Adam Hartstone-Rose

Adam Hartstone-Rose
North Carolina State University | NCSU · Department of Biological Sciences

PhD in Bio. Anth. & Anatomy

About

139
Publications
55,030
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1,474
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Introduction
I am an Professor of Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University. My research centers on the evolution and adaptation of masticatory anatomy: how animals eat - how they select and process food and the adaptations that allow them to do this. I focus on primates and carnivores though I also study other vertebrates and am beginning a project examining marsupial feeding anatomy. I work extensively with students and in collaboration with other colleagues.
Additional affiliations
August 2021 - August 2021
North Carolina State University
Position
  • Professor
October 2017 - August 2021
North Carolina State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 2013 - September 2017
University of South Carolina
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 2003 - September 2008
Duke University
Field of study
  • Biological Anthropology & Anatomy

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
The relationship between skull morphology and diet is a prime example of adaptive evolution. In mammals, the skull consists of the cranium and the mandible. While the mandible is expected to evolve more directly in response to dietary changes, dietary regimes may have less influence on the cranium because additional sensory and brain‐protection fun...
Article
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers need both motivation and interpersonal skills in STEM disciplines. The aims of the study were to identify clusters of adolescents who vary in math and science motivation and interpersonal skills and to explore what factors are related to membership in a high math and science motivation and i...
Article
The functional morphology of primate masticatory musculature has been the subject of many studies. However, with the exception of analyses of four taxa, these have always described this anatomy using traditional, destructive, gross anatomical dissections. In the current study, we use diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (Di...
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Previously, our lab has studied the scaling and dietary correlates of masticatory muscle fiber architecture separately in felids, musteloids, canids, and ursids as well as across the carnivoran order as a whole. In some of these lineages, fascicle lengths (FLs; a correlate of gape) scale with relative diet size, while across the order and divisions...
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This study explored relations between COVID-19 news source, trust in COVID-19 information source, and COVID-19 health literacy in 194 STEM-oriented adolescents and young adults from the US and the UK. Analyses suggest that adolescents use both traditional news (e.g., TV or newspapers) and social media news to acquire information about COVID-19 and...
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Objectives This study aims to examine primate postcanine tooth root surface area (TRSA) in the context of two ecological variables (diet and bite force). We also assess scaling relationships within distinct taxonomic groups and across the order as a whole. Materials and Methods Mandibular postcanine TRSA was measured using a three-dimensional comp...
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While the adductor musculature of the primate jaw has been extensively analyzed within the context of dietary and social ecology, little is known about the corresponding muscles of jaw abduction. Nonetheless, these muscles significantly contribute to a species' maximum gape potential, and thus might constrain dietary niche diversity and impact soci...
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Carnivorans represent extreme ecomorphological diversity, encompassing remarkable variation in form, habitat, and diet. The relationship between the masticatory musculature and dietary ecology has been explored in a number of carnivoran lineages, including felids and the superfamily Musteloidea. In this study, we present novel architectural data on...
Article
Extant members of Paenungulata (sirenians, proboscideans, and hyracoideans) form a monophyletic clade which originated in Africa. While paenungulates are all herbivorous, they differ greatly in size, life history, and habitat. Therefore, we would expect both phylogenetically related similarities and ecologically driven differences in their use and...
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The impact of educators in informal science learning sites (ISLS) remains understudied from the perspective of youth visitors. Less is known about whether engagement with educators differs based on the age and gender of both visitor and educator. Here, visitors (5–17 years old) to six ISLS in the United States and United Kingdom (n = 488, female n...
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In carnivorans, bite force is a critical and ecologically informative variable that has been correlated with multiple morphological, behavioral and environmental attributes. Whereas in vivo measures of biting performance are difficult to obtain in many taxa – and impossible in extinct species – numerous osteological proxies exist for estimating mas...
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The anatomy of the primate forearm is frequently investigated in terms of locomotor mode, substrate use, and manual dexterity. Such studies typically rely upon broad, interspecific samples for which one or two representative taxa are used to characterize the anatomy of their genus or family. To interpret variation between distantly related taxa, ho...
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Preventing postmortem deterioration of soft‐tissues is an important requisite of anatomical research. In order to provide corrections for potential myological distortions, this study quantifies the acute effects of freezing, formalin fixation and ethanol storage using muscles from (n =46) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Bilateral dissections of sp...
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Muscle excursion and force potential can be estimated from architectural variables, including mass, volume, fascicle length and density. These have been collected from fresh specimens, preserved specimens, and sometimes mixed samples of both. However, preservation alters the gross morphology of muscles. This study aims to quantify the effects of lo...
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Informal science learning sites (ISLS) create opportunities for children to learn about science outside of the classroom. This study analyzed children’s learning behaviors in ISLS using video recordings of family visits to a zoo, children’s museum, or aquarium. Furthermore, parent behaviors, features of the exhibits and the presence of an educator...
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Interest in science and math plays an important role in encouraging STEM motivation and career aspirations. This interest decreases for girls between late childhood and adolescence. Relatedly, positive mentoring experiences with female teachers can protect girls against losing interest. The present study examines whether visitors to informal scienc...
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Adolescence represents a developmental period of waning academic motivation, particularly in STEM domains. To combat this, better understanding the factors that might foster STEM motivation and interest is of importance. Social factors like social competencies and feelings of belonging become increasingly important in adolescence. The current study...
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Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), an important biomechanical variable, is an estimate of a muscle’s contractile force potential and is derived from dividing muscle mass by the product of a muscle’s average fascicle length and a theoretical constant representing the density of mammalian skeletal muscle. This density constant is usually take...
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Developmental science research often involves research questions developed by academic teams, which are tested within community or educational settings. In this piece, we outline the importance of research-practice partnerships, which involve both research and practice-based partners collaborating at each stage of the research process. We articulat...
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This study explored topic interest, perceived learning and actual recall of exhibit content in 979 children and adolescents and 1,184 adults who visited informal science learning sites and interacted with an adult or youth educator or just the exhibit itself as part of family visits to the sites. Children in early childhood reported greater topic i...
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Miocene terrestrial mammals are poorly known from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Fossils of the Order Carnivora from this time and region are especially rare. We describe a carnivoran mandible with a p4 from the late Oligocene or early early Miocene Belgrade Formation in Jones County, North Carolina. Comparisons are made with carnivoran jaws with simi...
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Gummivory poses unique challenges to the dentition as gum acquisition may often require that the anterior teeth be adapted to retain a sharp edge and to resist loading because they sometimes must penetrate a highly obdurate substrate during gum extraction by means of gouging or scraping. It has been observed previously that the enamel on the labial...
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The muscles of facial expression are of significant interest to studies of communicative behaviors. However, due to their small size and high integration with other facial tissues, the current literature is largely restricted to descriptions of the presence or absence of specific muscles. Using diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tom...
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By combining muscle architectural data with biomechanical variables relating to the jaw, we produce anatomically derived maximum bite force estimations for 23 species of catarrhine and platyrrhine primates. We investigate how bite force scales across the sample as a whole (and within each parvorder) relative to two size proxies, body mass and crani...
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The Rancho La Brea (RLB) fossil collection housed at the La Brea Tar Pits and Museum in Los Angeles, California, is one of the richest collections of carnivoran fossils in the world. The collection is also particularly well known for the preservation of rare and understudied bones in the tar, including the small bony apparatus that is of particular...
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The infrequency of a total solar eclipse renders the event novel to those animals that experience its effects and, consequently, may induce anomalous behavioral responses. However, historical information on the responses of animals to eclipses is scant and often conflicting. In this study, we qualitatively document the responses of 17 vertebrate ta...
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Evolution, Ecology and Conservation of Lorises and Pottos - edited by K. A. I. Nekaris March 2020
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The advantages of active learning strategies in the college science classroom have been noted repeatedly throughout recent literature (Freeman et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111(23):8410–8415, 2014). However, the introduction of such lessons in a postsecondary environment is typically met with a number of unique challenges such as large class size and a...
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Objectives: Documenting the variety of quadrupedal walking gaits in a variety of marsupials (arboreal vs. terrestrial, with and without grasping hind feet), to aid in developing and refining a general theory of gait evolution in primates. Materials and methods: Video records of koalas, ringtail possums, tree kangaroos, sugar gliders, squirrel gl...
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Stereotypes about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) are associated with reduced STEM engagement amongst girls and women. The present study examined these stereotypes from early childhood through adolescence within informal science learning sites (ISLS; science museums, zoos, aquariums). Further, the study explored whether inte...
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Objectives: Previously, we found that maximum ingested bite size (Vb ), the largest piece of food an animal can consume without biting it into smaller pieces first, isometrically scales relative to body size in strepsirrhines and with negative allometry in anthropoids. In the current study, we rectify the omission of great apes from the earlier sa...
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Relative to all other primates, the aye‐aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) exists at the extremes of both morphology and behavior. Its specialized anatomy—which includes hypselodont incisors and highly derived manual digits—reflects a dietary niche, unique among primates, which combines tap‐foraging with gouging to locate and extract wood‐boring la...
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Objectives: Accessory digits have evolved independently within several mammalian lineages. Most notable among these is the pseudothumb of the giant panda, which has long been considered one of the most extraordinary examples of contingent evolution. To date, no primate has been documented to possess such an adaptation. Here, we investigate the pre...
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The masticatory apparatus has been the focus of many studies in comparative anatomy – especially analyses of skulls and teeth, but also of the mandibular adductor muscles which are responsible for the production of bite force and the movements of the mandible during food processing and transport. The fiber architecture of these muscles has been cor...
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Dietary ecology and its relationship with both muscle architecture and bite force potential has been studied in many mammalian (and non‐mammalian) taxa. However, despite the diversity of dietary niches that characterizes the superfamily Musteloidea, the masticatory muscle fiber architecture of its members has yet to be investigated anatomically. In...
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Although studies have sought to characterize variation in forearm muscular anatomy across the primate order, none have attempted to quantify ontogenetic changes in forearm myology within a single taxon. Herein, we present muscle architecture data for the forearm musculature (flexors and extensors of the wrist and digits) of Microcebus murinus, a sm...
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Previous behavioral reports of the African lorisid, Perodicticus potto, have speculated that these animals have an extraordinary grip strength. This ability is hypothesized to be facilitated by a range of anatomical features within the forelimb, ranging from the presence of a retia mirabilia in its wrist to the hyper‐abduction of its pollex. Despit...
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Domestication shaped wolves into dogs and transformed both their behavior and their anatomy. Here we show that, in only 33,000 y, domestication transformed the facial muscle anatomy of dogs specifically for facial communication with humans. Based on dissections of dog and wolf heads, we show that the levator anguli oculi medialis, a muscle responsi...
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Background: Recent reports have noted a need for increasing both the recruitment and retention of young people into the STEM disciplines. While many studies have reported on the benefits of classroom reform in formal education environments, less is known about the role of informal education programs in young people’s academic aspirations, interest...
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The organization and length of a muscle's fascicles contributes its contractile properties. Longer fascicles permit increased muscle excursion, while changes in fascicle orientation relate to the overall vector of contractile force. Collecting data on fascicle architecture has traditionally involved destructive and irreversible gross dissection. In...
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Background: Low success rates in oncology drug development are prompting re-evaluation of preclinical models, including orthotopic tumor engraftment. In breast cancer models, tumor cells are typically injected into mouse mammary fat pads (MFP). However, this approach bypasses the epithelial microenvironment, potentially altering tumor properties i...
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Facial expressions, or facial displays, of social or emotional intent are produced by many mammalian taxa as a means of visually communicating with conspecifics at a close range. These displays are achieved by contraction of the mimetic muscles, which are skeletal muscle attached to the dermis of the face. Reverse dissection, removing the full faci...
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The importance of increasing interest in the STEM disciplines has been noted in a number of recent national reports. While many previous studies have focused on such efforts inside of the formal classroom, comparatively few have looked closely at informal learning environments. We investigate the innovative use of technology in informal learning by...
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Objectives It is widely viewed that orangutans lack a ligamentum teres femoris (LTF) inserting on the femoral head because orangutans lack a distinct fovea capitis. Orangutans employ acrobatic quadrumanous clambering that requires a high level of hip joint mobility, and the absence of an LTF is believed to be an adaptation to increase hip mobility....
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Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates’ locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in l...
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In this the second issue of a two-volume set of the Anatomical Record on the relationship between muscle functional morphology and behavior, the focus is on the postcranial musculature. Traditionally, when talking of the postcranium we think of the skeletal parts that primarily provide the lever system necessary for body movements. However, without...
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It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm mu...