Adnan Hodžić

Adnan Hodžić
University of Vienna | UniWien · Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science

DVM - MVSc - PhD - Dipl. EVPC

About

69
Publications
20,775
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1,228
Citations
Citations since 2017
52 Research Items
1152 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
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Background Hepatozoon spp. are tick-borne parasites causing subclinical to clinical disease in wild and domestic animals. Aim of this study was to determine Hepatozoon prevalence and species distribution among wild mammals and ticks in Europe. Methods Samples of wild mammals and ticks, originating from Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Bel...
Article
Hepatozoon silvestris (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) is a recently described agent of feline hepatozoonosis. Although possibly emerging in Europe, this apicomplexan parasite is still largely unknown. Here, we provide insight into our current knowledge of the parasite’s distribution, biology, and pathogenesis of the associated disease.
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Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is recognized as one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, no systemic investigation of the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. circulating among animals and humans in the country has been performed to date. Methods: In this preliminary study, we analysed on...
Article
Gastrointestinal helminths have developed multiple mechanisms by which they manipulate the host microbiome to make a favorable environment for their long-term survival. While the impact of helminth infections on vertebrate host immunity and its gut microbiota is relatively well studied, little is known about the structure and functioning of microbi...
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Background Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is caused by the tick-borne pathogen Ehrlichia canis, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium of the family Anaplasmataceae with tropism for canine monocytes and macrophages. The trp36 gene, which encodes for the major immunoreactive protein TRP36 in E. canis, has been successfully used to ch...
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A scarcity of information on the occurrence of zoonotic vector‐borne pathogens (VBPs), alongside a lack of human and animal health authorities’ awareness of pre‐existing data, augment the risk of VBP infection for local people and limit our ability to establish control programs. This holds especially true in low‐middle income countries such as Bosn...
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Aspergillosis is a fungal infection caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus that often results in respiratory disease in birds. Aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in managed penguin species. Currently, there is no registered vaccine to prevent aspergillosis. Recent research demonstrated that oral administration of gram-negativ...
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Human and animal pathogens that are transmitted by arthropods are a global concern, particularly those vectored by ticks (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi and tick‑borne encephalitis virus) and mosquitoes (e.g. malaria and dengue virus). Breaking the circulation of pathogens in permanent foci by controlling vectors using acaricide‑based approaches is thre...
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Red foxes are the most abundant wild carnivore species in Europe commonly exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and Hepatozoon canis. Despite high seroprevalence, the clinical disease caused by these pathogens in red foxes has never been reported. Herein, we report the first-ever case of a fatal Leptospira spp. and H. canis coinfection in a two-month-ol...
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The α-Gal syndrome is a complex allergic disease characterized by the development of specific IgE antibodies against the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal), an oligosaccharide present in cells and tissues of non-primate mammals. Individuals with IgE antibodies to α-Gal suffer from a delayed form of anaphylaxis following red meat consump...
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Tick-borne pathogen co-infections are common in nature. Co-infecting pathogens interact with each other and the tick microbiome, which influences individual pathogen fitness, and ultimately shapes virulence, infectivity, and transmission. In this review, we discuss how tick-borne pathogens are an ideal framework to study the evolutionary dynamics o...
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The lack of tools for the precise manipulation of the tick microbiome is currently a major limitation to achieve mechanistic insights into the tick microbiome. Anti-tick microbiota vaccines targeting keystone bacteria of the tick microbiota alter tick feeding, but their impact on the taxonomic and functional profiles of the tick microbiome has not...
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The main importance of ticks resides in their ability to harbor pathogens that can be transmitted to terrestrial vertebrates including humans. Recently, studies have focused on the taxonomic and functional composition of the tick microbiome, its microbial diversity and variation under different factors including tick species, sex, and environment a...
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Ticks and the pathogens they transmit, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. The ability of some animal species to acquire resistance to blood-feeding by ticks after a single or repeated infestation is known as acquired tick resistance (ATR). This resistance has been...
Article
Ehrlichia canis is among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs worldwide, being primarily vectored by brown dog ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). The genetic variability of E. canis has been assessed by analysis of different genes (e.g., disulfide bond formation protein gene, glycoprotein 19, tandem repeat protein...
Article
Protists of the genus Cytauxzoon infect a wide variety of wild and domestic felids worldwide. While the American Cytauxzoon felis has been well described, data on the European isolates of Cytauxzoon are still scant. The aim of the current study was to determine the genetic diversity of European Cytauxzoon spp. in wild felids across Europe by analyz...
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The tick microbiota is a highly complex ensemble of interacting microorganisms. Keystone taxa, with a central role in the microbial networks, support the stability and fitness of the microbial communities. The keystoneness of taxa in the tick microbiota can be inferred from microbial co-occurrence networks. Microbes with high centrality indexes are...
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has affected millions of people worldwide. Considerably lower prevalence and fatality rates resulting from COVID-19 are reported in Africa and Asia than in the industrialized world. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the poss...
Article
Humans and crown catarrhines evolved with the inability to synthesize the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal). In turn, they naturally produce high quantities of the glycan-specific antibodies that can be protective against infectious agents exhibiting the same carbohydrate modification on their surface coat. The protective immunity i...
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Migratory birds can transport infected ticks across continents. We evaluated pathogens in ticks collected from migratory birds in Italy. We found DNA from Rickettsia aeschlimannii, R. africae, and R. raoultii bacteria, which can cause disease in humans. Bird migrations might facilitate the spread of these pathogens into new areas.
Article
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Naturally occurring human antibodies (Abs) of the isotypes IgM and IgG and reactive to the galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) epitope are associated with protection against infectious diseases, caused by pathogens expressing the glycan. Gut microbiota bacteria expressing α-Gal regulate the immune response to this glycan in animals lacking endogenous...
Article
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Gal syndrome (AGS) is a type of anaphylactic reaction to mammalian meat characterized by an immunoglobulin (Ig)E immune response to the oligosaccharide α-Gal (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R). Tick bites seems to be a prerequisite for the onset of the allergic disease in humans, but the implication of non-tick parasites in α-Gal sensitization has also been...
Article
In the present study, we investigated blood samples of 196 invasive Reeve's muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and 91 native roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) originating from the same area in Thetford Forest in Eastern England for the occurrence of blood pathogens such as Anaplasmatacae, Rickettsiales and Piroplasmida (Babesia spp., Theileria spp.) by using...
Article
Wild carnivores are important hosts for ixodid ticks and presumed reservoirs for several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of medical and veterinary importance. However, little is known about the role that the European grey wolf (Canis lupus) plays in the enzootic cycle of TBPs. The recent recolonization of Central European lowland, including some region...
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Human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and environmental pollution lead to a reduction in the spatial boundary between wild animals, domestic animals and humans. These activities increase the risk for the emergence of pathogens from the sylvatic cycle in the population of domestic animals and humans. Foxes are recognized as potential...
Article
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Due to the functional inactivation of the gene encoding for the enzyme that is involved in the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) synthesis, humans and Old-World primates are able to produce a large amount of antibodies against the glycan epitope. Apart from being involved in the hyperacute organ rejection in humans, anti-α-Gal antib...
Article
The α-Gal syndrome is a tick-associated and emerging IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction directed against the carbohydrate Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal) epitope after red meat intake. Herein, we describe a clinical case of a 44-year-old French patient who suffered from recurrent anaphylactic reactions after mammalian meat consumption for fiv...
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Background Toltrazuril is frequently administered for the metaphylactic control of piglet cystoisosporosis. In a previous study, the efficacy of parenteral toltrazuril (45 mg/piglet, Group Forceris®) applied on the 2nd day of life (dol), and of oral toltrazuril (20 mg/kg of body weight, Group Baycox®) applied on the 4th dol was evaluated in an expe...
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Tick bites can cause the alpha-gal syndrome, which is characterized by delayed anaphylactic reactions mainly to red meat and offal due to IgE antibodies against mammalian galactose-alpha-1.3-galactose carbohydrate (alpha-gal). Ixodes ricinus bites are considered the primary cause of IgE antibody responses specific for alpha-gal in Europe. This arti...
Article
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The α-Gal syndrome (AGS) is a type of allergy characterized by an IgE antibody (Ab) response against the carbohydrate Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal), which is present in glycoproteins from tick saliva and tissues of non-catarrhine mammals. Recurrent tick bites induce high levels of anti-α-Gal IgE Abs that mediate delayed hypersensitivity to consume...
Article
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Despite close association between camels and humans, molecular based studies on vector-borne pathogens infecting camels are scarce compared to other animals in Iran. The current study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne bacteria in the blood of dromedaries by molecular tools. A total of 200 peripheral blood samples were co...
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Canine pathogens transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods are of significant importance for veterinary and, in some cases, human health. However, they are still underestimated and rarely investigated in many parts of the Mediterranean region, mostly due to financial reasons. Therefore, in the present paper, we investigated the occurrence of blood-as...
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Over the last 30 years, Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae) has increasingly been reported as an agent of ocular infections in animals and humans throughout Europe. Following the cases of canine ocular thelaziosis recently recorded in Austria for the first time, in the present paper, we describe the first case of T. callipaeda infection in...
Article
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Leishmania infantum causes potentially life-threatening disease in humans. To determine the extent of the animal reservoir for this pathogen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, we tested dogs and cats. We found that a large proportion of dogs were exposed to or infected with L. infantum, indicating endemicity in dogs and zoonotic risk for humans.
Article
Abstract Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum, is a zoonotic vector-borne disease endemic in the Mediterranean region. Here, we report a molecularly confirmed case of fatal CanL caused by L. infantum in the south of Bosnia and Herzegovina where epidemiology data are scarce. A 2.5-year-old, male golden retriever presented with a...
Article
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We report on a non-indigenous adult Hyalomma marginatum tick in Austria carrying the human pathogenic Rickettsia aeschlimannii; presumably introduced as a nymph via migratory birds and completed the moulting within the same year. It was negative for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, but the finding of R. aeschlimannii represents a potential t...
Article
Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from...
Article
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, a dog tapeworm is a species complex causing cystic echinococcosis or hydatid disease in a great variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, including humans. This complex comprises five species including Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype or cattle strain). In the present paper, we report the first case of infection...
Article
Cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are vectors of the zoonotic bacterial pathogens Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia felis, which are the causative agents of ‘‘cat scratch disease’’ and ‘‘cat flea typhus,’’ respectively. In the surroundings of Vienna (Austria), we identified 11 (10.5%; n = 105) B. henselae-positive fleas originating from 8...
Article
Species of the genus Hepatozoon (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) are arthropod-transmitted protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. In the present study, we describe a new species of Hepatozoon primarily infecting martens and propose the name Hepatozoon martis n. sp., based on its unique morphological, molecular and pathogenic fe...
Article
Wild felids may play a significant role in the transmission of various pathogens to domestic cats, in particular, but also to other animals and humans. However, since data on the occurrence of blood-borne organisms in European wild cats (Felis silvestris silvestris) are scarce, the present study aimed to provide an insight into the genetic diversit...
Article
Filarial nematodes of the Eulimdana genus inhabit subcutaneous tissue of various avian species, mostly Charadriiforme birds. In domestic pigeons, E. clava is the only species recorded in the subcutaneous tissue in a number of isolated cases. In the present study, we discuss the morphology and histopathology of filarial nematodes recovered from subc...
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Background: Among hard tick (Acari: Ixodidae) genera, the genus Ixodes Latreille, 1795 contains the highest number of species. Traditionally, this genus was subdivided into different subgenera. In Europe, members of the subgenus Pholeoixodes are usually associated with burrow-dwelling mammals and terrestrial birds. Considering Pholeoixodes spp. fro...
Article
Onchocerca lupi is an emerging zoonotic parasite infecting the ocular connective tissue of dogs, cats and humans. The only known case of canine ocular onchocercosis in Germany was documented in 2002 in a shelter dog. However, the species of Onchocerca causing the infection could not be identified. Here, we report a case of the ocular infection with...
Article
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox populati...
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Here we describe fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by Cysticercus longicollis, the larval stage of Taenia crassiceps in a 15-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) from Sarajevo Zoo. After sudden death, the lemur was subjected to necropsy and large multicystic structure, subdivided with fibrous septa and filled with numerous translucent...
Article
Three species of Hepatozoon, namely, Hepatozoon felis, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon silvestris may affect domestic and/or wild felids. Although hepatozoonosis has been documented in a wide range of mammal species, data on cats are limited. To investigate the occurrence of these pathogens in cats, blood samples were collected from animals in thre...
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The neozoan species raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are widespread in Europe and potential vectors of many diseases that can threaten human and domestic animal health. Facing a further spread of these species, it is important to know about (i) pathogens imported and/or (ii) pathogens acquired in the new habitat. T...
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Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae, Babesia microti-like, Babesia vulpes) is a recently recognized tick-borne piroplasm that infects domestic and wild carnivores. Although Ixodes hexagonus is considered as the leading candidate responsible for the transmission, its capacity to act as a competent vector has not yet been confirmed. This study...
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Based on morphological and genetic characteristics, we describe a new species of Hepatozoon in the European wild cat (Felis silvestris silvestris), herein named Hepatozoon silvestris sp. nov. The study also provides the first data on the occurrence of H. felis in this wild felid. Hepatozoon meronts were observed in multiple cross-sections of differ...
Article
The European badger (Meles meles)is a widespread mammal in most countries of the European continent, with increasingly recognized veterinary/medical importance owing to its preferred habitats (including pastures and urban environments), broad spectrum of food items, and role as a game hunting target. However, ticks and tick-borne pathogens associat...
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To the Editor: In the past 30 years, war in the Balkans, the fall of Communist regimes, and economic recession in Europe have undermined the economic stability of countries in eastern Europe and eventually favored occurrence of so-called neglected infections of poverty. Parasitic infections causing eye disease in persons living in areas with low...
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Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of...
Article
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii)...
Article
This study reports a new case of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) infection in a fox from the Czech Republic, and provides confirmatory evidence on the occurrence of this newly identified sequence type. However, further studies are needed to investigate the distribution, host range and possible vector(s) for this bacterium, as well as its impact...
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Background: In the past few years the interest of the scientific community on lungworms of the genus Troglostrongylus has grown due to the increased number of unexpected cases of infections with Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from Mediterranean Europe, likely due to a spill-over from wild reservoirs. Thus, there is a merit to increase ou...
Article
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the tick fauna is very diverse, but data on the occurrence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis’, Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Francisella tular...
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Background Candidatus Neoehrlichia came under the focus of recent research in terms of human and pet relevance. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis seems to be relatively abundant in animals and humans from Central European countries, whereas Candidatus Neoehrlichia lotoris was found solely in raccoons from the USA. Findings Spleen samples from a t...
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Pearsonema plica is a widely distributed nematode parasite that occurs in the urinary tract of various domestic and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and geographical distribution of P. plica and associated urinary bladder pathology in 112 red foxes (70 males, 42 females; 87 adults >1 year, 25 juveniles <1 yea...
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Background Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have recently been recognized as potential reservoirs of several vector-borne pathogens and a source of infection for domestic dogs and humans, mostly due to their close vicinity to urban areas and frequent exposure to different arthropod vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distrib...
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The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis among free-living red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For this purpose, a total of 123 fecal samples from red foxes, shot during hunting seasons between January 2011 and March 2012 were examined using immunofluoresc...
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Background: Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), also known as "oriental eyeworm", is a small nematode parasite that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and even humans, causing mild (e.g., conjunctivitis, epiphora, and ocular discharge) to severe (e.g., keratitis, and corneal ulcers) ocular disease. This...
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Streptocara spp. infections are reported to cause gastritis, proventriculitis, esophagitis, and pharyngitis in various waterfowls, especially diving ducks. In the present paper, we describe severe fatal diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in three female mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior...
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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver. Methods: Blood samples and...

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