Adrian P. Hunt

Adrian P. Hunt

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345
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Publications

Publications (345)
Article
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An extensive record of desiccated coprolites of diverse Late Pleistocene taxa is preserved in caves of the American Southwest. These include 21 caves in Arizona, 12 in Utah, six in Texas, four in New Mexico and one in Nevada. The majority of the coprolites represent herbivores, which is extremely rare for coprofaunas. There are two distinct regions...
Book
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There is a long tradition of indirectly inferring feeding in fossil and Recent vertebrates from the functional morphology of bones and teeth. However, some trace fossils provide direct evidence of feeding, and the study of the ichnology of feeding dates to the 1820s–1830s. Trace fossils that document vertebrate consumption in all of its phases are...
Article
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Spiraxis interstrialis, and its junior synonym Fayolia mourloni, an uppermost Famennian (Upper Devonian) fossil first described as algae and subsequently interpreted as the oldest known chondrichthyan egg case, is reinvestigated based on the discovery of several additional specimens in Belgian collections. New data, in particular from micro-CT imag...
Article
Polished stones at archaeological sites are often identified as avian gastroliths, even though they lack a skeletal association. Such identification is based on the misconception that high polish characterizes gastroliths, an old idea refuted by diverse research. Thus, polished stones at archaeological sites are not necessarily gastroliths, and mor...
Article
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Abstract—The Kinney Brick Quarry Lagerstätte is an important Konservat Lagerstätte in the Manzanita Mountains of central New Mexico. Fossils occur in the lower part of the Tinajas Member of the Atrasado Formation of Missourian (Late Pennsylvanian) age. Three phases of collecting since the late 1980s have yielded a large sample of over 100 bromalite...
Article
The Carboniferous record of tetrapod footprints is mostly of Euramerican origin and provides the basis for a footprint biostratigraphy and biochronology of Carboniferous time that identifies four tetrapod footprint biochrons: (1) stem-tetrapod biochron of Middle Devonian-early Tournaisian age; (2) Hylopus biochron of middle-Tournaisian-early Bashki...
Chapter
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Borophagine canids, such as Borophagus, and bone-cracking hyaenids, share several craniodental features interpreted as adaptations to a durophagous diet. There are possible coprolites of Borophagus from the Miocene of Texas. Well preserved specimens of Borophagus coprolites occur in the late Miocene of California. A new specimen from the Pliocene o...
Article
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Newly described specimens of North American Eocene turtles provide valuable information on their morphology and, more specifically, variation, both intraspecific and ontogenetic. We describe several complete and nearly complete testudinoid (Testudinoidea) specimens, including juvenile specimens of Hadrianus corsoni, H. majusculus, Echmatemys hayden...
Conference Paper
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Vertebrate consumulites are bromalites preserved within the body cavity and include oralite (oral cavity), esophogalite (GI tract anterior to stomach), gastrolite (stomach), cololite (GI tract posterior to stomach), intestinelite (intestines) and enterospira (spiral valve). Evisceralites are preserved segments of infilled fossilized intestines pres...
Article
The Eocene Nanjemoy Formation crops out on the Maryland and Virginia Coastal Plain, along the eastern coast of the United States. This formation is composed of sands, silts and clays and is divided into the Potapaco and Woodstock members. Remains of fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, molluscs, fruits and seeds are common in the Potapaco Member, in a...
Chapter
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For more than a century, the Paleozoic units of the Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA) and nearby areas have yielded a remarkable collection of terrestrial vertebrate trace fossils, which are studied by the discipline named vertebrate ichnology. These traces were registered in the sediment, rapidly covered but not eroded by other sediment and later...
Chapter
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Coprolites have been studied for almost 200 years. Key workers include William Buckland, who first identified and named coprolites, Eric Callen, who recognized the importance of human coprolites and Paul Martin, who sparked interest in Pleistocene coprolites and their palynology. Bromalite are a grouping of trace fossil related to feeding that incl...
Article
In 1822, William Buckland first recognized Pleistocene vertebrate coprolites, and they are now known from more multiple localities with a global distribution. Carnivore coprolites dominate, and there are two distinct biogeographic and taphonomic provinces for vertebrate coprolites in the Pleistocene. The Castrocopros province of North and South Ame...
Conference Paper
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The Eocene Nanjemoy Formation crops out in Maryland and on the Virginia Coastal Plain, along the eastern coast of the USA. This formation is composed of glauconitic sands, silts and clays and is divided into the Potapaco and Woodstock members. Fossils of bivalves, sharks, rays, actinopterygian fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals, and of fruits and...
Conference Paper
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Dentalites encompass all trace fossils produced on a substrate by the teeth or oral cavity of a vertebrate. The substrate is most commonly bone but can be vegetation, invertebrate hard parts or even a coprolite. The study of vertebrate dentalites dates back to 1822. Some of the oldest tetrapod bones, of Late Devonian age, bear putative dentalites....
Chapter
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The diverse ichnofaunas of the Late Triassic have been studied for almost 200 years. During the Late Triassic, facies favorable for the preservation of trace fossils were the result of low sea levels, monsoonal climates and the development of extensive depositional basins as Pangea began to fragment. The most abundant vertebrate trace fossils in th...
Book
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The Rotten Hill bonebed is a Late Triassic fossil locality in the Texas Panhandle discovered by Floyd V. Studer in 1926, and collected primarily by WPA-funded excavations during the late 1930s and early 1940s. This locality is in the lower part of the Tecovas Formation (Chinle Group) and is of Adamanian (late Carnian) age. Forensic taphonomic analy...
Article
Vertebrate and invertebrate ichnology have different traditions—the ethological and the biotaxonomic—resulting in corresponding ethoichnofacies and biotaxonichnofacies. Archetypal vertebrate ichnofacies are Chelichnus, Grallator, Brontopodus, Batrachichnus, and Characichnos. Ichnofacies are discernable in nonmarine environments. Tetrapod trace foss...
Article
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The first vertebrate coprolite from the Upper Maastrichtian chalk of Denmark is described. The coprolite is 31 mm long, with a maximum diameter of 11 mm. Computed Tomography scanning of the specimen shows / revealed the internal structure to be tightly coiled, suggesting that the coprolite originates from a small shark with an estimated total lengt...
Article
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The Red Crag Formation (upper Pliocene-lower Pleistocene) yielded many vertebrate coprolites in the late Nineteenth Century as a result of coprolite mining. Indeed, coprolite mining had a significant impact on the development of vertebrate paleontology in Victorian England. The Red Crag Formation consists principally of shell-rich sandstones that f...
Article
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An isolated tooth from the Tecovas Formation of the Chinle Group, Crosby County, West Texas, represents the oldest definitive record of a prosauropod dinosaur from North America. Its age is Adamanian (latest Carnian, approximately 225 Ma) based on vertebrate biostratigraphy, palynostratigraphy and other data. It is clearly distinguished from isolat...
Article
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Here we describe five specimens of juvenile phytosaurs from several localities in the Upper Triassic Chinle Group of Texas and New Mexico. These include three specimens from localities in the Tecovas Formation (Texas) of Adamanian age and one each from the Revueltian-age Bull Canyon Formation and Apachean-age Travesser Formation of New Mexico. Alth...
Article
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Ankylosuchus chinlegroupensis is a new genus and species of heavily-armored archosauromorph from the Otischalkian Colorado City Formation of the Chinle Group in Howard County, West Texas. The incomplete holotype skeleton consists of cranial and pelvic (?) elements, vertebral centra, a partial limb shaft and numerous osteoderms. The skull elements r...
Article
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Rhynchosaurs are abundant in tetrapod faunas of the Middle and early Late Triassic (Carnian) of Gondwana and north-central Laurussia (the United Kingdom), but have long been unknown in Norian faunas. We describe and illustrate the first Norian record of rhynchosaurs, from the Bull Canyon Formation, east-central New Mexico. This record is based on t...
Article
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The National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.) contains one of the largest collections of vertebrate coprolites (and other bromalites) in the world. Specimens come from the middle-upper Paleozoic (
Article
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Buckland introduced the term coprolite for fossil excrement. During the last 50 years, an increasing number of workers have discussed the terminology of coprolites and associated trace fossils (e.g., gastro-intestinal tract infillings and regurgitated material), particularly with regard to spiral forms. More clarity and consistency is needed in the...
Article
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Vertebrate coprolites and Recent feces display a wide range of morphological variation. A relatively small number of authors have explicitly addressed the terminology used to describe coprolites. Spiral coprolites externally have the appearance of a ribbon coiled around a long axis, but internally they consist of stacked, and spiraling, cones. Scro...
Article
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The Bear Gulch Lagerstätte (Mississippian: Chesterian) of central Montana is characterized by its extensive ichthyofauna. The vertebrate ichnofauna includes six morphotypes/ichnotaxa of bromalites: (1) morphotype A coprolites are large and ovoid to pear shaped; (2) morphotype B coprolites are elongate and triangular in shape; (3) morphotype C copro...
Article
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There are two important coprolites localities of Late Pennsylvanian age in central New Mexico-the lagoonal Lagerstätten of the Kinney Brick quarry and the Tinajas locality. A new Late Pennsylvanian coprolite locality is from the Beeman Formation in the southeastern part of the state (Sacramento Mountains). The coprolites from the Beeman Formation w...
Article
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The Buckland collection at the University of Oxford Museum of Natural History (UK) is the oldest collection of coprolites in the world. It comprises Mesozoic and Cenozoic coprolites and other bromalites, the majority of which are derived from the Lower Lias of southwestern England. The collection includes the most comprehensive samples of two impor...
Article
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The Kinney Brick Quarry is a Late Pennsylvanian (middle Missourian) Konservat Lagerstätte in central New Mexico that yields a diverse paleofauna and paleoflora. The fossils derive from lagoonal shales in the Tinajas Member of the Atrasado Formation. Abundant new specimens provide for a re-assessment of the bromolite ichnofauna. A diverse bromalite...
Article
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We document Late Cretaceous (Kirtlandian and Edmontonian) through early Cenozoic (Puercan, Torrejonian and Wasatchian) vertebrate coprolites from the San Juan Basin in San Juan and Sandoval counties, New Mexico. A minimum of four morphotypes are present (spindle-shaped, elongated cylinders, cylindrical segments and conglomerated masses) that exhibi...
Article
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The Zaysan Basin of northeastern Kazakstan-northwestern China includes nonmarine coprolite-bearing strata of late Eocene age. Here, approximately 50 coprolites were collected from a single horizon stratigraphically low in the late Eocene (Ergilian land-mammal " age ") Aksyir svita. Two morphologies are present within the coprolite sample: (1) relat...
Article
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We document an extensive (at least 1 x 0.3 m) mass of a purgolite composed of strigilites (fossilized owl pellets) from the lower Oligocene (Orellan, ~32-33 Ma) Orella Member of the White River Formation near Douglas in eastern Wyoming, USA. These pellets are preserved as calcareous nodules full of fossil mammal bones that are either discrete, bord...
Article
Relatively large tetrapod footprints from Lower Pennsylvanian strata of the Pottsville Formation in the Warrior basin coal field of Alabama were previously assigned to the ichnogenus Attenosaurus. However, three morphotypes are present, and we assign these tracks to Attenosaurus, a new ichnogenus (Alabamasauripus) and Dimetropus. Most of these trac...
Article
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We report two nearly complete, articulated skeletons of the crurotarsan archosaur Typothorax coccinarum from the Upper Triassic Bull Canyon Formation of east-central New Mexico. These are the most complete, articulated aetosaurs from North America and provide a wealth of new anatomical and paleobiological data, including articulated presacral armor...
Article
Published records of supposed Triassic bees' nests are based on trace fossils in silicified wood and in sandstone in Upper Triassic strata of the Chinle Group in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. A critical, firsthand restudy of these trace fossils indicates that they lack diagnostic features of bees' nests, such as cells with smooth linings...
Article
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In a recent article in this journal, Fassett (2009) concludes that dinosaur fossils of Paleocene age are present in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico-Colorado. However, we argue that, based on existing data, Fassett has failed to produce compelling evi-dence to support this conclusion. In the San Juan Basin, only one arguably reworked dinosaur bone...
Article
A new, thin-shelled fossil from the Upper Triassic (Revueltian: Norian) Chinle Group of New Mexico, Chinlechelys tenertesta, is one of the most primitive known unambiguous members of the turtle stem lineage. The thin-shelled nature of the new turtle combined with its likely terrestrial habitat preference hint at taphonomic filters that basal turtle...
Article
Full-text available
A new, thin-shelled fossil from the Upper Triassic (Revueltian: Norian) Chinle Group of New Mexico, Chinlechelys tenertesta, is one of the most primitive known unambiguous members of the turtle stem lineage. The thin-shelled nature of the new turtle combined with its likely terrestrial habitat preference hint at taphonomic filters that basal turtle...
Article
We document here a new taxon of sphenodontian, Whitakersaurus bermani gen. et sp. nov., that is also the most complete sphenodontian fossil from the Upper Triassic Chinle Group in the south-western USA and the first Chinle sphenodontian represented by more than a single fragmentary dentulous element. The holotype was recovered during preparation of...