Adam Hampshire

Adam Hampshire
Imperial College London | Imperial · Division of Brain Sciences

About

161
Publications
29,715
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8,037
Citations
Citations since 2016
95 Research Items
5174 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (161)
Preprint
Full-text available
Temporal interference (TI) is a strategy for non-invasive steerable stimulation of neurons deep in the brain using multiple kHz-range electric fields with a difference frequency within the range of neural activity. Here we report the validation of the TI stimulation concept in humans. We used electric field modelling and measurements in a human cad...
Article
Neurological conditions present with cognitive impairment that greatly affects the quality of life of the patients and should be routinely evaluated. However, it can be difficult to detect and impractical to monitor with classic in person cognitive assessment due to limitations of sensitivity, scalability and cost. Internet- and app-based tools for...
Article
While writing this abstract I received an email, which I promptly answered. When I returned my attention to the abstract, I struggled to regain my flow of writing. In order to understand this deficit in performance associated with switching from one task to another, or "switch cost", cognitive neuroscientists use task switching paradigms to recreat...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide has been identified as a leading cause of premature death in autistic populations. Elevated autistic traits have also been associated with higher rates of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal self-harm in the general population, but this has yet to be examined in older age. Using baseline cross-sectional data from the PROTECT study, m...
Article
Background: While the gender/sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia population are well described, gender/sex differences in mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in dementia-free populations and the relationship to cognitive performance and to subsequent cognitive decline have not been studied. Objective: We aimed to explore gender...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the absence of disease-modifying treatments, identifying potential psychosocial risk factors for dementia is paramount. Depression and anxiety have been identified as potential risk factors. Studies however have yielded mixed findings, lending possibility to the fact that potential constellations of co-occurring depression and anxie...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a unique context for studying the spread of conspiratorial beliefs within the general population and their role in mediating compliance with government guidance. Here, we apply multivariate and machine learning methods to analyse data from tens of thousands of members of the British public at 6-monthly timepoints du...
Article
While writing this abstract I received an email, which I promptly answered. When I returned my attention to the abstract, I struggled to regain my flow of writing. In order to understand this deficit in performance associated with switching from one task to another, or "switch cost", cognitive neuroscientists use task switching paradigms to recreat...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is widespread concern regarding how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected mental health. Emerging meta-analyses suggest that the impact on anxiety/depression may have been transient, but much of the included literature has major methodological limitations. Addressing this topic rigorously requires longitudinal data of sufficient scope...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies indicate that COVID-19 infection can lead to serious neurological consequences in a small percentage of individuals. However, in the months following acute illness, many more suffer from fatigue, low motivation, disturbed mood, poor sleep and cognitive symptoms, colloquially referred to as 'brain fog'. But what about individuals who...
Article
Background Research with younger adults has begun to explore associations between autism/autistic traits and vulnerability to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Large scale studies and/or examination of age-effects have not been conducted. Methods Adults aged 50 years+ from the PROTECT study (n=20,220) completed items about current and childho...
Article
Full-text available
Contact with older adults impact the perceptions people have towards their own aging self (Jarrott & Savla, 2015) and how they prepare for their own age-related change (Kornadt et al., 2015). Caregivers have close, intimate contact with older adults, yet no research explores how that contact may impact caregivers’ perceptions of their own aging. In...
Article
There has been considerable speculation regarding how people cope during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, surveys requiring selection from prespecified answers are limited by researcher views and may overlook the most effective measures. Here, we apply an unbiased approach that learns from people's collective lived experiences through the applicatio...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction: Patients with minor stroke are often discharged from the hyperacute stroke unit (HASU) without therapy or nursing follow-up. During their admission they are given information on their stroke, medication and secondary prevention. Stroke survivors tell us information provision is poor and undetected hidden impairments have significant,...
Poster
Full-text available
Background And Aims: Post stroke cognitive impairment is common, affecting recovery and quality of life. UK Clinical Guidelines state that everyone should be screened for cognitive impairment following stroke. Commonly used screening tools are often not sensitive enough to pick up subtle higher-level difficulties that may impact return to work and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation whose potential as a cognitive therapy is hindered by our limited understanding of how participant and experimental factors influence its effects. Using functional MRI to study brain networks, we have previously shown in healthy controls that the ph...
Article
Full-text available
Background We aimed to evaluate how coronavirus (COVID-19) restrictions had altered individual's drinking behaviours, including consumption, hangover experiences, and motivations to drink, and changing levels of depression and anxiety. Method We conducted an online cross-sectional self-report survey. Whole group analysis compared pre- versus post-...
Article
Full-text available
The cognitive deficits associated with Parkinson’s disease vary across individuals and change across time, with implications for prognosis and treatment. Key outstanding challenges are to define the distinct behavioural characteristics of this disorder and develop diagnostic paradigms that can assess these sensitively in individuals. In a previous...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We explored which factors are associated with subjective age (SA), i.e. feeling younger, the same as, or older than one’s chronological age, and whether these factors differ between men and women and between two age sub-groups. Design Cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative data for 1457 individuals (mean age= 67.2 years...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic (including lockdown) is likely to have had profound but diverse implications for mental health and well-being, yet little is known about individual experiences of the pandemic (positive and negative) and how this relates to mental health and well-being, as well as other important contextual variables. Here, we analyse data sam...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent studies indicate that COVID-19 infection can lead to serious neurological consequences in a small percentage of individuals. However, in the months following acute illness, many more suffer from fatigue, low motivation, disturbed mood, poor sleep and cognitive symptoms, colloquially referred to as 'brain fog'. But what about individuals who...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is growing concern about possible cognitive consequences of COVID-19, with reports of ‘Long COVID’ symptoms persisting into the chronic phase and case studies revealing neurological problems in severely affected patients. However, there is little information regarding the nature and broader prevalence of cognitive problems post-inf...
Preprint
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to explore sex differences in the association of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) with the level of cognitive performance and its rate of decline in a cohort of people without dementia with the longest term follow-up of cognition. METHODS: We studied 8,181 older adults enrolled in the online PROTECT UK Study. MBI was assessed...
Article
This scientific commentary refers to ‘A robust brain signature region approach for episodic memory performance in older adults’ by Fletcher et al. (doi:10.1093/brain/awab007).
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Evidence linking subjective concerns about cognition with poorer objective cognitive performance is limited by reliance on unidimensional measures of self-perceptions of aging (SPA). We used the awareness of age-related change (AARC) construct to assess self-perception of both positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and los...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a century of research, it remains unclear whether human intelligence should be studied as one dominant, several major, or many distinct abilities, and how such abilities relate to the functional organisation of the brain. Here, we combine psychometric and machine learning methods to examine in a data-driven manner how factor structure and i...
Article
Full-text available
Post-stroke cognitive and linguistic impairments are debilitating conditions, with limited therapeutic options. Domain-general brain networks play an important role in stroke recovery and characterising their residual function with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to yield biomarkers capable of guiding patient-specific...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 13 049 survivors of suspected or confirmed COVID-19, from the UK general population, as a function of severity and hospital admission status. Compared with mild COVID-19, significantly elevated rates of PTSD symptoms were identified in those requiring medical support at home (eff...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate if two weeks of working memory (WM) training on a progressive N-back task can generate changes in the activity of the underlying WM neural network. Forty-six healthy volunteers (23 training and 23 controls) were asked to perform the N-back task during three fMRI scanning sessions: (1) before training, (2) after the h...
Article
Full-text available
Memory impairment is a common, disabling effect of traumatic brain injury. In healthy individuals, successful memory encoding is associated with activation of the dorsal attention network as well as suppression of the default mode network. Here, in traumatic brain injury patients we examined whether: (i) impairments in memory encoding are associate...
Article
Microglial activation has been found surrounding amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brains of Alzheimer’s subjects . In‐vivo imaging using 11C‐PBR28 (a marker of translocator protein over expressed in activated microglia) has demonstrated significant correlation between both amyloid (18F‐Flutematemol PET) and tau deposition (18F‐AV1451...
Article
Cost effective and sensitive neuropsychological measures are needed for cohort studies and clinical trials. 10,000 people from the PROTECT on‐line cohort study (people > 50) in the UK participated in a longitudinal study of computerized neuropsychology using the PROTECT and COGTRACK batteries (attention, sustained attention, working memory, executi...
Article
Activated microglia is present in both Alzheimer’s subjects (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and can be visualised by both pathological evaluation and in‐vivo imaging studies. It has been established that neuroinflammation plays a vital role in Alzheimer’s trajectory and disruption in structural and functional connectivity is also...
Article
Full-text available
Awareness of age‐related changes (AARC), including perceived losses (e.g., memory decline) and gains (e.g., wisdom), comprise an important component of the aging process. Indeed, subjective perceptions of aging and health can reveal critical information not captured by objective measures. In particular, growing biomarker evidence suggests that subj...
Preprint
Full-text available
Flexible behaviour requires cognitive-control mechanisms to efficiently resolve conflict between competing information and alternative actions. Whether a global neural resource mediates all forms of conflict or this is achieved within domainspecific systems remains debated. We use a novel fMRI paradigm to orthogonally manipulate rule, response and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Case studies have revealed neurological problems in severely affected COVID-19 patients. However, there is little information regarding the nature and broader prevalence of cognitive problems post-infection or across the full spread of severity. We analysed cognitive test data from 84,285 Great British Intelligence Test participants who completed a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Sensitive neuropsychological tests are needed to improve power for clinical trials in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: To develop a neuropsychological composite (FLAME - Factors of Longitudinal Attention, Memory and Executive Function), we assessed, 10,714 participants over the age of 50 from PROTECT with validated computer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation whose potential as a cognitive therapy is hindered by our limited understanding of how participant and experimental factors influence its effects. Using functional MRI to study brain networks, we have previously shown in healthy controls that the ph...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over....
Article
Background Sleep problems and mental health difficulties are common in autistic children and young adults. However, these problems have seldom been studied in older autistic adults, or in older adults with elevated autistic traits. Method Cross-sectional data was examined from 13,897 adults aged 50–81 years taking part in the PROTECT study, who re...
Article
Full-text available
Background Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that basal ganglia functional connectivity is altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD) as compared to healthy controls. However, such functional connectivity alterations have not been related to the dopaminergic deficits that occurs in PD over time. Objectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The mental and physical health profile of autistic people has been studied in adolescence and adulthood, with elevated rates of most conditions being reported. However, this has been little studied taking a dimensional approach to autistic traits, and in older age. Methods: A total of 20,220 adults aged 50-81 years from the PROTECT st...
Preprint
Full-text available
The default-mode network (DMN) has been primarily associated with internally-directed and self-relevant cognition. This perspective is expanding to recognise its importance in executive behaviours like switching. We investigated the effect different task-switching manipulations have on DMN activation in two studies with novel fMRI paradigms. In the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Post-stroke cognitive and linguistic impairments are debilitating conditions, with current therapies only showing small improvements. Domain-general brain networks seem to play a critical role in stroke recovery and characterising their residual function with functional neuroimaging (fMRI) has the potential to yield biomarkers capable of guiding pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is an unresolved discrepancy between popular hierarchical and multiple-demand perspectives on the functional organisation of the human frontal lobes. Here, we tested alternative predictions of these perspectives with a novel fMRI switching paradigm. Each trial involved switching attention between stimuli, but at different levels of difficulty...
Article
Full-text available
Neural synchronization patterns are involved in several complex cognitive functions and constitute a growing trend in neuroscience research. While synchrony patterns in working memory have been extensively discussed, a complete understanding of their role in cognitive control and inhibition is still elusive. Here, we provide an up-to-date review on...
Preprint
Full-text available
How has the Covid-19 pandemic affected mental health? What are the most common positives and negatives? How do population variables mediate the impact on mood and behaviour? Who is most at risk of adverse consequences? Which pragmatic measures can help? We address these questions in a data-driven manner by applying multivariate, machine-learning an...
Preprint
Full-text available
We developed two novel self-ordered switching (SOS) fMRI paradigms to investigate how human behaviour and underlying network resources are optimised when learning to perform complex tasks with multiple goals. SOS was performed with detailed feedback and minimal pretraining (study 1) or with minimal feedback and substantial pretraining (study 2). In...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over. M...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over. M...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over. Me...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over. M...
Article
Full-text available
Autism commonly aggregates in families, with twin studies estimating heritability to be around 80%. Subclinical autism‐like characteristics have also been found at elevated rates in relatives of autistic probands. Physical and psychiatric conditions have been reported at elevated rates in autistic children and adults, and also in their relatives. H...
Preprint
The psychological deficits associated with Parkinson’s disease vary across individuals and change across time, with implications for prognosis and treatment. Key outstanding challenges are to define the distinct behavioural phenotypes of this disorder and develop diagnostic paradigms that can assess these sensitively in individuals. In a previous s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A questionnaire assessing awareness of positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses) was developed in the US and Germany. We validated the short form of the measure (AARC-10 SF) and the cognitive functioning subscale from the 50-item version of the AARC (AARC-50) questionnaire in the UK population aged 50 and over. M...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric condition, with biological models implicating disruption of cortically mediated inhibitory control pathways, ordinarily serving to regulate our environmental responses and habits. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition-related cortical dysconnectivity as a no...
Article
Full-text available
Non-invasive brain stimulation has been widely investigated as a potential treatment for a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including brain injury. However, the behavioural effects of brain stimulation are variable, for reasons that are poorly understood. This is a particular challenge for traumatic brain injury, where patterns of...
Article
Full-text available
Brain training is a large and expanding industry, and yet there is a recurrent and ongoing debate concerning its scientific basis or evidence for efficacy. Much of evidence for the efficacy of brain training within this debate is from small-scale studies that do not assess the type of “brain training,” the specificity of transfer effects, or the le...