Adriaan Bax

Adriaan Bax
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

About

40
Publications
6,763
Reads
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1,901
Citations
Citations since 2016
15 Research Items
1618 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
Migration to the lungs of an initial upper airway infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or other respiratory pathogens can lead to pneumonia, associated with progression from mild to severe symptoms. Chemical pneumonitis or bacterial pneumonia may be caused by the ‘macroaspiration’ of large volumes of oropharyn...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate measurements of the size and quantity of aerosols generated by various human activities in different environments are required for efficacious mitigation strategies and accurate modeling of respiratory disease transmission. Previous studies of speech droplets, using standard aerosol instrumentation, reported very few particles larger than...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) plays a key role in environmental chemistry, biology, and medicine. H 2 O 2 concentrations typically are 6 to 10 orders of magnitude lower than that of water, making its quantitative detection challenging. We demonstrate that optimized NMR spectroscopy allows direct, interference-free, quantitative measurements of H 2 O...
Article
Dry air alters salt and water balance in the upper airways and increases the risks of COVID-19 among other respiratory diseases. We explored whether such upper airway variations in salt and water balance might alter respiratory droplet generation and potentially contribute to observed impacts of airway hydration on respiratory disease. In a randomi...
Preprint
Droplets of oral fluid emitted by speaking are a long-recognized mechanism of respiratory virus transmission. While there have been many simulations of droplet evaporation to determine whether droplets containing virions remain floating in air or rapidly fall to the ground, they typically conceal the fundamental mechanisms because of the use of num...
Article
Full-text available
Speech droplets generated by asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly considered to be a likely mode of disease transmission. Highly sensitive laser light scattering observations have revealed that loud speech can emit thousands of oral fluid droplets per second. In a closed, stagnant ai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Speaking may be a primary mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Considering that reports of asymptomatic transmission account for 50-80% of COVID-19 cases and that saliva has peak viral loads at time of patient presentation, droplet emission while speaking could be a significant factor driving transmission and warrants further study. We used a planar...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson's disease has long been associated with redox imbalance and oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons. The catecholaldehyde hypothesis proposes that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate product of dopamine catabolism, is a central nexus in a network of pathways leading to disease-state neurodegeneration, owing to its toxici...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the presence in brain tissues of aberrant aggregates primarily formed by the protein α-synuclein. It has been difficult, however, to identify compounds capable of preventing the formation of such deposits because of the complexity of the aggregation process of α-synuclein. By exploiting recently...
Article
Cadherins are an ancient class of transmembrane proteins that mediate intercellular adhesion. Previous work from our laboratory and others established that the E-cadherin cytoplasmic tail forms a ternary complex with αE-catenin and β-catenin, and that αE-catenin forms a force-sensitive catch bond to filamentous (F)-actin as part of this complex. Bi...
Article
Full-text available
The native structure of the protein α-synuclein, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, is controversial. In-cell nuclear magnetic resonance now shows that it remains disordered when loaded into living cells.
Article
Full-text available
Significance Infection by HIV-1 requires fusion of viral and host cell membranes, a process mediated by viral protein gp41. Although extensive structural detail on both pre- and postfusion gp41 states is available from X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM studies, little is known about the actual transition. This NMR study of a trimeric gp41 ectodomai...
Article
The highly conserved first 23 residues of the influenza hemagglutinin HA2 subunit constitute the fusion domain, which plays a pivotal role in fusing viral and host-cell membranes. At neutral pH, this peptide adopts a tight helical hairpin wedge structure, stabilized by aliphatic hydrogen bonding and charge-dipole interactions. We demonstrate that a...
Article
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Article
Die Reaktion der gem-Dibrom-bicycloalkane (I) zu den trans- bzw. cis- Cycloole?- nen (II) und (III) in Abhängigkeit von der Ringgröße wird diskutiert.
Article
Two polyene antibiotics, nystatin and amphotericin A, were compared by physico-chemical and microbiological methods. The two antibiotics were found to have the same molecular weight, 926, by plasma desorption and electron-impact MS. However, 13C NMR spectrometry and HPLC studies indicated that the two molecules are different. The 200 MHz NMR studie...
Article
The structure of the antibiotic desertomycin has been determined by using modern two-dimensional NMR techniques. Mass spectroscopy indicated a Mr of 1192. All other structural information was obtained from 1H and 13C NMR. 1H-1H double-quantum-filtered COSY and homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy in combination with heteronuclear shift correlatio...
Chapter
The idea of two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform NMR, first introduced by Jeener (1) has proven to be very powerful for analyzing the NMR spectra of compounds of high complexity. The general theory of 2D NMR was described by Aue et al. (2) in 1976, and has provided the theoretical basis for the development of a large number of new one- and two-di...
Chapter
Two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy has been developed during the past decade to become an extremely powerful tool, greatly expanding the applicability of NMR to chemical and biochemical structural problems. The fundamental aspects of 2D NMR will be discussed and some of the basic pulse schemes will be treated in more detail. The application of 2...
Article
Es wird eine einfache Modifizierung der lNEPT-Methode zur Polarisierung nicht-protonierter "N-Kerne in Peptiden beschrieben und an dem cyclischen Hexapeptid (D-Ala- L-Pro-L-Ala); demonstriert.

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