Adrian Davis

Adrian Davis
Public Health England | HPA · CKO

PhD Psychology

About

207
Publications
92,814
Reads
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57,327
Citations
Citations since 2016
12 Research Items
41736 Citations
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Additional affiliations
April 2014 - present
Public Health England
Position
  • Director Population Health Science

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
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Objective The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require population-based data on children with disabilities to inform global policies and intervention programs. We set out to compare the prevalence estimates of disabilities among children and adolescents younger than 20 years as reported by the world's leading organizations for g...
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The likelihood of a newborn child dying before their fifth birthday (under-5 mortality rate) is universally acknowledged as a reflection of the social, economic, health, and environmental conditions in which children (and the rest of society) live, but little is known about the likelihood of a newborn child having a lifelong disability before their...
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BACKGROUND: Estimates of children and adolescents with disabilities worldwide are needed to abstract inform global intervention under the disability-inclusive provisions of the Sustainable Development Goals. We sought to update the most widely reported estimate of 93 million children,15 years with disabilities from the Global Burden of Disease Stud...
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The most recent WHO estimate suggests that approximately 466 million people (or 6.1% of the world’s population) were living with disabling hearing loss in 2018.3 This estimate is projected to rise to 630 million by 2030 and to over 900 million by 2050. Approximately 90% of people with moderate to profound hearing impairment reside in low- and middl...
Article
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Objectives To investigate whether decreased otoacoustic emission (OAE) signal recordings in the right ear are associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and to monitor any temporal changes in risk factors. Design Retrospective case–control study. Setting Telephone interviews with families recruited in England between...
Article
Measuring disability is a complex endeavour. Reconciling differences between estimates or approaches across studies should not in any way distract from the moral dilemma of the unintended but inevitable consequences of the exclusive child survival agenda, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries during the MDG era. We believe that wai...
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Background: Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 18...
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Hearing loss and individual differences in normal hearing both have a substantial genetic basis. Although many new genes contributing to deafness have been identified, very little is known about genes/variants modulating the normal range of hearing ability. To fill this gap, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis on hearing thresholds (tested at 0....
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Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is an important cause of childhood deafness, which is modifiable if diagnosed within the first month of life. Targeted screening of infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening tests in England is a feasible approach to identify and treat cases to improve hearing outcome. To conduct a cost analysis of ta...
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To assess the performance of the universal newborn hearing screen in England. Retrospective analysis of population screening records. A total of 4 645 823 children born 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2013. 97.5% of the eligible population complete screening by 4/5 weeks of age and 98.9% complete screening by three months of age. The refer rate for the 12...
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Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) accounts for 20 % of all childhood sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) but is not routinely tested for at birth. Valganciclovir has been shown to prevent hearing deterioration and improve neurocognitive outcomes if started in the first month of life. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of integrating testing f...
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Background: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess wh...
Article
Objectives: It is known that childhood hearing function can become impaired after the occurrence of specific infections. However, evidence on the effect of common childhood infections on adult hearing function is limited. The objective of the study was to identify whether associations exist between the occurrence of common childhood infections in a...
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Background:The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal deat...
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Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 20...
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Background: In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date informati...
Article
Objective: To investigate the benefits in reported outcomes after providing bluetooth accessories for established hearing aid users. Design: Prospective observational study using validated quantitative outcome measures and detailed patient narrative before and two months after patients were provided with bluetooth accessories. Study sample: Tw...
Article
It would be a shame if the debate about the Inter99 trial was limited to the points raised in the accompanying editorial by Gotzsche and colleagues.1 2 Olsen has already pointed out in his rapid response that the stark message of the editorial’s title is not supported by its content.3 The NHS Health Check Expert Scientific and Clinical Advisory Pan...
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Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children. Ganciclovir has been shown to prevent the continued deterioration in hearing of children with symptomatic cCMV, but some children with cCMV-related SNHL are unidentified in the neonatal treatment period. Neonatal cCMV screening p...
Article
To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of U.K. adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. Th...
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Background: Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these we...
Article
Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and ner...
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Screening for a condition should only be undertaken if certain strict criteria are met. Congenital CMV (cCMV) is a leading cause of sensorineuronal hearing loss (SNHL) and meets many of these criteria, but is not currently screened for in the UK. Ganciclovir reduces CMV-induced progressive SNHL if treatment is begun in the first month of life. The...
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To screen hearing and evaluate outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Three thousand and twenty-five adults responded to an invitation to be screened by questionnaire, otoscopy, and pure-tone audiometry. Pure-tone average (PTA) >35 dB HL in the worse ear, unilateral hearing loss, or otoscopic findings were the criteria for referral for servic...
Article
Purpose: Ten percent of adults in England have some type of hearing loss and would greatly benefit from hearing aids or other forms of hearing management. However, 76% of these adults do not have hearing aids or other management. The impact of this unmet need can be substantial and has been linked to depression, social isolation, employment proble...
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Since estrogen is thought to protect pre-menopausal women from age-related hearing loss, we investigated whether variation in estrogen-signalling genes is linked to hearing status in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. This analysis implicated the estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) gene in determining adult hearing function and was investigated fur...
Article
Background: The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the...
Article
The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) constitutes an unprecedented collaboration of 488 scientists from 303 institutions in 50 countries, focusing on describing the state of health around the world using a uniform method. Results for the world and 21 regions for 1990 and 2010 have been reported for 291 dise...
Article
Objective: To examine the effectiveness of targeted surveillance for the identification of moderate-profound PCHI in babies who pass the newborn hearing screen in England and have risk factors. Design: Retrospective analysis. Study sample: 2,307,880 children born 01/04/06-30/09/09 in England. Results: Overall the prevalence for all PCHI in c...
Article
Background Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorpo...
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Background Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the defi nition and measurement of these wei...
Article
Full-text available
Background Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the defi nition and measurement of these wei...
Article
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Background: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and re...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorp...
Article
Full-text available
Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed ch...
Article
Full-text available
Background Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the defi nition and measurement of these wei...
Article
Full-text available
Background Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the defi nition and measurement of these wei...
Article
Background Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weig...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To explore the future potential of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss. Design: An expert led discussion of current and future developments in genetic technology and the knowledge base of genetic hearing loss to determine the viability of genetic screening and the implications for screening polic...
Article
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowled...
Article
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The public health challenge of hearing impairment is growing, as age is the major determinant of hearing loss. Almost one in four (22.6%) over 75-year olds reports moderate or severe worry because of hearing problems. There is a 40% comorbidity of tinnitus and balance disorders. Good outcomes depend on early presentation and appropriate referral. T...
Article
Background Congenital CMV (cCMV) causes up to 15% sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in the UK, however hearing outcomes may improve with ganciclovir treatment commencing in the first month of life. Targeted screening of infants who are ‘referred’ for further audiological testing after ‘no clear responses’ are found on their newborn hearing screen f...
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Full-text available
Background The mitochondrial DNA mutation m.1555A>G predisposes to permanent idiosyncratic aminoglycoside-induced deafness that is independent of dose. Research suggests that in some families, m.1555A>G may cause non-syndromic deafness, without aminoglycoside exposure, as well as reduced hearing thresholds with age (age-related hearing loss). Objec...
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Hearing impairment is a leading cause of disease burden, yet studies of its prevalence are rare. We present estimates of the global prevalence of hearing impairment generated for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. We estimated that 1.2% (0.8%-1.8%) of children under age 15, 9.8% (7.7%-13.2%) of females over age 15, and 12.2% (9.7%-16.2%) of m...
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Adult hearing screening may be a solution to the under-diagnosis and under-treatment of hearing loss in adults. Limited use and satisfaction with hearing aids indicate that consideration of alternative interventions following hearing screening may be needed. The primary aim of this study is to provide an overview of all intervention types that have...
Article
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the compatibility of the hearing screener with pure tone audiometry and its capacity to predict the need and benefit of HAs. The device is a low-cost, easy to handle and safe instrument. It screens at 1 and 3 kHz at three different intensity levels. The outcome of the screen is categorized into s...
Article
The acceptance of rehabilitative intervention by hearing impaired people is determined more by the severity of the emotional impact of the hearing impairment than by the impairment itself. The presence of a family history as a factor which could influence the emotional impact is explored in a household survey entailing responses for 34,362 individu...
Article
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were obtained from 688 ears of a group of 345 young adults aged 18 to 25 years, using the Otodynamics ILO88 in the standard, non-linear mode. Normative data for TEOAEs obtained from 186 otologically normal (ON) ears are presented. In 5 ON ears, there was no recordable response, despite hearing thresho...
Article
This paper describes a retrospective study of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) 40 dB HL in the better ear in children born between 1985 and 1990 and resident in Estonia. The prevalence rate of all permanent hearing impairment for the birth cohort 1985–1990 was 172 (95 per cent (CI 151-194) per 100,000 live births and that of congenital...
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Full-text available
The objective of the study was to investigate childhood hearing impairment in a population-based sample from a genetic perspective. Participants included 82 families with hearing-impaired children (aged 4-13) previously ascertained in the Trent Health Region. A questionnaire was mailed to all families, followed by a home visit and Connexin-26 35del...
Article
This paper provides an analysis of participation in paid employment for people with a hearing loss over the full span of adult ages. The paper is based on original analysis of the 2003 Australian survey of disability, aging and carers (SDAC). This analysis shows that hearing loss was associated with an increased rate of non-participation in employm...