Adam Bourne

Adam Bourne
La Trobe University · Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society

BSc, PhD

About

168
Publications
23,224
Reads
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2,790
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2011 - present
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (168)
Article
Background Gay and bisexual men (GBM) have higher substance use prevalences than general population samples – often attributed to stigmatisation of sexual minority identities. We examined how influential public health research on substance use among GBM interprets this behaviour and what GBM-specific identities emerge through the discourses employe...
Article
Background Research addressing sexualised use of GHB to date has largely focussed on gay and bisexual men's GHB use in the context of chemsex, this research has highlighted risks and experiences associated with sexual violence. No studies have included people of diverse sexualities and genders and documented reported practices to ensure mutually gr...
Article
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans or gender diverse, or queer-identifying (LGBTQ) people provide informal support to peers experiencing mental ill health. This reflects both the high prevalence of mental ill health in their communities – often a product of discrimination – and barriers to accessing formal services. In this article, we explore how...
Article
Full-text available
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) have developed community norms for regular HIV/STI testing. We investigated factors associated with self-reported COVID-19 testing in response to reported COVID-19 cases and public health restrictions. Participants responded to weekly cohort surveys between 10th May 2021 and 27th September 20...
Article
Dominant framings of intimate partner violence (IPV) construct the experience as one where a cisgender man enacts violence against a cisgender woman. While often the case, this framing obfuscates the experiences of people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender diverse, or queer (LGBTQ) and may challenge their ability to conceive of the...
Article
People with intersex variation/s have sex characteristics determined by reproductive anatomy or chromosomal, gonadal, or hormonal expressions that are not typical of medical and societal norms for male or female bodies and are widely subjected to irreversible medical interventions at an early age to reinforce sex assignment. These interventions may...
Article
Full-text available
Successful use of biomedical forms of HIV risk-reduction may have predisposed many gay and bisexual men (GBM) to vaccination against COVID-19, which may, in turn, affect their sexual behavior. A total of 622 Australian GBM provided weekly data on COVID-19 vaccination history and sexual behaviour between 17 January 2021 and 22 June 2021. We identify...
Article
Numerous studies have identified an association between the use of drugs in sexual contexts (chemsex) and HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), although whether a causal relationship exists is contentious. An intricate relationship exists between chemsex, HIV treatment and prevention, harm reduction, and the provisio...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and fears towards the onward transmission of HIV have changed among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Australia between 1997 and 2018. Participants were recruited as part of the HIV Futures study, a large cross-sectional survey of PLHIV in Australia, in 1997, 2003, 2012 and 2018 (total n = 38...
Article
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Background Peer-led interventions are central to the global HIV response for gay and bisexual men who have sex with men [GBMSM]. Since the year 2000, technological advancements in HIV and an increased response to the health disparities faced by GBMSM outside of HIV, have contributed to the expanding scope of their content and delivery. This review...
Article
Background GHB is used among some sexuality and gender diverse populations at elevated rates, however little qualitative research has explored GHB use among these populations with regards to diverse contexts, settings, practices, and experiences of use. Internationally, harms relating to GHB overdose appear to be increasing. Research outlining cons...
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This scoping review maps recent research into peer navigation programs for people living with HIV. Four databases were systematically searched in June 2020. Results were screened according to defined criteria and were not restricted to any design, outcome or country. Six papers drew from randomised control trials, five from quasi-experimental or pr...
Article
Background: Injecting drug use is purportedly more common among gay and bisexual men (GBM) than the general Australian population. Approaches designed to support the wellbeing of people who inject drugs may not be effective for GBM who inject, due to divergent settings, substances, and/or symbolism. We sought to identify the critical elements shapi...
Article
Background: Little is known about the effects of disclosure of HIV-serodiscordant relationships on clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effect of relationship disclosure on HIV viral suppression, and hypothesized that disclosure by HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners would be associated with viral suppression in the HIV-positive partner....
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Purpose: This article examines factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the past 12 months among lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual, or other non-heterosexual identifying youth (LGBQA+). Methods: A national Australian cross-sectional online survey was conducted involving 4370 cisgender LGBQA+ participants age...
Article
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Gay, bisexual, and queer-identifying (GBQ) communities tend to comprise various subcultural identity groups based around shared practices and intersectional identities, but little research has sought to qualitatively understand how these identities are situated within communities and enacted in everyday life. Further understanding subcultural ident...
Article
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This study explores in depth the health needs of diverse sex workers in Victoria by means of qualitative interviews with 31 sex workers and 17 key stakeholders. It looks at sex workers’ experiences in sexual, general and mental health provision and highlights how their health needs can be shaped by the experience of stigma, criminalisation, and a l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: This paper examines how antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and attitudes towards the onward transmission of HIV have changed among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Australia between 1997 and 2018. Method: Participants were recruited as part of the HIV Futures study, a large cross-sectional survey of PLHIV in Australia, in 1997, 2003, 2...
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Full-text available
In recent years, men and masculinities in Southeast Asia has begun to receive more attention from scholars as the result of increasing attention to intersections of race, gender space, colonialism, and place in countries such as Vietnam. This article provides an overview of current research on men and masculinities in Vietnam. It finds research on...
Article
Although many studies reported on decreases in sexual partner numbers among gay and bisexual-identifying men in the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic, few studies have explored COVID-19 risk-reduction strategies. Drawing on free-text responses in an online survey (from April to July 2020), we describe the ways in which men sought to minimise th...
Article
Although approximately 31,000 Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) are eligible for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), only 18,500 people currently use it, indicating a need to investigate why GBM do not use it. This article uses data from a national, online, observational study. It adopts a mixed-methods analysis to responses to survey question...
Article
Background Sexual minority women consume both alcohol and tobacco at higher rates than heterosexual women. However, various sociodemographic and cultural factors associated with these practices among sexual minority women in Australia are not well understood, nor are the factors associated with seeking alcohol-related support. Methods This study u...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Despite the widely recognized ethical and practical benefits of community engagement in HIV research, epistemic injustice persists within the field. Namely, the knowledge held by communities disproportionately affected by HIV is systematically afforded less credibility than that of more privileged academic researchers. In order to il...
Article
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Background Research shows that LGBTQ communities experience high levels of suicidality and mental ill health. They also face significant barriers to accessing adequate mental health treatment in service settings. In response to these factors, it is likely that LGBTQ community members turn to their peers for informal mental health-related support. S...
Article
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We examined depression and anxiety prior to and during COVID-19 restrictions in Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM). In an online cohort, a COVID-19-focused survey was conducted in April 2020. During 2019 and in April 2020, 664 GBM completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, measuring depression) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment...
Article
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Social research with people living with HIV (PLHIV) rarely distinguishes between gay men and bisexual men. However, bisexual men may have unique experiences of HIV-related stigma and distinct support needs. In this paper, findings are presented from a cross-sectional survey of Australian PLHIV, which included the Berger (HIV) stigma scale. A total...
Article
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Introduction Chemsex refers to using illicit substances to facilitate sexual experiences in men who have sex with men. Chemsex has been linked to significant negative impacts on psychological, social, and physical wellbeing. Little is known about information-seeking behaviours in this population. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and associations, with HIV and metrics of HIV care engagement in a representative population of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and transgender persons (TP) who have sex with men (GBMSM/TP) Setting Urban districts of Nairobi, Kenya. Design Cross-sectional. Partic...
Article
Background Establishing typologies of drug use among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (GBMSM) who are living with HIV, as well as differences in health outcomes between them, is important in addressing health inequalities within this population. We sought to determine how use of non-prescription drugs is clustered for these individuals an...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have examined changes in sexual behaviour following HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) initiation among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in relationships. In a national, online, prospective study of GBM in Australia, we compared sexual behaviours prior to and after PrEP initiation among HIV-negative and unknown-H...
Article
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kenya bear a heavy burden of HIV/STIs and are a priority population in the national HIV/AIDS response, yet remain criminalised and stigmatised within society. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers an opportunity to significantly impact the HIV epidemic, as does the concept of U = U, whereby those who are livi...
Article
Introduction: To examine demographic and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among a large cross-section of sexual orientation populations in Australia, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, queer, and asexual (LGBQ) people. Methods: A national survey was conducted involving 5,174 cisgender LGBQ participants...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Chemsex in a European context is the use of any of the following drugs to facilitate sex: crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and, to a lesser extent, cocaine and ketamine. This study describes the prevalence of self-reported recreational drug use and chemsex in HIV-positive men...
Article
COVID-19 may threaten the already poor mental health outcomes of Australian gay and bisexual men and cut ties to important social/sexual networks and community. Qualitative research into the experiences of gay and bisexual men during COVID-19 regulations is currently sparse. We report on 489 responses to a qualitative free-text question asking Aust...
Chapter
In this chapter we seek to describe how PrEP offers an effective means of preventing HIV and, by decoupling fear about HIV from the sex lives of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), presents an opportunity to broaden the scope of sexual health interventions beyond the narrow goal of HIV prevention. In the context of plural and...
Chapter
HIV has always been, and continues to be, as much a social phenomenon and challenge as it is a clinical one. Controlling transmission and containing the virus relies on engaging with and adjusting the social contours of behaviours and practices. Efforts to prevent acquisition and enable ‘protection’ against HIV continue to illuminate the complexity...
Preprint
Background: Establishing typologies of drug use among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (GBMSM) who are living with HIV, as well as differences in health outcomes between them, is important in addressing health inequalities within this population. We sought to determine how use of non-prescription drugs is clustered for these individuals a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Multiple jurisdictions are debating responses to United Nations calls for banning attempts at conversion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and asexual (LGBTQA +) peoples' identities to fit religious norms. This paper aimed to examine Australian LGBTQA + youths' experiences and outcomes of religious conversion practices att...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and transgender persons (TP) bear high burdens of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in sub-Saharan Africa, yet evidence of HIV care coverage for these groups is sparse from the region despite prevailing stigma and discrimination towards these groups. Methods 618...
Article
Many countries, including Australia, have laws that enable criminal prosecution of an individual based on reckless or intentional transmission of HIV to another person. Previous research has suggested that criminalisation of HIV may serve to hamper public health efforts by inhibiting HIV status disclosure or testing. Limited research to date has so...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionSuicide is a major public health problem in Japan, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) report elevated rates of suicidal ideation and attempts compared to their heterosexual peers. However, there is a paucity of research on suicidal ideation among MSM in Japan, where MSM co...
Article
Available evidence affirms the effectiveness- of crisis helpline services in providing appropriate short-term intervention for many groups, but the unique needs of sexual minority adult callers may prevent them from deriving similar therapeutic benefit. Two hundred and forty-eight sexual minority adults from across Australia were asked about a prev...
Article
Background: By the end of 2017, an estimated 83% of people living with HIV in Malaysia knew their serostatus. However, the Ministry of Health reported a high proportion of those newly diagnosed had low CD4 counts <200 cells/µL, indicating late presentation for testing may be pervasive. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the co...
Article
Crisis helplines are typically easily accessible and deliver interventions in a timely manner, regardless of geographical location. The efficacy and user experiences of these services are the subject of considerable interest within the field, but the experiences of trans and gender-diverse individuals remain unexplored despite high rates of mental...
Article
Background Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide, and culturally competent prevention and treatment services are often unavailable or inaccessible. Despite recent improvements in national HIV responses for many key populations in east Africa, evidence of effective respon...
Article
Background Sexualized drug use or “chemsex” in Taiwan commonly incorporates the use of methamphetamine. Our study aimed to assess the extent of severity of dependence of methamphetamine among MSM in Taiwan as well as motivations for engagement in chemsex. Methods Direct messages were sent to users of a large MSM social networking application in Ta...
Book
This edited collection brings together the social dimensions of three key aspects of recent biomedical advance in HIV research: Treatment as Prevention (TasP), new technologies such as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and the Undetectable equals Untransmittable (U=U) movement. The growth of new forms of biomedical HIV prevention has created hope fo...
Article
Full-text available
Gay, bisexual, and queer-identifying (GBQ) male communities tend to comprise various distinct subcultural identity groups based on shared characteristics and associations, often overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to develop a greater understanding of GBQ subcultural identities by exploring how they are understood and described by...
Article
Background: In response to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, Australia introduced public health and physical distancing restrictions in late March 2020. We investigated the impact of these restrictions on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM). Methods: Participants in an ongoing onli...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: There is little published literature about gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men and transgender individuals (MSM and TG)'s use of social media in sub-Saharan Africa, despite repressive social and/or criminalizing contexts that limit access to physical HIV prevention. We sought to describe MSM and TG's online socializing...
Article
The Malaysian government has committed to 'Fast Tracking the HIV Response' to achieve UNAIDS 2030 targets to end AIDS. The epidemic is concentrated among key populations and has shifted from people who inject drugs to HIV infection through sexual transmission among men who have sex with men, sex workers and transgender people. The aim of this scopi...
Article
The HIV epidemic in the Philippines has been expanding rapidly, with most newly diagnosed cases occurring among ‘men who have sex with men’ (MSM). New social contexts of HIV are evident in the evolving phenomenon of more MSM seeking partners online via social networking applications (‘apps’). This study examines findings from a virtual ethnography...
Article
This paper explores heterosexual men’s experiences of sexting with a primary focus on how, when and why men send sexually explicit photos to women. Previous research has focused either on gay and bisexual men’s experiences or considered sexting within a broader youth context. This research considers young men and their engagement with sexting pract...
Article
Full-text available
We report on Australian gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Drawing on an online longitudinal cohort study, 1,404 free-text responses from HIV-negative or untested Australian GBM were qualitatively analysed. The chi-square statistic was then used to assess differences regarding PrEP-perceptions by participant...
Article
Introduction: In March 2020, Australian state and federal governments introduced physical distancing measures alongside widespread testing to combat COVID-19. These measures may decrease people's sexual contacts and thus reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs). We investigated the impact of physical distan...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Men who have sex with men and transgender individuals (MSM/TG) carry a disproportionately high burden of HIV, including in South Africa. However, there are few empirical population-representative estimates of viral suppression and the HIV care cascade including HIV testing among this population, nor of factors associated with these o...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a pilot project designed to assess the feasibility of re-use across 12 diverse qualitative datasets related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the UK, from research projects undertaken between 1997 and 2013 – an approach which is chronically underused. First, we consider the sweeping biomedical changes and imperatives relating to...
Article
Despite new, effective biomedical technologies to prevent the transmission of HIV, social and structural factors still impact the opportunity for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) to access safe sexual health services. Within this paper we describe findings of a pilot analysis that seeks to identify relationships between cou...
Article
Full-text available
Use of crystal methamphetamine (crystal) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) has been associated with condomless anal intercourse with casual partners (CLAIC) and HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and undetectable viral load (UVL) are important biomedical HIV prevention strategies. We investigate the relationship between crystal use and H...
Article
BACKGROUND Men who have sex with men in Australia are currently ineligible to donate blood (are “deferred”) for 12 months since last oral or anal sexual contact with another man. In Australia and overseas, there has been limited research on attitudes and perceptions related to blood donation in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Questions o...
Article
Full-text available
SELPHI involves two interventions: (A) It provides one HIV self-testing (HIVST) kit; (B) It offers 3-monthly repeat HIVST kits if participants report ongoing risk. A logic model underpinned by the Behaviour Change Wheel informed the design of the intervention. SELPHI recruited 10,135 cis-men and trans people in England and Wales, all reporting anal...
Article
Background and aims: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) use alkyl nitrites ('poppers') at higher rates than other populations to functionally enhance sexual experiences. Their use has been associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours including receptive anal sex. We investigate the prevalence, frequency, and motivations for popp...
Chapter
Over the past three decades, there has been increasing recognition and acceptance of same-sex couples and families in high-income countries. In this chapter, we review research pertaining to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families across the globe. The first section of the chapter will review important terminology in relation to LGB...