Adam M Larson

Adam M Larson
The University of Findlay · Psychology Department

About

36
Publications
11,204
Reads
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828
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
584 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
Visual crowding, the impairment of object recognition in peripheral vision due to flanking objects, has generally been studied using simple stimuli on blank backgrounds. While crowding is widely assumed to occur in natural scenes, it has not been shown rigorously yet. Given that scene contexts can facilitate object recognition, crowding effects may...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how people comprehend visual narratives (including picture stories, comics, and film) requires the combination of traditionally separate theories that span the initial sensory and perceptual processing of complex visual scenes, the perception of events over time, and comprehension of narratives. Existing piecemeal approaches fail to c...
Article
Full-text available
What is the relationship between film viewers’ eye movements and their film comprehension? Typical Hollywood movies induce strong attentional synchrony—most viewers look at the same things at the same time. Thus, we asked whether film viewers’ eye movements would differ based on their understanding—the mental model hypothesis—or whether any such di...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relative roles of visuospatial versus linguistic working memory (WM) systems in the online generation of bridging inferences while viewers comprehend visual narratives. We contrasted these relative roles in the visuospatial primacy hypothesis versus the shared (visuospatial & linguistic) systems hypothesis, and tested th...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diag...
Article
Full-text available
Visual crowding describes impaired object recognition in peripheral vision due to the presence of other nearby objects. Previous studies of crowding have largely utilized letters, numbers, or Gabors as stimuli on blank backgrounds (Strasburger, Harvey & Rentschler, 1991; Greenwood, Bex, & Dakin, 2010). Additionally, crowding has more recently been...
Article
Full-text available
What is the relationship between film viewers' eye movements and their film comprehension? Typical Hollywood movies induce strong attentional synchrony-most viewers look at the same things at the same time. Thus, we asked whether film viewers' eye movements would differ based on their understanding-the mental model hypothesis-or whether any such di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Overlaying visual cues on diagrams and animations can help students attend to relevant areas and facilitate problem solving. In this study we investigated the effects of visual cues on students' eye movements as they solved conceptual physics problems. Students (N=80) enrolled in an introductory physics course individually worked through four sets...
Article
Full-text available
Blur detection is affected by retinal eccentricity, but is it also affected by attentional resources? Research showing effects of selective attention on acuity and contrast sensitivity suggests that allocating attention should increase blur detection. However, research showing that blur affects selection of saccade targets suggests that blur detect...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research has demonstrated that attentional cues overlaid on diagrams and animations can help students attend to the relevant areas and facilitate problem solving. In this study we investigate the influence of visual cues and correctness feedback on students' reasoning as they solve conceptual physics problems containing a diagram. The participants...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eye movements can provide fast and precise insights into ongoing mechanisms of attention and information processing. In free exploration of natural scenes, it has repeatedly been shown that fixation durations increase over time, while saccade amplitudes decrease. This gaze behavior has been explained as a shift from ambient (global) to focal (local...
Article
Full-text available
Viewers can rapidly extract a holistic semantic representation of a real-world scene within a single eye fixation, an ability called recognizing the gist of a scene, and operationally defined here as recognizing an image's basic-level scene category. However, it is unknown how scene gist recognition unfolds over both time and space-within a fixatio...
Conference Paper
Previous work has shown that event representations are constructed in a coarse-to-fine fashion (Larson, Hendry, & Loschky, 2012). Specifically, an event’s superordinate scene category was recognized first (Indoor or Outdoor), followed by its basic level scene category (Kitchen or Office), and then its basic level action category (Cooking or Washing...
Article
Full-text available
Eye movements can provide fast and precise insights into ongoing mechanisms of attention and information processing. In free exploration of natural scenes, it has repeatedly been shown that fixation durations increase over time, while saccade amplitudes decrease. This gaze behavior has been explained as a shift from ambient (global) to focal (local...
Article
Full-text available
Does the detection of image blur require attention? Perhaps not, since image blur affects saccade target selection; with the eyes avoiding blurred extrafoveal image regions (Geisler, Perry, & Najemnik, 2006; Loschky & McConkie, 2002). Conversely, attention affects spatial resolution in many psychophysical tasks (Carrasco, 2011), so cognitive load c...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the effects of visual cueing on students’ eye movements and reasoning on introductory physics problems with diagrams. Participants in our study were randomly assigned to either the cued or noncued conditions, which differed by whether the participants saw conceptual physics problems overlaid with dynamic visual cues. Students in the...
Article
Full-text available
Several reasons have been proposed to explain students' incorrect answers to conceptual physics problems. Heckler [3] proposed with a perceptual basis: plausible and salient "eye catching" features in a problem capture students' attention. Once students attend to these perceptually salient features, less salient albeit thematically relevant feature...
Chapter
Full-text available
The title of this chapter explores to what extent there are shared cognitive systems that support the processing of narratives across print and visual media. An initially obvious answer to the question is no, given that viewing images and reading texts involve different cognitive and brain systems during encoding. In fact, we contend that there are...
Article
Full-text available
In real-world contexts, such as driving, a person’s breadth of attention, or useful field of view (UFOV), can have life or death consequences, with a narrower UFOV associated with increased accident risk (e.g., Clay et al., 2005). However, existing measures of the UFOV have important limitations. Some cannot be used in dynamic viewing of real-world...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how visual attention differed between those who correctly versus incorrectly answered introductory physics problems. We recorded eye movements of 24 individuals on six different conceptual physics problems where the necessary information to solve the problem was contained in a diagram. The problems also contained areas consi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using a ScanMatch algorithm we investigate scan path differences between subjects who answer physics problems correctly and incorrectly. This algorithm bins a saccade sequence spatially and temporally, recodes this information to create a sequence of letters representing fixation location, duration and order, and compares two sequences to generate...
Chapter
Full-text available
How are visual scenes represented in the brain during categorization? We acquired magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from nine healthy subjects who participated in a rapid natural scene categorization task. Scenes were presented in two different perspectives (aerial vs. terrestrial) and two different orientations (upright vs. inverted). We applied m...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Story grammar theories (Mandler and Johnson 1977 (1); Thorndyke 1977 (2)) propose that stories are composed by components, and Baggett 1979 (3) identifies three sequentially ordered components called the exposition, complication, and resolution. Our previous research has found that when the component order is scrambled, comp...
Article
Full-text available
Research in many disciplines has used eye-tracking technology to investigate the differences in the visual attention of experts and novices. For example, it has been shown that experts in art and chess spend more time than novices looking at relevant information. Thus, it may be helpful to give novices more direct insight into the way experts alloc...
Article
Full-text available
Viewers can rapidly extract a holistic semantic representation of a real-world scene within a single eye fixation, an ability called recognizing the gist of a scene, and operationally defined here as recognizing an image's basic-level scene category. However, it is unknown how scene gist recognition unfolds over both time and space—within a fixatio...
Article
Full-text available
Viewers can rapidly extract a holistic semantic representation of a real-world scene within a single eye fixation, an ability called recognizing the gist of a scene, and operationally defined here as recognizing an image's basic-level scene category. However, it is unknown how scene gist recognition unfolds over both time and space—within a fixatio...
Article
Full-text available
Scene gist recognition is a critical early scene perception process. Viewers reach asymptotic gist recognition with masked stimulus durations of 100 ms, and most important information is gathered within 40–50 ms. The rapidity of gist recognition raises the question, where does the most important information for gist come from, central vision or the...
Article
Full-text available
What level of categorization occurs first in scene gist processing, basic level or the superordinate “natural” versus “man-made” distinction? The Spatial Envelope model of scene classification and human gist recognition (Oliva & Torralba, 2001) assumes that the superordinate distinction is made prior to basic-level distinctions. This assumption con...
Article
Full-text available
Which region of the visual field is most useful for recognizing scene gist, central vision (the fovea and parafovea) based on its higher visual resolution and importance for object recognition, or the periphery, based on resolving lower spatial frequencies useful for scene gist recognition, and its large extent? Scenes were presented in two experim...
Article
Full-text available
What information do people use to categorize scenes? Computational scene classification models have proposed that unlocalized amplitude information, the distribution of spatial frequencies and orientations, is useful for categorizing scenes. Previous research has provided conflicting results regarding this claim. Our previous research (Loschky et a...
Article
How are episodes of picture stories remembered, and what role does the order of their components (exposition, complication, and resolution) play in that memory? We presented picture sequence episodes of the “Red Balloon” with the order of their components either normal or scrambled. As predicted by story grammar theories, scrambling episode compone...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
To understand the processes involved in perceiving, comprehending, and later remembering visual narratives (e.g., in picture stories, comics, film, video games, or VR).
Archived project
To determine the role of attention in problem solving involving figures and graphs in STEM disciplines (e.g., Physics and Mathematics). This investigation involves establishing relationships between attention to relevant or irrelevant information in problems and successful solutions of such problems. We have investigated how such attention is affected by prior knowledge (including misconception) and visual saliency. We also investigate the causal effects of cueing visual attention (both visually and linguistically), and the provision of outcome feedback, on both attention to relevant information and successful solution of such problems and learning of the concepts targeted in such problems.
Archived project
Exploring the roles of central and peripheral vision in scene perception. This includes a multi-faceted set of issues including, 1) attention across the field of view, including its time course, and its relationship to cognitive load and eye movement control while viewing scenes, 2) the roles of central and peripheral vision in rapid scene categorization, 3) application of the above to human-computer interaction (e.g., in gaze-contingent displays for evaluating the dynamic useful field of view, and reducing processing resources and bandwidth with multi-resolutional displays).