Adam Winsler

Adam Winsler
George Mason University | GMU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D., Stanford University

About

153
Publications
142,104
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,141
Citations
Introduction
Dr Winsler is professor of applied developmental psychology at George Mason University in Fairfax, VA USA. He does research in the areas of school readiness for low-income, ethnically diverse children, bilingual language development, private speech, self-regulation, and executive functioning in typical children and children with behavior problems, ADHD, and/or autism. see more at http://winslerlab.gmu.edu
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - present
George Mason University

Publications

Publications (153)
Article
Full-text available
Preschoolers spend much time with digital media and some are concerned about impacts on language development. Private speech (PS) is self-talk children use during play, representing a necessary form of self-regulation. This study examined whether modality (material vs. digital) matters for children’s PS. Twenty-nine White 5-yr-olds (52% female) com...
Article
This study aims to examine relations between Chinese preschoolers’ physical well-being (physical fitness and motor skills), executive functioning, and academic skills (receptive language, math, and science skills) at the end of the Kindergarten year, the last year of preschool in the Chinese early childhood education system. A total of 273 children...
Article
Foreign language learning is generally not required in the United States, despite its link to various cognitive and social benefits later in life. Students who speak a home language different from the instructional language of school may experience unique benefits when learning additional languages in school. The present study examined whether stud...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Motivation among young athletes can be reflected in their self-talk, a behavior that is often encouraged by coaches. Most research on self-talk in sport involves self-report, thus observational studies of the actual self-talk used in sport in relation to athlete motivation and coach support are needed. Methods: We observed young elite t...
Article
In this study, we use a large-scale (n = 33,717) ethnically diverse (59% Latinx, 34% Black, and 7% White/other) largely low-income sample to assess the predictive power of a wide range of school readiness skills measured at age four in preschool on authentic academic outcomes through Grade 5. Specifically, we explored the extent to which cognitive,...
Article
Full-text available
During the first phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, Italy experienced problems of public order and maladjusted behavior. This study assessed the role of negative affectivity, right-wing authoritarianism, and anxiety of COVID-19 infection in explaining a variety of the maladjusted behaviors (i.e., “China-phobic” discrimination, panic buying) observed w...
Article
This study assesses the excellence gap by examining those who enroll in advanced, honors, and advanced placement (AP) classes among a low-income and a majority-Latinx population. Prospective longitudinal data come from a diverse, urban sample ( N = 32,885) where 82.2% of the students received free or reduced price lunch. We examined numerous predic...
Article
Full-text available
It is vital for researchers examining student outcomes of school mobility to understand and control for selection effects—the many ways that students who experience school mobility are different from those who do not switch schools. Using data from a 5-cohort sequential longitudinal study (N = 26,063, 61.2% Latinx, 31.3% Black, 6.7% White/other, an...
Chapter
This chapter explores the transitional practice of voluntarily delaying a student's kindergarten entry through a combination of reviewing prior literature and also presenting new research findings. Using data from a large, predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample, the authors examine early elementary school outcomes for a group of chi...
Chapter
This chapter will take a critical look at this literature and push the field to take a step back and look at theory and ideology behind expectations and goals. Is it really the case that what we want from our public educational system is that we will always show complete “sustained effects” of pre-K programs? Almost 15 years ago, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn...
Article
Public school pre-k programs are not only effective in promoting children’s school readiness but are also potentially useful for easing the transition from pre-k to kindergarten. One possible reason for this ease of transition is eliminating the need for children to change schools when starting kindergarten. However, little is known about whether c...
Article
School readiness is a concern for parents when deciding whether/when to enroll their children in kindergarten. Increased rigor/accountability standards in kindergarten may push parents to delay their child’s entry into school, known as “academic redshirting.” Current estimates suggest that 3–7% of students delay kindergarten entry in the US and tha...
Article
Research Findings This longitudinal study examined how teacher-child interaction quality related to growth in children’s approaches to learning (ATL), measured by Competence Motivation Learning Strategies, and Attention and Persistence, in a stratified random sample of 607 Chinese children. Data on classroom teacher-child interaction quality (three...
Article
We analyzed data from a large-scale ( N = 39,213), longitudinal study of urban students to assess child factors (gender, ethnicity, English language learner status, school readiness skills, type of pre-K attended, early elementary school academic performance) prospectively associated with eventual gifted identification in elementary school. Overall...
Article
This study used covariate adjusted regression techniques to compare the third-grade outcomes of low-income Latinx children who attended Montessori pre-K programs (n = 161) with those who graduated from more conventional programs (n = 4975) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Children who experienced one year of Montessori education demonstrated stronger...
Article
A person-centered approach was used to explore how preschool school readiness profiles predict Grade 3 academic performance among a large (N = 43,044) low-income, ethnically-diverse longitudinal sample of children. Study aims: (a) determine the number and type of preschoolers’ school readiness profiles, (b) determine how profile membership relates...
Article
Using a longitudinal sample of 508 Chinese preschool children, this study examined how family socioeconomic status (SES) was related to preschool children's social skills development through family processes using multilevel latent growth curve modeling. After controlling for the effects of personal characteristics, a significant indirect effect of...
Article
Full-text available
The olfactory system represents the most acute and phylogenetically oldest device that the majority of organisms have to know their physical and social environment. In humans, however, the most predominant functional sense is sight, by virtue of an evolutionary path that has strongly limited the role of olfaction in decision making, social behavior...
Article
Researchers attempting to show that music has positive effects on children need to understand and control for preexisting differences between those who do and do not select into musical participation in the first place. Within a large-scale, communitywide, prospective, longitudinal study of predominantly low-income, ethnically diverse students ( N...
Technical Report
This is the early childhood version of the Top 20 Principles. A free downloadable copy is available at: https://www.apa.org/ed/schools/teaching-learning/top-twenty/early-childhood/index
Article
Full-text available
Research findings on school diversity and its impact on children’s educational outcomes is mixed. This study examined school racial diversity and educational outcomes for ethnically diverse students. Data came from third graders, N = 33,857 (51.8% male; 57.2% Latinx), in 278 schools. Using multilevel models, we examined the association between scho...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the long-term linguistic and academic outcomes associated with different bilingual language education models for low-income dual language learners (DLLs) residing in a bilingual, bicultural context. As part of the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP), we analyzed the impact of program model on gains in English language proficie...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have examined self-talk and performance in tennis matches, but the current understanding of speech-to-performance associations in tennis is hindered by conflicting evidence from self-report and observation, and by the use of relatively simple statistical analyses that fail to account for speech and performance events being nested within...
Article
Gang involvement is associated with many negative outcomes. However, the social and emotional development of gang-involved youth has received little empirical investigation. This study examines the social and emotional outcomes of gang-involved youth. Data come from the 2009 Fairfax County Youth Survey administered to eighth, 10th, and 12th grade s...
Article
Full-text available
Many children around the world grow up bilingual, learning and using two or more languages in everyday life. Currently, however, children’s language backgrounds are not always reported in developmental studies. There is mounting evidence that bilingualism interacts with a wide array of processes including language, cognitive, perceptual, brain, and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many children around the world grow up bilingual, learning and using two or more languages in everyday life. Currently, however, children’s language backgrounds are not always reported in developmental studies. There is mounting evidence that bilingualism interacts with a wide array of processes including language, cognitive, perceptual, brain, and...
Article
Early fine motor ability is significantly associated with later achievement, even after controlling for typical child-level predictors of school outcomes. Previous longitudinal studies have confirmed this but typically have not included low-income, at-risk populations. Research has distinguished two different aspects of fine motor skills: those tha...
Article
Crib speech, the monologue speech of a young child before s/he falls asleep, has been examined in very few studies to date. Private speech has been explored in relation to potential motivational and self-regulatory functions, but few studies have examined private speech in pretend play or pre-sleep contexts. This longitudinal case study examines th...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary perspectives on emergent literacy in preschool emphasize the importance of providing developmentally appropriate, authentic, early writing experiences and supporting students’ home language and culture. The current study analyzed kindergarten outcomes for 82 linguistically diverse, low-income children (60% Black, 40% Latino) who partic...
Article
Full-text available
Although research shows associations between adolescents general arts involvement and academic performance, little research documents links between enrollment in middle school dance elective courses and academic achievement, especially within low-income, urban populations. Further, differences between adolescents who do and do not have access to, o...
Article
The current study explored private speech (PS), private singing, and humming in relation to executive function (EF). Fifty-eight children (4–8 years)were observed as they performed a selective attention task (SAT)and engaged in PS. In addition, their EF was measured with tests of cognitive flexibility (Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task), inhibit...
Article
Full-text available
It is critical for research on the effects of arts engagement to identify and carefully control for preexisting selection factors that differentiate those who do and do not get exposure to the arts. We prospectively followed a large and diverse sample of preschool children (n = 31,332; 61% Latino, 32% Black, 55% ELL, 81% free/reduced lunch) until t...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the short-run effects of state-funded, public school-based pre-kindergarten (pre-K) programs on the early educational outcomes of students in Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Using data on all kindergarten students enrolled in the public schools in years 2006 and 2007, we examine differences in outcomes from pre-K to the early...
Article
Full-text available
Parents and teachers provide complimentary information in the assessment of preschoolers so it is important to understand parent–teacher agreement, especially for children with autism. Parents and teachers rated an ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers with autism (N = 257; 67% Latino) on the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (LeBuffe and Nag...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Few researchers have examined longitudinal relations between early childhood parenting and peer interaction and later aggressive behavior in children. Relationships with parents affect how future relationships are approached and receiving sensitivity from and having a secure relationship with one's parents are related to less child aggres...
Chapter
Children’s social and behavioral skills prior to school entry are important components of school readiness that relate to long-term academic success. Parents and teachers, however, can have different perceptions of children’s strengths. We examined parent and preschool teacher reports of the social and behavioral skills of predominantly low-income...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.teachershubmag.com/longterm-outcomes.html
Article
This study examined the relationship between investment of financial resources in early childhood education (ECE) and student academic outcomes using survey and observational data from 59 classrooms in Guangdong Province, China (N = 589, 50% girls, and Mage = 5.1 ± 0.42 years). We conceptualized the mediating role of teacher-child interaction as an...
Poster
Full-text available
The prevalence of risky behaviors (e.g. delinquency, aggression) increases during adolescence. Bioecological models help us understand multiple contextual risk and protective factors important for prevention of these behaviors. Further, adolescence is a crucial time for social relationships; thus investigating relationship domains and their influen...
Poster
Full-text available
Social learning theory suggests that behavior can be learned through observation of a role model[1]. Role models are influential socialization agents and can be part of any relationship dyad. Relationships, especially with a role model, are a foundation of development and positive well-being[4]. Although youth look up to their parents through child...
Article
Full-text available
Although quality center-based child care is helpful in promoting school readiness for dual language learners (DLLs), little is known about the nonparental child care that young DLL children experience. DLL status is often confounded with immigrant status, ethnicity, and poverty. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitud...
Article
When individuals correct their own speech, it is often assumed they are doing so for the benefit of others’ comprehension. As such, most of the research exploring speech repairs, especially among young children, has been conducted with social speech (between two or more people) and little with private speech (speech directed toward the self). In th...
Article
Little is known about the early educational performance of children in migrant farmworker families. The authors examined the school readiness and early school success of 289 four-year-old preschool children of migrant families attending Redlands Christian Migrant Association centers. Children's school readiness was assessed and public school record...
Article
Full-text available
Relations among parenting stress, parenting style, and child executive functioning for children with disabilities are not easily teased apart. The current study explored these relations among 82 children and adolescents age 7–18: 21 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 33 with autism spectrum disorder, and 28 typically developing. Results...
Article
This study examined the third-grade outcomes of 11,902 low-income Latino children who experienced public school pre-K or child care via subsidies (center-based care) at age 4 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Regression and propensity score analyses revealed that children who experienced public school pre-K earned higher scores on standardized assessm...
Article
Full-text available
How students manage their time is critical for academic performance and is an important component of self-regulated learning. The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships among first-year college students’ (N = 589) time use, academic self-regulation, and target and actual grade point average (GPA) at three time points. Findings sh...
Article
Full-text available
Research Findings: Recent research and teacher reports have highlighted the importance of early behavior skills for children’s school readiness and academic success in elementary school. Significant gaps in school readiness and achievement exist between children in poverty and those more affluent. Low-income children are also more likely to exhibit...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to explore the association between preschool academic skills and Grade 3 achievement among a sample of ethnically diverse children from low-income families. Data were collected from a sample of 1,442 low-income, ethnically diverse children in preschool and associated with Grade 3 achievement in reading and mathematics...
Article
Individual differences exist in emotional experiences, and cultural context is believed to play an important role in emotion socialization. How parental meta-emotion philosophy (MEP) is related to children’s anxiety, somatization, and anger was examined cross-culturally. Cultural group and child’s gender as moderators to parental MEP and emotional...
Article
Using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP), we examine the kindergarten readiness of five cohorts (2002–2007) of children from low-income, ethnically, and linguistically diverse families (n = 16,176) in Miami, Florida who experienced three types of publicly funded preschool programs the year before kindergarten: public school-based p...
Article
Full-text available
The current study focused on relations between maternal and paternal perceived parenting style, marital conflict, and child behavior outcomes. Child participants (N = 152) ranged in age from 3 to 9 years old. Reports from both parents on perceived parenting style, marital conflict, and child behavior problems were collected. Results indicated that...
Article
Full-text available
Somatization is the propensity to experience and report psychological and/or emotional suffering through physical symptoms that cannot be explained by known medical causes. Somatic complaints are often a result of an impaired ability to verbalize emotional distress, and are commonly encountered in children and adolescents. Children report a diversi...
Article
Full-text available
Via naturalistic observations, parent interview, and direct assessments, we examined language proficiency, language use, and differentiation of a 3-year, 4-month-old bilingual child exposed to Mandarin and English via the ‘one parent-one language’ principle. Although noun versus verb dominance has been explored across verb-based (Mandarin) and noun...
Article
Full-text available
Using nationally representative data from the ECLS-B, we examined children's outcomes and growth from 9 to 65 months as a function of language used in the home at 24 months (English only n = 7300; English and another language n = 1500; other language only n = 400). We also examined whether demographic variables moderated the effects of DLL status i...
Article
Full-text available
Like many English-dominant nations, Australia has a rich history of cultural and linguistic diversity. This diversity is the result of a melting pot of languages including languages spoken by Australia's Indigenous people and languages added by European settlement and subsequent waves of migration from various parts of the world. Despite this rich...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
College is a particularly valuable period of growth that allows for the examining of changes in academic goal-orientation. This project examines change over time in college performance, and links this change to student goal orientation over the first year of college. Specifically, we expected that students with strong mastery-oriented goals will ex...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) compete...
Article
Full-text available
Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for depression, suicidality, and substance use, yet little is known about gender, ethnic, and community-level differences in sleep and its associated outcomes, especially during adolescence. Further, much of the prior work has compared groups of teens getting plenty as opposed to insufficient amounts of sleep rat...
Article
Full-text available
Although prior research has shown that young children exhibit enhanced self-control when they use verbal strategies provided through adult instructions, little work has examined the role of children's spontaneous verbalizations or motor behavior as strategies for enhancing self-control. The present study examined the usefulness of spontaneous verba...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language,...
Article
Full-text available
Within the United States, there are a variety of early education models and curricula aimed at promoting young children’s pre-academic, social, and behavioral skills. This study, using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (Winsler et al., 2008, 2012), examined the school readiness gains of low- income Latino (n = 7,045) and Black (n = 6,700...
Article
Full-text available
Critical ethnic and gender gaps exist in college retention and graduation rates. Early achievement motivation may play an important role in student persistence. A sample of undergraduates completed surveys tapping motivation at the beginning (n = 591) and end (n = 232) of their first semester in college. African American and Caucasian students were...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborati...
Article
Full-text available
Dramatic increases have occurred in the number of children who speak languages other than English at home in the United States and English language learners (ELLs) need support both for becoming proficient in English and for maintaining their first language. In this paper, five types of bilingual education implemented in the United States are revie...
Article
Full-text available
Although it is well established that Black male students are underrepresented in gifted educational programs in the United States, due to a scarcity of longitudinal prospective research, little is known about the protective factors at the child, family, and school level that increase the probability of Black male students being identified as gifted...
Article
Full-text available
It is important for researchers and practitioners to understand how early referral decisions are made in communities because the long-term consequences of an at-risk child being referred (or not) to an agency for evaluation and intervention are profound. This study explored one referral/intervention program for ethnically diverse, low-income childr...
Article
Full-text available
Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and acade...
Article
Nationwide, almost a third of 1st-year college students do not return to begin their sophomore year, and the 5-year graduation rate for undergraduates is only around 40%. It is important for universities to implement interventions, such as freshman transition courses, to help new students adjust to college life and succeed, and it is critical that...