Adam Harrison

Adam Harrison
PAII Inc

Doctor of Philosophy

About

102
Publications
17,506
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,365
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - December 2015
University of Alberta
Position
  • PhD Student
May 2004 - August 2004
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (102)
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep learning methods can struggle to handle domain shifts not seen in training data, which can cause them to not generalize well to unseen domains. This has led to research attention on domain generalization (DG), which aims to the model's generalization ability to out-of-distribution. Adversarial domain generalization is a popular approach to DG,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate organ at risk (OAR) segmentation is critical to reduce the radiotherapy post-treatment complications. Consensus guidelines recommend a set of more than 40 OARs in the head and neck (H&N) region, however, due to the predictable prohibitive labor-cost of this task, most institutions choose a substantially simplified protocol by delineating a...
Preprint
Objectives: to propose a fully-automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) solution for liver lesion characterization, with uncertainty estimation. Methods: we enrolled 400 patients who had either liver resection or a biopsy and was diagnosed with either hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, or secondary metastasis, from 200...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background & Aims: Hepatic steatosis is a major cause of chronic liver disease. 2D ultrasound is the most widely used non-invasive tool for screening and monitoring, but associated diagnoses are highly subjective. We developed a scalable deep learning (DL) algorithm for quantitative scoring of liver steatosis from 2D ultrasound images. Approach & R...
Chapter
Full-text available
Using radiological scans to identify liver tumors is crucial for proper patient treatment. This is highly challenging, as top radiologists only achieve F1 scores of roughly \(80\%\) (hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vs. others) with only moderate inter-rater agreement, even when using multi-phase magnetic resonance (MR) imagery. Thus, there is great...
Chapter
Landmark localization plays an important role in medical image analysis. Learning based methods, including convolutional neural network (CNN) and graph convolutional network (GCN), have demonstrated the state-of-the-art performance. However, most of these methods are fully-supervised and heavily rely on manual labeling of a large training dataset....
Preprint
In this work, we introduce a fast and accurate method for unsupervised 3D medical image registration. This work is built on top of a recent algorithm SAM, which is capable of computing dense anatomical/semantic correspondences between two images at the pixel level. Our method is named SAME, which breaks down image registration into three steps: aff...
Chapter
In this work, we introduce a fast and accurate method for unsupervised 3D medical image registration. This work is built on top of a recent algorithm self-supervised anatomical embedding (SAM), which is capable of computing dense anatomical/semantic correspondences between two images at the pixel level. Our method is named SAM-enhanced registration...
Chapter
Full-text available
Depending on the application, radiological diagnoses can be associated with high inter- and intra-rater variabilities. Most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) solutions treat such data as incontrovertible, exposing learning algorithms to considerable and possibly contradictory label noise and biases. Thus, managing subjectivity in labels is a fundament...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lesion detection serves a critical role in early diagnosis and has been well explored in recent years due to methodological advances and increased data availability. However, the high costs of annotations hinder the collection of large and completely labeled datasets, motivating semi-supervised detection approaches. In this paper, we introduce mean...
Preprint
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be potentially discovered from abdominal computed tomography (CT) studies under varied clinical scenarios, e.g., fully dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) studies, non-contrast (NC) plus venous phase (VP) abdominal studies, or NC-only studies. We develop a flexible three-dimensional deep algorithm, called hetero-phase...
Preprint
Landmark localization plays an important role in medical image analysis. Learning based methods, including CNN and GCN, have demonstrated the state-of-the-art performance. However, most of these methods are fully-supervised and heavily rely on manual labeling of a large training dataset. In this paper, based on a fully-supervised graph-based method...
Preprint
Full-text available
Depending on the application, radiological diagnoses can be associated with high inter- and intra-rater variabilities. Most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) solutions treat such data as incontrovertible, exposing learning algorithms to considerable and possibly contradictory label noise and biases. Thus, managing subjectivity in labels is a fundament...
Preprint
Full-text available
3D delineation of anatomical structures is a cardinal goal in medical imaging analysis. Prior to deep learning, statistical shape models that imposed anatomical constraints and produced high quality surfaces were a core technology. Prior to deep learning, statistical shape models that imposed anatomical constraints and produced high quality surface...
Preprint
Lesion detection serves a critical role in early diagnosis and has been well explored in recent years due to methodological advancesand increased data availability. However, the high costs of annotations hinder the collection of large and completely labeled datasets, motivating semi-supervised detection approaches. In this paper, we introduce mean...
Chapter
Full-text available
The interest in artificial intelligence (AI) has ballooned within radiology in the past few years primarily due to notable successes of deep learning. With the advances brought by deep learning, AI has the potential to recognize and localize complex patterns from different radiological imaging modalities, many of which even achieve comparable perfo...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale datasets with high-quality labels are desired for training accurate deep learning models. However, due to the annotation cost, datasets in medical imaging are often either partially-labeled or small. For example, DeepLesion is such a large-scale CT image dataset with lesions of various types, but it also has many unlabeled lesions (miss...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using radiological scans to identify liver tumors is crucial for proper patient treatment. This is highly challenging, as top radiologists only achieve F1 scores of roughly 80% (hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vs. others) with only moderate inter-rater agreement, even when using multi-phase magnetic resonance (MR) imagery. Thus, there is great impet...
Preprint
Full-text available
Monitoring treatment response in longitudinal studies plays an important role in clinical practice. Accurately identifying lesions across serial imaging follow-up is the core to the monitoring procedure. Typically this incorporates both image and anatomical considerations. However, matching lesions manually is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In...
Article
Accurate segmentation of anatomical structures is vital for medical image analysis. The state-of-the-art accuracy is typically achieved by supervised learning methods, where gathering the requisite expert-labeled image annotations in a scalable manner remains a main obstacle. Therefore, annotation-efficient methods that permit to produce accurate a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Object detection methods are widely adopted for computer-aided diagnosis using medical images. Anomalous findings are usually treated as objects that are described by bounding boxes. Yet, many pathological findings, e.g., bone fractures, cannot be clearly defined by bounding boxes, owing to considerable instance, shape and boundary ambiguities. Thi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Radiological images such as computed tomography (CT) and X-rays render anatomy with intrinsic structures. Being able to reliably locate the same anatomical or semantic structure across varying images is a fundamental task in medical image analysis. In principle it is possible to use landmark detection or semantic segmentation for this task, but to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate segmentation of anatomical structures is vital for medical image analysis. The state-of-the-art accuracy is typically achieved by supervised learning methods, where gathering the requisite expert-labeled image annotations in a scalable manner remains a main obstacle. Therefore, annotation-efficient methods that permit to produce accurate a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Multi-modal image registration is a challenging problem that is also an important clinical task for many real applications and scenarios. As a first step in analysis, deformable registration among different image modalities is often required in order to provide complementary visual information. During registration, semantic information is key to ma...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within medical imaging, organ/pathology segmentation models trained on current publicly available and fully-annotated datasets usually do not well-represent the heterogeneous modalities, phases, pathologies, and clinical scenarios encountered in real environments. On the other hand, there are tremendous amounts of unlabelled patient imaging scans s...
Chapter
Visual cues of enforcing bilaterally symmetric anatomies as normal findings are widely used in clinical practice to disambiguate subtle abnormalities from medical images. So far, inadequate research attention has been received on effectively emulating this practice in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods. In this work, we exploit semantic anatomi...
Chapter
Accurate segmentation of critical anatomical structures is at the core of medical image analysis. The main bottleneck lies in gathering the requisite expert-labeled image annotations in a scalable manner. Methods that permit to produce accurate anatomical structure segmentation without using a large amount of fully annotated training images are hig...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mask-based annotation of medical images, especially for 3D data, is a bottleneck in developing reliable machine learning models. Using minimal-labor (UIs) to guide the annotation is promising, but challenges remain on best harmonizing the mask prediction with the UIs. To address this, we propose the user-guided domain adaptation (UGDA) framework, w...
Preprint
CXRs are a crucial and extraordinarily common diagnostic tool, leading to heavy research for CAD solutions. However, both high classification accuracy and meaningful model predictions that respect and incorporate clinical taxonomies are crucial for CAD usability. To this end, we present a deep HMLC approach for CXR CAD. Different than other hierarc...
Article
Full-text available
The acquisition of large-scale medical image data, necessary for training machine learning algorithms, is hampered by associated expert-driven annotation costs. Mining hospital archives can address this problem, but labels often incomplete or noisy, e.g., 50% of the lesions in DeepLesion are left unlabeled. Thus, effective label harvesting methods...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mask-based annotation of medical images, especially for 3D data, is a bottleneck in developing reliable machine learning models. Using minimal-labor user interactions (UIs) to guide the annotation is promising, but challenges remain on best harmonizing the mask prediction with the UIs. To address this, we propose the user-guided domain adaptation (...
Preprint
Large-scale datasets with high-quality labels are desired for training accurate deep learning models. However, due to annotation costs, medical imaging datasets are often either partially-labeled or small. For example, DeepLesion is a large-scale CT image dataset with lesions of various types, but it also has many unlabeled lesions (missing annotat...
Article
Full-text available
Chest X-rays (CXRs) are a crucial and extraordinarily common diagnostic tool, leading to heavy research for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) solutions. However, both high classification accuracy and meaningful model predictions that respect and incorporate clinical taxonomies are crucial for CAD usability. To this end, we present a deep hierarchical...
Chapter
Determining the spread of lymph node gross tumor volume (GTVLN) is essential in defining the respective resection or irradiating regions for the downstream workflows of surgical resection and radiotherapy for many cancers. Different from the more common enlarged lymph node (LN), GTVLN also includes smaller ones if associated with high positron emis...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ultrasound (US) is a critical modality for diagnosing liver fibrosis. Unfortunately, assessment is very subjective, motivating automated approaches. We introduce a principled deep convolutional neural network (CNN) workflow that incorporates several innovations. First, to avoid overfitting on non-relevant image features, we force the network to foc...
Chapter
Full-text available
Identifying, measuring and reporting lesions accurately and comprehensively from patient CT scans are important yet time-consuming procedures for physicians. Computer-aided lesion/significant-findings detection techniques are at the core of medical imaging, which remain very challenging due to the tremendously large variability of lesion appearance...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying, measuring and reporting lesions accurately and comprehensively from patient CT scans are important yet time-consuming procedures for physicians. Computer-aided lesion/significant-findings detection techniques are at the core of medical imaging, which remain very challenging due to the tremendously large variability of lesion appearance...
Preprint
Full-text available
Determining the spread of GTV$_{LN}$ is essential in defining the respective resection or irradiating regions for the downstream workflows of surgical resection and radiotherapy for many cancers. Different from the more common enlarged lymph node (LN), GTV$_{LN}$ also includes smaller ones if associated with high positron emission tomography signal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ultrasound (US) is a critical modality for diagnosing liver fibrosis. Unfortunately, assessment is very subjective, motivating automated approaches. We introduce a principled deep convolutional neural network (CNN) workflow that incorporates several innovations. First, to avoid overfitting on non-relevant image features, we force the network to foc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate segmentation of critical anatomical structures is at the core of medical image analysis. The main bottleneck lies in gathering the requisite expert-labeled image annotations in a scalable manner. Methods that permit to produce accurate anatomical structure segmentation without using a large amount of fully annotated training images are hig...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual cues of enforcing bilaterally symmetric anatomies as normal findings are widely used in clinical practice to disambiguate subtle abnormalities from medical images. So far, inadequate research attention has been received on effectively emulating this practice in CAD methods. In this work, we exploit semantic anatomical symmetry or asymmetry a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Effective and non-invasive radiological imaging based tumor/lesion characterization (e.g., subtype classification) has long been a major aim in the oncology diagnosis and treatment procedures, with the hope of reducing needs for invasive surgical biopsies. Prior work are generally very restricted to a limited patient sample size, especially using p...
Preprint
Full-text available
In medical imaging, organ/pathology segmentation models trained on current publicly available and fully-annotated datasets usually do not well-represent the heterogeneous modalities, phases, pathologies, and clinical scenarios encountered in real environments. On the other hand, there are tremendous amounts of unlabelled patient imaging scans store...
Preprint
Full-text available
Finding and identifying scatteredly-distributed, small, and critically important objects in 3D oncology images is very challenging. We focus on the detection and segmentation of oncology-significant (or suspicious cancer metastasized) lymph nodes (OSLNs), which has not been studied before as a computational task. Determining and delineating the spr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lesion detection is an important problem within medical imaging analysis. Most previous work focuses on detecting and segmenting a specialized category of lesions (e.g., lung nodules). However, in clinical practice, radiologists are responsible for finding all possible types of anomalies. The task of universal lesion detection (ULD) was proposed to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-modal image registration is a challenging problem yet important clinical task in many real applications and scenarios. For medical imaging based diagnosis, deformable registration among different image modalities is often required in order to provide complementary visual information, as the first step. During the registration, the semantic in...
Preprint
Full-text available
OAR segmentation is a critical step in radiotherapy of head and neck (H&N) cancer, where inconsistencies across radiation oncologists and prohibitive labor costs motivate automated approaches. However, leading methods using standard fully convolutional network workflows that are challenged when the number of OARs becomes large, e.g. > 40. For such...
Preprint
Full-text available
Acquiring large-scale medical image data, necessary for training machine learning algorithms, is frequently intractable, due to prohibitive expert-driven annotation costs. Recent datasets extracted from hospital archives, e.g., DeepLesion, have begun to address this problem. However, these are often incompletely or noisily labeled, e.g., DeepLesion...
Chapter
Hip and pelvic fractures are serious injuries with life-threatening complications. However, diagnostic errors of fractures in pelvic X-rays (PXRs) are very common, driving the demand for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) solutions. A major challenge lies in the fact that fractures are localized patterns that require localized analyses. Unfortunately,...
Chapter
Clinical target volume (CTV) delineation from radiotherapy computed tomography (RTCT) images is used to define the treatment areas containing the gross tumor volume (GTV) and/or sub-clinical malignant disease for radiotherapy (RT). High intra- and inter-user variability makes this a particularly difficult task for esophageal cancer. This motivates...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gross tumor volume (GTV) segmentation is a critical step in esophageal cancer radiotherapy treatment planning. Inconsistencies across oncologists and prohibitive labor costs motivate automated approaches for this task. However, leading approaches are only applied to radiotherapy computed tomography (RTCT) images taken prior to treatment. This limit...
Chapter
Full-text available
As the demand for more descriptive machine learning models grows within medical imaging, bottlenecks due to data paucity will exacerbate. Thus, collecting enough large-scale data will require automated tools to harvest data/label pairs from messy and real-world datasets, such as hospital picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs). This is...