Adam Zachary Wyner

Adam Zachary Wyner
Swansea University | SWAN · School of Law and Department of Computer Science

PhD

About

144
Publications
28,255
Reads
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1,433
Citations
Citations since 2016
37 Research Items
894 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - present
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2010 - December 2012
University of Liverpool
Position
  • Research Associate
February 2010 - May 2010
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Full-text available
The first issue of Artificial Intelligence and Law journal was published in 1992. This paper offers some commentaries on papers drawn from the Journal’s third decade. They indicate a major shift within Artificial Intelligence, both generally and in AI and Law: away from symbolic techniques to those based on Machine Learning approaches, especially t...
Article
Full-text available
The first issue of Artificial Intelligence and Law journal was published in 1992. This paper provides commentaries on nine significant papers drawn from the Journal’s second decade. Four of the papers relate to reasoning with legal cases, introducing contextual considerations, predicting outcomes on the basis of natural language descriptions of the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Tools must be developed to help draft, consult, and explore textual legal sources. Between statistical information retrieval and the formalization of textual rules for automated legal reasoning, we defend a more pragmatic third way that enriches legal texts with a coarse-grained, interpretation-neutral, semantic annotation layer. The aim is that le...
Article
Full-text available
The task of rhetorical role labeling is to assign labels (such as Fact, Argument, Final Judgement, etc.) to sentences of a court case document. Rhetorical role labeling is an important problem in the field of Legal Analytics, since it can aid in various downstream tasks as well as enhances the readability of lengthy case documents. The task is chal...
Preprint
This work aims to connect the Automotive User Interfaces (Auto-UI) and Conversational User Interfaces (CUI) communities through discussion of their shared view of the future of automotive conversational user interfaces. The workshop aims to encourage creative consideration of optimistic and pessimistic futures, encouraging attendees to explore the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent success of knowledge graphs has spurred interest in applying knowledge graphs in open science, such as on intelligent survey systems for scientists. However, efforts to understand the quality of candidate survey questions provided by these methods have been limited. Indeed, existing methods do not consider the type of on-the-fly content plan...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose Knowledge Graph (KG), an articulated underlying semantic structure, as a semantic bridge between humans, systems, and scientific knowledge. To illustrate our proposal, we focus on KG-based intelligent survey systems. In state-of-the-art systems, information is hard-coded or implicit, making it hard for researchers to reuse...
Article
Full-text available
Disputes over causes play a central role in legal argumentation and liability attribution. Legal approaches to causation often struggle to capture cause-in-fact in complex situations, e.g. overdetermination, preemption, omission. In this paper, we first assess three current theories of causation (but-for, NESS, ‘actual causation’) to illustrate the...
Chapter
In the paper we propose a dynamic and informative solution to an intelligent survey system that is based on knowledge graph. To illustrate our proposal, we focus on ordering the questions of the questionnaire component by their acceptance, along with conditional triggers that further customise participants’ experience, making the system dynamic. Ev...
Preprint
Automatically understanding the rhetorical roles of sentences in a legal case judgement is an important problem to solve, since it can help in several downstream tasks like summarization of legal judgments, legal search, and so on. The task is challenging since legal case documents are usually not well-structured, and these rhetorical roles may be...
Article
Full-text available
The internet and the development of the semantic web have created the opportunity to provide structured legal data on the web. However, most legal information is in text. It is difficult to automatically determine the right natural language answer about the law to a given natural language question. One approach is to develop systems of legal ontolo...
Conference Paper
In many legal disputes, determining and evaluating cause-in-fact is a crucial step in the liability attribution. It is, however, difficult and opaque. In this paper, we analyse the cases of overdetermination, where there is more than one cause for the outcome. The proposed framework (FCA) employs logic-based argument modelling. It distinguishes ind...
Article
There are well-developed formal and computational theories of argumentation to reason in the face of inconsistency, some with implementations; there are recent efforts to extract arguments from large textual corpora. Both developments are leading towards automated processing and reasoning with inconsistent, linguistically expressed knowledge in ord...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel method to address legal rights for children through a chatbot framework by integrating machine learning, a dialogue graph, and information extraction. The method addresses a significant problem: we cannot presume that children have common knowledge about their rights or express themselves as an adult might. In our framew...
Chapter
Legal causation is a complex aspect of legal reasoning. Due to its significant role in the attribution of legal responsibility, it is important that there is a clear understanding of the requirements for establishing and reasoning with causal links. This paper presents preliminary results of modelling causal arguments based on the legal decisions w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Contrastive opinion mining is essential in identifying, extracting and organising opinions from user generated texts. Most existing studies separate input data into respective collections. In addition, the relationships between the topics extracted and the sentences in the corpus which express the topics are opaque, hindering our understanding of t...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of two text analytic projects on the Aberdeen burgh records, which are legal records of the city of Aberdeen, Scotland. These records contain detailed information about a range of activities in the city and their legal treatment. The projects cover the periods 1398–1511 (Law in the Aberdeen Council Registers project...
Chapter
Law is an explicit system of rules to govern the behaviour of people. Legal practitioners must learn to apply legal knowledge to the facts at hand. The United States Multistate Bar Exam (MBE) is a professional test of legal knowledge, where passing indicates that the examinee understands how to apply the law. This paper describes an initial attempt...
Article
Full-text available
There are large and growing textual corpora in which people express contrastive opinions about the same topic. This has led to an increasing number of studies about contrastive opinion mining. However, there are several notable issues with the existing studies. They mostly focus on mining contrastive opinions from multiple data collections , which...
Conference Paper
We present an approach to reasoning with knowledge bases comprised of strict and defeasible rules over literals. A controlled natural language is proposed as a human/machine interface to facilitate the specification of knowledge and verbalisation of results. Techniques from formal argumentation theory are employed to justify conclusions of the appr...
Article
Full-text available
In common law jurisdictions, legal professionals cite facts and legal principles from precedent cases to support their arguments before the court for their intended outcome in a current case. This practice stems from the doctrine of stare decisis, where cases that have similar facts should receive similar decisions with respect to the principles. I...
Article
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In multi-agent systems (MAS), abstract argumentation and argumen-tation schemes are increasingly important. To be useful for MAS, argumentation schemes require a computational approach so that agents can use the components of a scheme to present arguments and counterarguments. This paper proposes a syntactic analysis that integrates argumentation s...
Article
Full-text available
In many domains of public discourse such as arguments about public policy, there is an abundance of knowledge to store, query, and reason with. To use this knowledge, we must address two key general problems: first, the problem of the knowledge acquisition bottleneck between forms in which the knowledge is usually expressed, e.g., natural language,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been a rapid growth of research interest in natural language processing that seeks to better understand sentiment or opinion expressed in text. However, most research focus on developing new models for opinion mining, with little efforts being devoted to the development of curated datasets for training and evaluation of these models. This...
Conference Paper
Legislation and regulations are required to be structured and augmented in order to make them serviceable on the Internet. However, it is known that it is complex to accurately parse and semantically represent such texts. Controlled languages have been one approach to adjusting to the complexities, where the source text is rewritten in some systema...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes and evaluates a novel feature set for stance classification of argumentative texts; i.e. deciding whether a post by a user is for or against the issue being debated. We model the debate both as attitude bearing features, including a set of automatically acquired ‘topic terms’ associated with a Distributional Lexical Model (DLM)...
Article
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 16161 "Natural Language Argumentation: Mining, Processing, and Reasoning over Textual Arguments", 17--22 April 2016. The seminar brought together leading researchers from computational linguistics, argumentation theory and cognitive psychology communities to discuss the obtained...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2016, held in Aberdeen, UK, in July 2016. The 11 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 15 submissions. The topics range from natural languages which are controlled, to controlled languages with a natural lan...
Article
In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of research interest in natural language processing that seeks to better understand sentiment or opinion expressed in text. There are several notable issues in most previous work in sentiment analysis, among them: the trained classifiers are domain-dependent; the labeled corpora required for training c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This tutorial presents the principles of the OASIS LegalRuleML applied to the legal domain and discusses why, how, and when LegalRuleML is well-suited for modelling norms. To provide a framework of reference, we present a comprehensive list of requirements for devising rule interchange languages that capture the peculiarities of legal rule modellin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Tools for e-participation are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we argue that existing tools exhibit a number of limitations, and that these can be addressed by basing tools on developments in the field of computational argumentation. After discussing the limitations, we present an argumentation scheme which can be used to justify poli...
Article
Argumentation Frameworks (AFs) provide a fruitful basis for exploring issues of defeasible reasoning. Their power largely derives from the abstract nature of the arguments within the framework, where arguments are atomic nodes in an undifferentiated relation of attack. This abstraction conceals different senses of argument, namely a single-step rea...
Chapter
Starting in the 1980s with the British Nationality Act 1981, there have been efforts to represent legislation as executable logic programs. With such programs, the objective is to draw inferences given base facts, test alternative scenarios, check the representation (and law) for consistency, serve the legislation as web-pages on the internet, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Legislative documents are by their own nature subject to interpretation, and interpretations of one document can diverge. In this paper we discuss the mechanism proposed by LegalRuleML to capture alternative interpretations or renderings of a legal source. LegalRuleML allows for mutually incompatible renderings (or interpretations) of a legal sourc...
Article
The paper discusses the architecture and development of an Argument Workbench, which supports an analyst in reconstructing arguments from across textual sources. The workbench takes a semi-automated, interactive approach searching in a corpus for fine-grained argument elements, which are concepts and conceptual patterns in expressions that are asso...
Article
The articles in this volume highlight and advance issues about policy content analysis and modelling. One issue is about the relationship between formal modelling, which allows one to prove properties of the policy, and simulation, which allows one to execute the policy in a multi-agent setting. In some work, formal modelling and simulation are dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Argumentation Frameworks (AFs) provide a fruitful basis for exploring issues of defeasible reason- ing. Their power largely derives from the abstract na- ture of the arguments within the framework, where ar- guments are atomic nodes in an undifferentiated relation of attack. This abstraction conceals different concep- tions of argument, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several XML-based standards have been proposed for describing rules (RuleML, RIF, SWRL, SBVR, etc.), or specific dialects (RuleML family [1,2]). In 2009, the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF [4]) was proposed to extend rule languages to account for the specifics of the legal domain and to manage legal resources. To further develop the repre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present the motivation, use cases, design principles, abstract syntax, and initial core of LegalRuleML. The LegalRuleML-core is sufficiently rich for expressing legal sources, time, defeasibility, and deontic operators. An example is provided. LegalRuleMLis compared to related work.
Conference Paper
Argument schemes can provide a means of explicitly describing reasoning methods in a form that lends itself to computation. The reasoning required to distinguish cases in the manner of CATO has been previously captured as a set of argument schemes. Here we present argument schemes that encapsulate another way of reasoning with cases: using preferen...
Article
Citizens have a variety of ways to consult with their representatives about policy proposals, seeking justifications, objecting to all or part of it, or making a counter-proposal. For the first, the representative needs only to state a justification. For the second, the representative would want to understand the objections, which may involve askin...
Article
In this article we offer a formal account of reasoning with legal cases in terms of argumentation schemes. These schemes, and undercutting attacks associated with them, are formalized as defeasible rules of inference within the ASPIC+ framework. We begin by modelling the style of reasoning with cases developed by Aleven and Ashley in the CATO proje...
Article
In previous work we presented argumentation schemes to capture the CATO and value based theory construction approaches to reasoning with legal cases with factors. We formalised the schemes with ASPIC+, a formal representation of instantiated argumentation. In ASPIC+ the premises of a scheme may either be a factor provided in a knowledge base or est...
Article
Full-text available
Legally binding regulations are expressed in natural language. Yet, we cannot formally or automatically reason with regulations in that form. Defeasible Logic has been used to formally represent the semantic interpretation of regulations; such representations may provide the abstract specification for a machinereadable and processable representatio...
Article
The paper reports the outcomes of a study with law school students to annotate a corpus of legal cases for a variety of annotation types, e.g. citation indices, legal facts, rationale, judgement, cause of action, and others. An online tool is used by a group of annotators that results in an annotated corpus. Differences amongst the annotations are...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International RuleML Symposium, RuleML 2013, held in Seattle, WA, USA, in July 2013 - collocated with the 27th AAAI 2013. The 22 full papers,12 technical papers in main track, 3 technical papers in human language technology track, and 4 tutorials presented together with 3 invited talks were...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mining social media for opinions is important to governments and businesses. Current approaches focus on sentiment and opinion detection. Yet, people also justify their views, giving arguments. Understanding arguments in social media would yield richer knowledge about the views of individuals and collectives. Extracting arguments from social media...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Citizens may engage with policy issues both to critique offi-cial justifications, and to make their own proposals and receive reasons why they are not favoured. Either direction of use can be supported by argumentation schemes based on formal models, which can be used to verify and generate arguments, assimilate objections etc. Previously we have e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In systems biology, networks represent components of biological systems and their interactions. It is a challenge to efficiently represent, integrate and analyse the wealth of information that is now being created in biology, where issues concerning consistency arise. As well, the information offers novel methods to explain and explore biological p...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of...
Article
Full-text available
An important aspect of e-democracy is consultation, in which policy proposals are presented and feedback from citizens is received and assimilated so that these proposals can be re-fined and made more acceptable to the citizens affected by them. We present an innovative web-based application that uses recent developments in multi-agent systems (MAS...
Conference Paper
To make legal texts machine processable, the texts may be represented as linked documents, semantically tagged text, or translated to formal representations that can be automatically reasoned with. The paper considers the latter, which is key to testing consistency of laws, drawing inferences, and providing explanations relative to input. To transl...
Article
Full-text available
Argumentation is key to understanding and evaluating many texts. The arguments in the texts must be identified; using current tools, this requires substan-tial work from human analysts. With a rule-based tool for semi-automatic text anal-ysis support, we facilitate argument identification. The tool highlights potential ar-gumentative sections of a...