Adam Leigh Kelly

Adam Leigh Kelly
Birmingham City University | BCU · Sport and Exercise

Doctor of Philosophy

About

91
Publications
14,116
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
386
Citations
Citations since 2016
91 Research Items
385 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
Dr Adam L. Kelly is a Senior Lecturer and Course Leader for Sports Coaching and Physical Education at Birmingham City University. Following seven years in an applied environment at Exeter City Football Club working as the Head of Academy Sport Science, Adam moved into the academic realm to facilitate his long-term desire of becoming a world-leading expert in sports psychology and coaching – more specifically researching athlete development in youth sport.

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the genotype frequency distribution of thirty-three single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between youth development phase (YDP) and professional development phase (PDP) academy football players. One hundred and sixty-six male football players from two Category 1 and Category 3 English academies we...
Article
Relative Age Effects (RAEs) appear largely throughout youth soccer. However, little is known about how RAEs at youth levels can impact selection and performance at senior levels. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to provide further test of RAEs by exploring the birth quarter (BQ) distribution of 2,030 Italian players born from...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Synthesise genetic association studies investigating injury involving football players to identify which genetic variants have the most empirical evidence to date. Methods A comprehensive search of the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE databases until March 11th 2022 identified 34 studies. Inclusion criteria: primary investigations, include...
Article
This study aimed to examine the most demanding passages of play in elite youth soccer for congested and non-congested fixture schedules. Seventeen elite youth male soccer players (18.2 ± 1.3 years old) participated in this study across 30 competitive matches. Assessed matches included congested (n = 12, three matches within eight consecutive days o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Lack of time, management support, insufficient facilitates, workload balance, and culture are often reported as common barriers to physical activity (PA) participation in the workplace. In comparison, identifying facilitators of PA in the workplace are scarce. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach to overcoming the barriers may also be unsu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Background: In the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Talent Academies (TAs) and senior teams cater for high-performing players. However, only two previous studies have quantified the relative age effect (RAE; i.e., a selection bias favouring those born near the beginning of the cut-off date) in these cohorts. Additionally, no studies...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose As players in high performance youth soccer (HYPS) environments undergo large changes in growth and maturation throughout the course of their development, they require specific nutritional intakes if they are to meet these demands. The purpose of this review was to synthesise current nutritional research conducted within HYPS players. Meth...
Article
Background: Technical capabilities have significant discriminative and prognostic power in youth football. Although, many factors influence technical performance, no research has explored the genetic contribution. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with technical asse...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of situational variables, match location, quality of the opponent, and final result on the performance of the teams during an entire season (2016) of the Chinese Super League throughout 474 matches. Results showed that playing as an away team reduced the number of positional attacks per game, total bal...
Article
Full-text available
Strict lockdown measures were introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused mass disruption to adolescent swimmers’ daily routines. To measure how lockdown impacted nutritional practices in this cohort, three-day photograph food diaries were analysed at three time points: before (January), during (April), and after (September) the f...
Article
Psychological characteristics influence the performance of youth football players and are significant predictors of development and success at adulthood. Although genetic factors may explain a considerable portion of inter-individual differences in psychological traits, psychogenetic research in football is scarce. As such, the purpose of this stud...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to adopt the Personal Assets Framework (PAF) to examine the immediate, short-term, and long-term developmental outcomes associated with relative age effects (RAEs) in male cricket. As such, this study was comprised of three aims: (a) examine the birth quarter (BQ) distribution of players throughout the England and Wale...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Introduction: The benefits of participating in physical activity (PA) are wide-ranging, such as lowering the risk of diabetes and anxiety. Employees’ engagement in PA can also benefit their employers due to the potential reduction in absenteeism and increased productivity. However, the PA levels and sedentary behaviour of university em...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: The progression of youth rugby union (RU) players towards senior professional levels can be the result of various different constraints. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics that differentiated playing positions and player rankings in an English Premiership RU academy. (2) Methods: Thirty players (mean age = 18.5 ± 2...
Article
The study examined the synergistic and independent effects of carbohydrate-caffeine mouth rinse on repeated sprint performance during simulated soccer match play. Nine male soccer players (21 ± 3 years, 1.75 ± 0.05 m, 68.0 ± 9.0 kg) completed four trials with either 6 mg·kg⁻¹ caffeine + 10% maltodextrin (CHO+CAFMR), 6 mg·kg⁻¹ caffeine (CAFMR), 10%...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to: (1) examine differences in physical performance across birth-quartiles and maturity-status, and (2) determine the relationships among relative age, maturation and physical performance in young male soccer players. The sample included 199 males aged between 8.1 and 18.9 years, from two professional soccer academies in the Englis...
Article
The identification and development of talent towards expertise is the primary goal for many professional cricket organisations. The purpose of this study was to utilise retrospective County Age Group (CAG; U10–U19) match performance data to develop age-specific benchmarks for young cricketers to achieve senior professional status. Moreover, results...
Article
Relative age effects (RAEs) are independent of specific cutoff dates that can vary from country to country. However, the consequences of changing the selection cutoff dates within a national sport organization are unknown. Further, the transition from international youth to senior representation is yet to be explored in rugby union. Thus, the aims...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term athlete development is a primary focus for the England Rugby Football Union (RFU). The purpose of this study was to explore the anthropometric, physical, and relative age characteristics of rugby union academy players based on age group and playing position. Seventy-eight participants were examined for height, body mass, 10 and 20 m sprin...
Article
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the subsequent suspension of all football-related activity, caused significant disruption to the daily habits of professional football players and support staff. Even when the most severe restrictions were lifted, strict control measures remained in place which likely continued to impact upon nutrition sup...
Article
Introduction: Countermovement jump (CMJ) and perceived wellness measures are useful for monitoring fatigue. Fatigue indicators should simultaneously show sensitivity to previous load and demonstrate influence on subsequent physical output; however, this has not been examined. This study examined the efficacy of CMJ and wellness measures to both de...
Article
The relative age effect (RAE) is a phenomenon that represents how young athletes who are born early in the selection year are often overrepresented within youth sport settings. The contact nature of rugby union may further magnify the physiological advantages of those athletes who are chronologically older. Thus, the purpose of this study was to ex...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Genetic research in football is currently in it’s infancy but is growing rapidly. However, the practical application of genetic testing in football and the views concerning its use are unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the current practical application of genetic testing in professional football and provide an insight i...
Article
Full-text available
The past two decades have seen a rapid rise in attention towards talent identification, athlete development and skill acquisition. However, there are important limitations to the evidentiary foundations of this field of research. For instance, variability in describing the performance levels of individuals has made it challenging to draw inferences...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to examine the sociodemographic profile of youth and professional cricketers in England and Wales, with a particular focus on the British South Asian (BSA) player. Approach Sociodemographic data was collected via an England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) survey to identify participants’ relative access to wealth via school...
Article
Full-text available
Relative age effects (RAEs) appear consistently prevalent throughout the youth basketball literature. However, the selection into and successful transition out of a national talent pathway in basketball is yet to be explored. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to explore the influence of relative age, gender, and playing time based on the sele...
Article
Full-text available
The timing of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation has been suggested to be most optimal when coincided with a personal time that bicarbonate (HCO3-) or pH peaks in the blood following ingestion. However, the ergogenic mechanisms supporting this ingestion strategy are strongly contested. It is therefore plausible that NaHCO3 may be ergogenic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Competitive success is the ultimate objective of elite professional sport organisations. Relative age effects (RAE) impact athlete selection processes in the short and long-term performance. The aims of this study were: (i) examine the presence of RAE by gender, competitive level, and playing position, as well as evaluate the impact of...
Article
Full-text available
Entry into an academy can be a defining moment for a promising young player. The aim of this study was to explore the multidimensional characteristics that differentiated selected and non-selected male under-15 rugby union players at an English Premiership academy. Seventy-four players (mean age 14.6 ± 0.3 years: selected n = 29; non-selected n = 4...
Article
Full-text available
The pathway towards expertise in sport has been studied within different contexts. Various methodological approaches have been used in research to explore the processes of talent identification (TID) and talent development (TD) in rugby union (RU). The aim of this study was to critically review the existing literature on TID and TD in RU in order t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Contemporary research suggests that the optimal timing of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) should be based upon an individual time in which bicarbonate (HCO 3 ⁻ ) or pH peaks within the blood. However, the mechanisms surrounding acidosis on exercise performance are contested, therefore it is plausible that the ergogenic effects of NaHCO 3 a...
Article
Full-text available
A common practice in youth rugby union is to group players based on (bi)annual age with fixed cut-off dates. The overrepresentation of players born at the start of the cut-off date and the underrepresentation of players born toward the end of the cut-off date are termed relative age effects (RAEs). The aim of this study was to examine RAEs during e...
Article
A common practice in sport is to play-up youth athletes who are highly skilled against chronologically older peers. However, the potential effects of playing-up on youth’s athletic and personal development have not been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate athletes’ perceptions of how playing-up may have influenced thei...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 60% of the world’s population do not meet the physical activity (PA) guidelines. Physical inactivity is increasing in occupations, with work-related health issues becoming more prevalent. University employees’ work in a range of job roles and PA levels in this population is unclear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate PA levels amongst...
Article
Context: Physiological fitness testing, such as the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (YYIR) is a key requirement of the Elite Player Performance Plan, introduced by the English Premier League. Eccentric hamstring strength has been identified as a risk factor for hamstring injuries in soccer players, with fatigue highlighted to further exasperate t...
Article
Full-text available
The relative age effect (RAE) is almost pervasive throughout youth sports, whereby relatively older athletes are consistently overrepresented compared to their relatively younger peers. Although researchers regularly cite the need for sports programs to incorporate strategies to moderate the RAE, organizational structures often continue to adopt a...
Article
In an attempt to facilitate more appropriate levels of challenge, a common practice in academy football is to play-up talented youth players with chronologically older peers. However, the context of playing-up in academy football is yet to be empirically explored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the multidimensional factors that diff...
Article
Technical ability is recognised as a fundamental prerequisite to achieve senior professional status in football. However, research is yet to investigate what technical attributes contribute to greater coach perceived potential within an academy environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine technical ability and skill behaviour as con...
Article
Full-text available
The world’s greatest professional football players are able to execute effective tactical decisions as well as fulfil various physical demands. However, the degree to which both are associated with greater potential in a football academy is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate decision-making skill and physical performance a...
Article
The aim of this review was to assess the association of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms with athlete status in football and determine which allele and/or genotypes are most likely to influence this phenotype via a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search identified 17 ACTN3 and 19 ACE studies. Significant associations were shown between the pres...
Article
COVID-19 represents an unprecedented challenge for the youth sport sector. Due to public health policies designed to slow down the transmission of this highly infectious disease and mitigate secondary impacts, youth sport programs around the world have experienced sudden interruptions to their activities. In this commentary, we put forward the Pers...
Article
Talent identification and development in male youth soccer are complex and multidimensional processes. The English Football Association “4 Corner Model” is often adopted by academies to support coaches and practitioners to implement a multidisciplinary approach to their talent identification and development framework. This holistic approach is char...
Article
Genetic variation is responsible for a large amount of the inter-individual performance disparities seen in sport. As such, in the last ten years genetic association studies have become more common; with one of the most frequently researched sports being football. However, the progress and methodological rigour of genetic association research in fo...
Thesis
Introduction: The purpose of a player development pathway is to realise the most effective methods to support young individuals to maximise their potential (MacNamara & Collins, 2015). Within a modern football academy setting, the essential developmental characteristics are often termed environmental, psychological, sociological, physiological, tec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives: In the UK, ~20 million adults are inactive, whilst estimation shows ~32 million people are in employment. Occupations involving sedentary behaviour are considered a main contributor to inactive lifestyles, whereas research demonstrates a high proportion of adults do not meet the recommended guideline of 10,000 steps a day. Thus, the aim...
Article
The relative age effect (RAE) refers to the bias influence of birthdate distribution, with athletes born later in the selection year being under-represented in talent development systems. However, the ‘underdog hypothesis’ suggests that younger birth quarter (BQ) athletes are over-represented among those who successfully transition from youth syste...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
English non-league (tiers 5 and 6) soccer is played by both professional and semi-professional athletes. These teams are not restricted by the player transfer regulations imposed upon professional league clubs (tiers 1 to 4), making this a unique sub-population of players to study. The speed demands across professional leagues in English soccer var...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An increasing number of occupations involve sedentary work, with the incidence of work related health issues becoming more prevalent (Engbers, Poppel, Paw, & Mechelen, 2005, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29, 61-70). Universities employ a large number of staff across a range of job roles. However, the engagement of physical activity (PA)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Biases in selection towards white and privately educated athletes within talent development pathways (TDPs) and professional sport has been previously documented (Hayman et al., 2011; Lawrence, 2017). However, the extent to which sociodemographic factors influence the recruitment in TDPs and achieving professional status (PS) in crick...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: A common practice in academy football is to ‘play up’ talented youth players against chronologically older peers with similar skill-sets. Playing up is believed to facilitate expertise by exposing athletes to higher levels of competition and practice intensity (Malina, 2010). However, the holistic characteristics associated with playi...
Article
Background: Individual differences in biological maturation impact player selection and development in youth football. Aim: To evaluate players perceptions of competing in a football tournament where they were matched by maturity rather than chronological age. Subjects: Participants included male junior footballers from three professional academies...