing targeted collection of latent DNA....
Article
A central question is ‘how did DNA get there’? To help answer this, we visually monitored and recorded DNA transfer from one substrate to another. When an individual touches a substrate, traces of their DNA are transferred (primary/direct) which can then subsequently be transferred to a second substrate (secondary/indirect). Currently DNA transfer...
Article
This study reports a simple method for visualising and screening latent DNA on tapes using a Diamond™ dye (DD) staining process followed by visualisation using a portable fluorescence microscope. Ten types of tapes were tested, which include those used currently by forensic laboratories for tape-lifting. All ten types were tested for: 1) their auto...
Article
A novel method for detection and visualization of latent DNA using Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye (DD) staining has been developed. Applying DD to an object has the real potential to visualize DNA on a substrate from which a DNA profile can be generated, but it is important to determine whether this staining will adversely affect other forensic investig...
Article
Direct PCR can be used to successfully generate full STR profiles from latent DNA. However, some substrates have been shown to be more problematic and in some cases only partial profiles are recovered. As latent DNA is present on the surface of objects in very low quantity, and potentially low quality, the fragment lengths targeted by STR typing ma...
Article
A pilot study on the detection of DNA in fingermarks using fluorescent in situ detection after different time periods since hand washing was undertaken by Flinders University. Collaboration was sought to show the ability to obtain similar results within different laboratories. The Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) was involved i...
Article
Matchsticks may be found in forensic investigations, and here we report on a method to generate informative DNA profiles from a matchstick. Matchsticks were struck or held emulating striking, cellular material was removed using a tape-lift method and DNA profiles were generated from a small portion of the tape-lift using either direct PCR amplifica...
Article
Full-text available
We report on a novel method for saliva identification by reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). In our previous report, real-time RT-LAMP was used for blood identification by using HBB detection as a model but in this advanced study, this method was refined for the identification of the more challenging body fluid o...
Article
Variation has been reported in the amount of DNA accumulating on the skin of individuals. A shedder status is the propensity of a person to transfer DNA to a substrate by touch. In previous tests of shedders, individuals washed their hands and after 15 minutes made contact with substrates at time points up to 180 minutes after handwashing. No exami...
Article
Touch DNA is one of the most common sample types submitted for DNA profiling. There is currently no process to visualise the presence of such DNA deposited when a person makes direct contact with items of forensic relevance. This report demonstrates the effective use of Diamond Dye to bind to DNA and allow visualisation of deposited cellular materi...
Article
Collection for touch DNA either at scenes or on items submitted to a forensic laboratory is based on assumptions as to where a person made direct contact. In many instances a swab may be applied to an area where no contact has been made. Many swabs may therefore be submitted for DNA profiling on which no DNA is present, resulting in the loss of bot...
Article
Full-text available
This report identifies and characterizes 10 novel short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the human X chromosome, all of which are within a range of 1.1 Mb. These newly characterized loci were developed to aid in kinship assignment when the X chromosome is specifically required. The repeat DNA sequences were identified initially using data in GenBank and...
Article
Full-text available
Violent contact between individuals during a crime can result in body fluids becoming trapped under the fingernails of the individuals involved. The traces under fingernails represent valuable forensic evidence because DNA profiling can indicate from whom the trace originated and proteomic methods can be used to determine the type of fluid in the t...
Article
Direct PCR from touch DNA has a range of potential applications in the field of forensic investigation for exhibit examination that, under standard extraction methods, rarely produce informative DNA profiles. Previous studies from 'touch DNA' have focussed on fingermarks created under laboratory conditions. Here we report on successful STR DNA prof...
Article
All previous examinations of the shedder status of individuals have been based on conclusions inferred from the amount of DNA deposited by donors after they have held an object for a fixed period of time. In all interpretations of shedder status experiments have involved a range uncertainties, especially in regards to results arising from studies c...
Article
Reptile species, and in particular snakes, are protected by national and international agreements yet are commonly handled illegally. To aid in the enforcement of such legislation, we report on the development of three 11-plex assays from the genome of the carpet python to type 24 loci of tetra-nucleotide and penta-nucleotide repeat motifs (pure, c...
Article
Tape-lifts can be used for the removal of a range of evidence types without damaging the substrate. In addition to loosely adhering material such as hairs and fibres, tape-lifts can be used to remove latent cellular material on clothing that had originated from the wearer’s body or mouth. Common forensic practice is to examine the entire tape-lift...
Article
Full-text available
Creating a robust set of hypervariable genetic markers for a species to assist forensic investigations regarding individualization and geographic assignment is both time and resource intensive. Yet, benefit can be maximized if the marker set has applicability in other closely related species of regulatory significance. We report a pilot study in wh...
Article
Full-text available
Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: The detection and identification of human blood on crime-related items are of particular relevance to many investigations because shed blood can provide evidence of violent contact between individuals. However, for any detection and identification technique, specificity is a critical performance characteristic to assess; that is, whethe...
Article
Full-text available
During a crime, biological material such as blood or vaginal fluid may become smeared on the fingers of the victim or suspect or trapped under their fingernails. The type of trapped fluid is extremely valuable forensic information. Furthermore, if either person touches an object at the crime scene with their ‘contaminated’ finger then a ‘contaminat...
Article
Foodborne pathogens pose significant problems for public health and economy. The gold standard, cultivation, is time-consuming and costly. In this study, a heptaplex-direct PCR assay for simultaneous detection of seven foodborne pathogens without DNA extraction and enrichment was developed and validated. Seven virulent genes of target strains were...
Article
Wildlife crime continues unabated contributing to the extinction or near extinction of many plant and animal species. Species identification is a key tool in the enforcement of national legislation. If no morphology exists, comparison of DNA sequences generated from a mitochondrial gene are compared to those on a reference database, commonly GenBan...
Article
Accurate sequencing of the control region of the mitochondrial genome is notoriously difficult due to the presence of polycytosine bases, termed C-tracts. The precise number of bases that constitute a C-tract and the bases beyond the poly cytosines may not be accurately defined when analyzing Sanger sequencing data separated by capillary electropho...