Ad J F M Kerkhof

Ad J F M Kerkhof
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Department of Clinical Psychology

Ph.d.

About

336
Publications
83,693
Reads
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8,695
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor of Clinical Psychology, psychopathology and suicide prevention

Publications

Publications (336)
Article
Full-text available
Mental health smartphone apps could increase the safety and self-management of patients at risk of suicide, but it is still unclear whether it is feasible to integrate such apps into routine mental healthcare. This study reports on the feasibility of using a safety planning app (BackUp) and a self-monitoring app (mEMA) as components of the routine...
Article
Objective: The majority of individuals with suicidal ideation do not receive help, and every year close to 800,000 people die by suicide. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a guided internet-based self-help program compared to a waiting list control group in reducing suicidal ideation. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 4...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Increasing rail transportation requires appropriate railway suicide preventive measures. Aims: The investigation of trends in railway suicide during 2008-2018, a period in which preventive measures were taken by Dutch railway infrastructure manager ProRail. Methods: Generalized linear regression models for railway suicide were developed...
Article
Full-text available
Background Safety planning-type interventions (SPTIs) for patients at risk of suicide are often used in clinical practice, but it is unclear whether these interventions are effective. Aims This article reports on a meta-analysis of studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of SPTIs in reducing suicidal behaviour and ideation. Method We search...
Article
Full-text available
Background The evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions among ethnic minorities is still preliminary. This mixed methods study investigates the feasibility of a culturally adapted, guided online intervention with the intention to understand how it works and for whom to inform refinement. It also examines its likely effectiven...
Article
Na een ongeval thuis is suïcide de meest voorkomende oorzaak van een niet-natuurlijke dood. Er overlijden 3 keer zoveel mensen door zelfdoding dan door verkeersongevallen. Toch wordt de huisarts relatief weinig geconfronteerd met suïcide. Naar schatting maakt een huisarts iedere 4 tot 8 jaar een patiënt mee die suïcide pleegt. Suïcidepogingen en de...
Article
Full-text available
Background Suicidal behavior is the result of complex interactions between many different factors that change over time. A network perspective may improve our understanding of these complex dynamics. Within the network perspective, psychopathology is considered to be a consequence of symptoms that directly interact with one another in a network str...
Article
Full-text available
Internet-and mobile-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) might reduce suicidal ideation. However, recent meta-analyses found small effect sizes, and it remains unclear whether specific subgroups of participants experience beneficial or harmful effects. This is the study protocol for an individual participant meta-analysis (IPD-MA) aiming to de...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is a strong stigma attached to mental disorders preventing those affected from getting psychological help. The consequences of stigma are worse for racial and/or ethnic minorities compared to racial and/or ethnic majorities since the former often experience other social adversities such as poverty and discrimination within polici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There is a strong stigma attached to mental disorders preventing those affected from getting psychological help. The consequences of stigma are worse for racial and/or ethnic minorities compared to racial and/or ethnic majorities since the former often experience other social adversities such as poverty and discrimination within policies...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are treated in long-term specialised care. In this population, suicidal behaviour troubles patients, families, and specialists in the field because it is difficult to treat. At present, there is no documented effective therapy for suicidal behaviour in ASD (Autism Research 7:507-521, 201...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There is a strong stigma attached to mental disorders preventing those affected from getting psychological help. The consequences of stigma are worse for racial and/or ethnic minorities who often experience other social adversities such as poverty and discrimination within policies and institutions. This is the first systematic review an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions among ethnic minorities is still preliminary. This mixed methods study investigates the feasibility of a culturally adapted, guided online intervention with the intention to understand how it works and for whom to inform refinement. It also examines indications for its...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There is a strong stigma attached to mental disorders preventing those affected from getting psychological help. The consequences of stigma are worse for racial and/or ethnic minorities compared to racial and/or ethnic majorities since the former often experience other social adversities such as poverty and discrimination within policies...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions among ethnic minorities is still preliminary. This mixed methods study investigates the feasibility of a culturally adapted, guided online intervention with the intention to understand how it works and for whom to inform refinement. It also examines its likely effective...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions among ethnic minorities is still preliminary. This mixed methods study investigates the feasibility of a culturally adapted, guided online intervention with the intention to understand how it works and for whom to inform refinement. It also examines its likely effective...
Article
Background: Despite increasing evidence of the effectiveness of digital learning solutions in higher vocational education, including the training of allied health professionals, the impact of Web-based training on the development of practical skills in psychiatry and psychology, in general, and in suicide prevention, specifically, remains largely u...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite increasing evidence of the effectiveness of digital learning solutions in higher vocational education, including the training of allied health professionals, the impact of Web-based training on the development of practical skills in psychiatry and psychology, in general, and in suicide prevention, specifically, remains largely u...
Article
Full-text available
Suïcide is een ernstig volksgezondheidsprobleem. De behandeling van suïcidale gedachten kan een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan de preventie van suïcide. Online behandeling van suïcidale ideatie kan drempels verlagen die suïcidale personen kun-nen ervaren ten opzichte van een face-to-face behandeling. Bijgevolg werd de effec-tiviteit van een onbeg...
Article
Veel mensen met een depressieve stoornis hebben last van repetitieve, oncontroleerbare en indringende suïcidale beelden en gedachten. Deze zogenaamde ‘suïcidale intrusies’ kunnen mogelijk een aanknopingspunt zijn voor versterking van suïcidale ideatie en suïcidaal gedrag. Verschillende experimentele studies hebben aangetoond dat oogbewegingen tijde...
Article
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Background: Online forums that enable peer-to-peer interaction are widespread and readily available. Aim: This study aimed to identify the reach, benefits, and potential harmful effects for visitors to an online forum embedded in a suicide prevention platform in The Netherlands. Method: The study collected web-based questionnaires from online forum...
Article
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Background: Suicide is a major public health problem, and it remains unclear which processes link suicidal ideation and plans to the act of suicide. Growing evidence shows that the majority of suicidal patients diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder report repetitive suicide-related images and thoughts (suicidal intrusions).Various stu...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Background: Despite increased evidence on the effectiveness of digital learning solutions in a variety of higher vocational education, including (para-)medical fields, online training of practical skills in psychiatry and psychology in general, and in suicide prevention specifically, remains largely understudied. OBJECTIVE Objective: Th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite increasing evidence of the effectiveness of digital learning solutions in higher vocational education, including the training of allied health professionals, the impact of Web-based training on the development of practical skills in psychiatry and psychology, in general, and in suicide prevention, specifically, remains largely...
Article
Suicide is a major public health issue, and treatment of suicidal thoughts may contribute to its prevention. Provision of online treatment of suicidal ideation may reduce barriers that suicidal individuals experience in face-to-face treatment. We therefore aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a web-based intervention targeting a reduction of su...
Article
More suicidal ideation and higher rates of attempted suicide are found in Turkish people when compared with the general population in Europe. Acculturation processes and related distress may explain an elevated risk of suicide. The current study investigates the association between acculturation and suicidal ideation among Turkish migrants in the N...
Article
Background: Suicidality could be associated with specific combinations of biological, social and psychological factors. Therefore, depressive episodes with suicidal ideation could be different from depressive episodes without suicidal ideation in terms of latent variable structures. Methods: In this study we compared latent variable structures betw...
Article
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ACHTERGROND Om verbeteringen in de zorg voor suïcidale patiënten in ggz-instellingen te onderbouwen zijn speci-fieke en systematische gegevens nodig over hulpverlenersgedrag jegens patiënten die waren betrokken bij suïcidale incidenten. METHODE Exploratief observationeel onderzoek naar de relatie tussen patiënt-en hulpverlenerskenmerken en gedrag v...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Specific and systematic data on health care providers' behaviour is needed to futher improve the care provided to suicidal patiënts in mental health care facilities. METHOD: Explorative observational study of all suicidal incidents (n=50) that occurred in a Dutch mental health care facility over a one year period. Incidents were evalua...
Article
According to the Canadian law legalizing physicians to provide medical assistance in dying (MAID) under certain circumstances, the patients alone determine if their suffering cannot be relieved under conditions “that they consider acceptable.” This contrasts with the laws on MAID in the Netherlands, which require that physicians only grant access t...
Article
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Aim: To investigate changes in levels of implementation of guideline recommendations; and to assess the degree of variation on suicide prevention policies and practices between MHIs. Methods: Implementation study with a prospective cohort design studying change over time on all domains of a Suicide Prevention Monitor, a guideline-based instrumen...
Article
Full-text available
Background It remains difficult to predict and prevent suicidal behaviour, despite growing understanding of the aetiology of suicidality. Clinical guidelines recommend that health care professionals develop a safety plan in collaboration with their high-risk patients, to lower the imminent risk of suicidal behaviour. Mobile health applications prov...
Article
Background: Treatment for suicidality can be delivered online, but evidence for its effectiveness is needed. Objective: The goal of our study was to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention for suicidal thinking compared to an attention-matched control program. Methods: A 2-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted wit...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide prevention is a major health care responsibility in need of new perspectives. This study reviews Zero Suicide, an emerging approach to suicide prevention that embraces the aspirational goal of zero suicides among patients treated in health care systems or organizations. Zero Suicide is gaining international momentum while at the same time e...
Article
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Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns, and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite increased efforts for national suicide prevention strategies, there are still few effective interventions available for reducing suicide risk. In this article, we describe various theoretical approaches for suicide ideation and behav...
Preprint
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a ne...
Preprint
Suicidal behaviour remains difficult to predict and prevent, even for experienced mental health care professionals. The known distal risk factors for suicidal behaviour are not sufficiently specific to fully understand the complex dynamic processes that precede a suicide attempt. Real-time mobile monitoring data can be used to analyse proximal risk...
Article
Full-text available
Background Persons with a past episode of self-harm or severe suicidal ideation are at elevated risk of self-harm as well as dying by suicide. It is well established that suicidal ideation fluctuates over time.Previous studies have shown that a personal safety plan can assist in providing support, when a person experiences suicide ideation, and hel...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Suicidal thoughts are common, causing distress for millions of people all over the world. However, people with suicidal thoughts might not access support due to financial restraints, stigma or a lack of available treatment offers. Self-help programs provided online could overcome these barriers, and previous efforts show promising resu...
Article
Objective: We investigated trends in suicidal behaviour as reported by Dutch general practices from 1983 to 2013. Also, we analysed the relationship with patient characteristics and with the financial crisis of 2008. Design: Retrospective observational study. Method: We estimated age-adjusted and gender-specific trends in suicides (342) and at...
Chapter
Web-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions can reach people who do not seek or receive face-to-face care, or who live in a region where mental health care is less available or accessible. Although the evidence base for web-based interventions is small, the worldwide reach of the web and the low costs of guided and unguided web-based...
Article
background Every year about 462,000 people in the Netherlands contemplate committing suicide.This has an adverse effect on their quality of life, on their productivity and on the costs of health care. A low-Threshold online self-help intervention could improve the situation significantly. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a randomi...
Article
Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studie...
Chapter
In dit eerste hoofdstuk wordt zo precies mogelijk beschreven en uitgelegd wat we verstaan onder de termen suïcide, suïcidepogingen en hieraan gerelateerde begrippen.
Chapter
In 2014 vonden 1839 suïcides plaats, na een sterke stijging sinds 2007. Die stijging heeft vermoedelijk met de crisis te maken en trof in het bijzonder mensen met een arbeidsongeschiktheidsuitkering. Mannen komen twee keer vaker dan vrouwen door suïcide om het leven. Jonge vrouwen doen betrekkelijk vaak suïcidepogingen. Ongeveer 8 % van de Nederlan...
Chapter
Het onderzoek naar suïcidaliteit omvat distale (langdurige en statische) en proximale (vlak voorafgaande) risicofactoren. In dit hoofdstuk wordt het systematisch onderzoek van de suïcidaliteit beschreven. Belangrijk daarbij is het bespreken van de wanhoop en de plannen die mensen hebben gemaakt om een einde aan hun leven te maken. Enkele vragenlijs...
Chapter
In dit hoofdstuk gaan we op zoek naar verklaringen voor waarom iemand een einde aan zijn leven maakt. Zoals zal blijken zijn er voor iedere suïcide meervoudige verklaringen mogelijk. En wat beschermt mensen tegen suïcide? Een aantal beschermende factoren worden besproken. Vooral verbondenheid met anderen weerhoudt mensen ervan een einde aan hun lev...
Chapter
Uitgaande van de beste ervaringen in de behandeling van suïcidale patiënten en op grond van wetenschappelijk onderzochte effectieve behandelingen zijn internationale richtlijnen geformuleerd die een handvat geven voor de praktijk van de hulpverlening. Ook in Nederland is in 2012 zo’n multidisciplinaire richtlijn geformuleerd. De belangrijkste eleme...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. Methods Data from 29 European countries covering the years 2000–2012 and concerning male...
Article
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1 ONDERZOEK In Nederland is de huisarts een belangrijke poortwachter tot de zorg voor suïcidale patiënten. 1 Samen met de prak-tijkondersteuner ggz (POH-GGZ) is de huisarts bij uit-stek in de positie om suïcidale gedachten, die vooral bij depressieve patiënten geregeld voorkomen, in een vroeg stadium te herkennen en zo te helpen voorkomen dat deze...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI. Objective: The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general population and, secondarily, to examine whether receivi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To analyse trends in suicidal behaviour as reported by the Dutch sentinel general practices from 1983 to 2013. Second, to examine the relationship between suicidal behaviour and several patient characteristics. Finally, to compare the relationship between suicidal behaviour and patient characteristics before (1983–2007) and after (2008–2...
Article
Currently, little is known about the views that Turkish migrants hold towards suicide, which may differ from the narratives held by native inhabitants of their host countries. Central to improving the provision of mental health services, furthering our knowledge of these views is important. The aim of this research was to explore Turkish cultural u...
Article
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate is 82% higher in the Flanders region of Belgium than in the Netherlands. AIM: To investigate to what extent Flanders and the Netherlands differ with regard to the risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide and attempted suicide. METHOD: By means of a structured postal questionnaire, we collected data on the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The transition to a Web-based setting could address obstacle...
Article
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Background: Multidisciplinary evaluation of suicide cases effectively decreases the suicide rate in mental health care. A new suicide prevention tool (KEHR) can be used in this connection. KEHR has been developed on the basis of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on the assessment and treatment of suicidal behaviour. The guideline can...
Article
Background: The suicide rate is 82% higher in the Flanders region of Belgium than in the Netherlands. Aim: To investigate to what extent Flanders and the Netherlands differ with regard to the risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide and attempted suicide. Method: By means of a structured postal questionnaire, we collected data o...
Book
Meer dan ooit staat het terugdringen van suïcide en het behandelen van suïcidaal gedrag op de agenda van de Geestelijke Gezondheidszorg. Het leed van hen die zo hun leven beëindigden en dat van hun nabestaanden is groot. Ondanks alle inspanningen op het gebied van suïcidepreventie laten de cijfers in Nederland sinds 2007 een sterke stijging zien. D...
Article
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Background Randomised studies examining the effect on patients of training professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines are scarce.AimsTo assess whether patients benefited from the training of professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines.Method In total 45 psychiatric departments were randomised (Dutch trial register: NTR3092). In the inter...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies reveal an elevated suicide rate for anaesthesiologists. We sought to examine anaesthesiologist suicide mortality and its underlying explanatory factors. Two studies were conducted in order to establish the suicide mortality figures among Dutch anaesthesiologists and to investigate life events, work-related stress, psychological pro...
Article
Full-text available
Suicidal thoughts are common in the general population, causing significant disability. However, a substantial number of people struggling with suicidality do not access appropriate services. Online self-help may help overcome barriers to help-seeking. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help program targeted at reducing...