Achim Langenbucher

Achim Langenbucher
Universität des Saarlandes | UKS

Univ.-Prof. Dr.

About

861
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September 2009 - present
Universität des Saarlandes
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (861)
Presentation
Full-text available
Purpose: The new "Lens Power Calculation Module" (LPCM) for calculation of toric and non-toric intraocular lenses is based on the CASTROP formula and is available as online calculation tool via IOLCon´s website. Hereby, modern online IOL power calculation support is provided for ophthalmic surgeons. Results: The CASTROP vergence formula is based o...
Presentation
Full-text available
Purpose: Murphy´s Law stated “If anything can go wrong, it will”. This also holds true when calculating intraocular lenses (IOL) – and also here, the options are manifold, partly systemic and pre-programmed. Such errors will be introduced briefly followed by detailed information on the benefits of using optimized IOL constants, preferably individua...
Article
Purpose To compare actual and formula predicted postoperative refractive astigmatism using measured posterior corneal power measurements and four different empiric posterior corneal astigmatism correction models. Setting Tertiary Care Center. Design Single-center retrospective consecutive case series. Methods Using a dataset of 211 eyes before a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Purpose: Murphy´s Law stated “If anything can go wrong, it will”. This also holds true when calculating intraocular lenses (IOL) – and also here, the options are manifold, partly systemic and pre-programmed. Such errors will be introduced briefly followed by detailed information on the benefits of using optimized IOL constants, preferably individua...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose Why is northern Germany mostly Protestant while southern Germany predominantly Catholic? Was it because the Protestant King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was unable to continue his triumphent march to the South during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). And what has all this to do with a pair of glasses? Results Gustav II Adolf (15...
Presentation
Full-text available
Abstract: Purpose To be crossed eyed is a wide-spread dysfunction of the eye. Usually squinting is regarded as unattractive. In ancient times societies saw squinting as a sign of piety or even beauty. Even Venus was depicted heterophoric quite often. The most famous artist who was crossed eyed was Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (*08.02.1591; †22.12.16...
Article
Full-text available
Personalized medicine and patient-tailored drug dosing have been substantiated through thousands of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and efficacy. The principle: “as much as necessary, as little as possible” is widely spread. Quantities and doses are therefore adjusted individually. This is not the case for intravitreal injections in th...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in corneal biomechanical properties after implantation of intracorneal ring segments (ICRSs) in keratectasia. Methods: This retrospective single-center study included 112 patient eyes that underwent femtosecond laser-assisted ICRS implantation (Intacs SK; Addition Technology Inc, Des Plaines,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Purpose: Murphy´s Law, postulated in 1949, stated “If anything can go wrong, it will”. This also holds true when calculating intraocular lenses (IOL) – and also here, were the options are manifold, partly systemic and pre-programmed. Methods: Close cooperation with the Institute of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Homburg/Saar (Germany). Re...
Presentation
Full-text available
Myopia might have killed him: Gustv II Adolf, Kind of Sweden Purpose Why is northern Germany mostly Protestant while southern Germany predominantly Catholic? Was it because the Protestant King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was unable to continue his triumphent march to the South during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). And what has all t...
Presentation
Full-text available
A quick look at (un)avoidable errors in biometry – and some ideas how to overcome them! Purpose: Murphy´s Law stated “If anything can go wrong, it will”. This also holds true when calculating intraocular lenses (IOL) – and also here, the options are manifold, partly systemic and pre-programmed. Such errors will be introduced briefly followed by de...
Article
Purpose Investigating impact of formula constants on predicted refraction and limitations of constant optimization for classical and modern intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae. Setting Tertiary Care Center. Design Retrospective single centre consecutive case series. Methods Analysis based on a dataset of 888 eyes before and after c...
Poster
Hearing, not seeing, is believing: On the invention of thoracic percussion by Leopold Auenbrugger Purpose: Leopold Auenbrugger invented and introduced the technique of thorax percussion as a diagnostic tool in medicine in 1761. Together with Laënnec´s stethoscope the era of scientific anatomic diagnosis in medicine finally began. Methods: Histo...
Poster
A feast for the eyes, not only beautiful and toxic, but also conducive to health: the “California Poppy” Purpose: In 1903, it became the official state flower of California, and in 2016 was nominated as Poisonous Plant of the Year: Eschscholzia californica, the “California Poppy”. The German nickname, Schlafmützchen, translates to “nightcap”, a g...
Poster
Look into my eyes… 30 years ago: The first publication of an OCT picture of the fundus of a living human eye Purpose: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is today regarded as the standard diagnostic technique in various sub-disciplines in ophthalmology. In 1990, by using white-light interferometry, Professor Adolf Friedrich Fercher (1939–2017) dev...
Article
Full-text available
Background To compare 2 different design scenarios of EDOF-IOLs inserted in the Liou-Brennan schematic model eye using raytracing simulation as a function of pupil size. Methods Two EDOF IOL designs were created and optimized for the Liou-Brennan schematic model eye using Zemax ray tracing software. Each lens was optimized to achieve a maximum Str...
Article
Full-text available
The proper choice of an intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formula is an important aspect of phacoemulsification. In this study, the formulas most commonly used today are described and their accuracy is evaluated. This review includes papers evaluating the accuracy of IOL power calculation formulas published during the period from January 201...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intraocular lenses are typically calculated based on a pseudophakic eye model, and for toric lenses (tIOL) a good estimate of corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery is required in addition to the equivalent corneal power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the preoperative IOLMaster (IOLM) and the...
Article
Full-text available
Background Intraocular lenses (IOLs) require proper positioning in the eye to provide good imaging performance. This is especially important for premium IOLs. The purpose of this study was to develop prediction models for estimating IOL decentration, tilt and the axial IOL equator position (IOLEQ) based on preoperative biometric and tomographic mea...
Article
Full-text available
Sie sind aus der Berechnung von Intraokularlinsen heute nicht mehr wegzudenken, weil sie das refrakti-ve Ergebnis nach der Katarakt-OP wesentlich verbessern können: optimierte IOL-Kontanten. Die 2017 gegründete Internet-Datenbank IOLCon hat sich inzwischen als weltweit verfügbare, zuverlässige Quelle für optimierte IOL-Konstanten und -Spezifikation...
Article
Kurzfassung: Wir berichten über einen Fall, in dem der Patient aus Überlegungen zu Dysphotopsien eine reversible Multifokallinsenimplantation wünschte, mit dem Zusatzwunsch im Falle der Revision dennoch Brillenunabhängig zu sein. Wir entschieden uns für eine Monovision mit monofokalen Intraokularlinsen im Kapselsack und multifokalen additiven Sulcu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose To evaluate the efficiency of using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) as a non-invasive and sterile screening method in the eye bank to detect corneal grafts with curvature and/or thickness anomalies, thus improving the graft selection for corneal transplantation. Methods 1222 donor corneal tissues mounted in sterile o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose Sterile donor tomography in the eye bank can be used to minimise refractive surprises after corneal transplantation.The aim of this study was to compare sterile tomography of donor corneas in the eye bank with keratometric measurements of the same donors performed prior their death. Methods Since 2018, 1246 donor sclerocorneal discs have b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Monoclonal gammopathy (MG) is characterized by monoclonal protein overproduction, potentially leading to the development of hyperviscosity syndrome. Objective: To assess retinal circulation using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in patients with monoclonal gammopathy. Methods: OCTA measurements were perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study uses bootstrapping to evaluate the technical variability (in terms of model parameter variation) of Zernike corneal surface fit parameters based on Casia2 biometric data. Methods Using a dataset containing N = 6953 Casia2 biometric measurements from a cataractous population, a Fringe Zernike polynomial surface of radial degre...
Article
Purpose To determine 1) if measurements of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) as measured by keratometry (K) and total keratometry (TK) differ 2) if SIA affects the magnitude and/or meridian of keratometric astigmatism 3) if SIA evolves over time Setting Tertiary care center Design Retrospective data analysis. Methods A swept-source OCT (SS-OC...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a concept for predicting the effects of both discrete intraocular lens (IOL) power steps (PS) and power labelling tolerances (LT) on the uncertainty of the refractive outcome (REFU). Design Retrospective non-randomised cross-sectional Monte Carlo simulation study. Methods We evaluated a dataset con...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of geographic atrophy (GA) in advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the proportion of eyes that would meet the indication criteria for treatment with the first intravitreal anti-C3 agent (pegcetacoplan). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included all AMD patients who visited th...
Presentation
Full-text available
Title: (Un)avoidable Errors in Biometry Purpose: Murphy´s Law, postulated in 1949, stated “If anything can go wrong, it will”. This also holds true when calculating intraocular lenses (IOL) – and also here, were the options are manifold, partly systemic and pre-programmed. Methods: Close cooperation with the Institute of Experimental Ophthalmolog...
Article
Purpose: Neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy is considered as safe and effective method in the treatment of posterior capsule opacification. Nevertheless, side effects are described. The incorrectly adjusted focus of the laser beam during the procedure can lead to so-called YAG-pits or YAG-shots. In this experimental study,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To assess the reproducibility (i.e., inter-device reliability) of the biometers Topcon MYAH, Oculus Myopia Master, and Haag-Streit Lenstar LS900 with the Carl Zeiss IOLMaster 700 and the intra-subject repeatability in myopic children in order to reliably detect axial growth for myopia management. Methods Twenty-two myopic children (11.1 ± 2...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the uncertainty in the formula predicted refractive outcome REFU after cataract surgery resulting from measurement uncertainties in modern optical biometers using literature data for within-subject standard deviation Sw . Methods: This Monte-Carlo simulation study used a large dataset contain...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die ABCD-Klassifikation des Keratokonus nach Belin ermöglicht eine Stadieneinteilung des Keratokonus basierend auf den Kriterien Vorder- (A) und Rückflächenverkrümmung (B), dünnster Pachymetrie (C) und bestkorrigiertem Visus mit Brille (D). Diese Parameter ermöglichen auch eine Progressionsbeurteilung, berücksichtigen jedoch nicht d...
Poster
Full-text available
Title: Dame Ida Mann: The Prototypical Modern Woman. Purpose Dr. Ida Mann (6. February 1893, London (UK) – 18 November 1983, Perth (Australia) was the pre-eminent ophthalmologist of her era. Her career is reviewed in the context of the evolution of attitudes and practices in modern society. Methods Selective literature search in books and journal...
Presentation
Full-text available
Title: IOL power calculation on its next level – the “LPCM” based on modern CASTROP formula Purpose: The new "Lens Power Calculation Module" (LPCM) for calculation of toric and non-toric intraocular lenses is based on the CASTROP formula and is available as online calculation tool via IOLCon´s website. Hereby, modern online IOL power calculation s...
Article
Background: We evaluated whether the best-fit intraocular lens (IOL) power formula for the first operated eye (BF1) was also the most accurate formula for the second eye. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 152 patients who underwent uncomplicated delayed bilateral cataract surgery with a minimum delay of 3 weeks using only one 1-piece IO...
Chapter
Lens calculation formulae are generalised calculation concepts that can be adapted to the special situations and conditions of a lens type. They can also be adapted to the surgical technique, the characteristics of the patients or the calibration of the biometer or the refraction measurement technique. To do this adaptation, the formulae include so...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fitting of parametric model surfaces to corneal tomographic measurement data is required in order to extract characteristic surface parameters. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for evaluating the uncertainties in characteristic surface parameters using bootstrap techniques. Methods: We included 1684 measurements from...
Technical Report
Full-text available
IOLCon not only offers users an overview of the ever expanding range of intraocular lenses (IOLs), but also of their essential parameters and specifications. Above all, optimized IOL constants which are provided and updated according to modern algorithms and standards. IOL constants link the biometric measurements to the expected axial lens positio...
Article
Full-text available
Joseph Jastrow (30. Januar 1863 – 8. Januar 1944) war ein polnisch-amerikanischer Psychologe und ist bekannt für Erfindungen der experimentellen Psychologie und Psychophysik. Unter anderem beschäftigte er sich mit optischen Täuschungen. Eine Reihe bekannter optischer Täuschungen (z.B. die „Jastrow-Illusion“ oder die „Hase-Ente-Illusion“) wurden dur...
Article
Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Wirkung von 100% autologen Serumaugentropfen bei therapieresistenten Erosiones und Ulcera corneae auf der eigenen Hornhaut vs. transplantierter Hornhaut zu vergleichen. Patienten und Methoden In einer retrospektiven Studie über 7 Jahre wurden 263 Behandlungen mit autologen Serumaugentropfen...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate corneal stiffening of porcine corneas induced by corneal crosslinking (CXL) with constant irradiance as a function of total fluence. Methods: Ninety corneas from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were divided into five groups of 18 eyes. Groups 1-4 underwent epi-off CXL using a dextran-based riboflavin solution and an irradian...
Article
Purpose To assess various potential factors on human limbal epithelial cell (LEC) outgrowth in vitro using corneal donor tissue following long-term storage (organ culture) and a stepwise linear regression algorithm. Methods Of 215 donors, 304 corneoscleral rings were used for our experiments. For digestion of the limbal tissue and isolation of the...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of various variations of new-generation multivariate intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation using the Barrett Universal II, Castrop, EVO 2.0, Hill-RBF 3.0, Kane, and PEARL-DGS formulae with and without optional biometric parameters. Setting: Tertiary care academic medical center. Design: retrospective case s...
Article
Full-text available
Cornea topography maps allow ophthalmologists to screen and diagnose cornea pathologies. We aim to automatically identify any cornea abnormalities based on such cornea topography maps, with focus on diagnosing keratoconus. To do so, we represent the OCT scans as images and apply Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for the automatic analysis. The m...
Article
Full-text available
Die 2017 gegründete Internet-Datenbank IOLCon hat sich als weltweit verfügbare und zuverlässige Quelle für optimierte IOL-Konstanten und -Spezifikationen etabliert. Basierend auf zeitgemäßen Opti-mierungsstrategien stellt IOLCon auch individuell optimierte IOL-Konstanten Ophthalmo-Chirurgen kostenfrei zur Verfügung. Seit kurzem unterstützt IOLCon m...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of corneal cross-linking (CXL) on corneal biomechanics and visual acuity. Patients and methods: The examination results before and after CXL in 56 eyes of 56 patients between 2017 and 2021 were evaluated retrospectively. The last preoperative examination was compared to the postoperative...
Article
Background: The purpose of this Monte-Carlo study is to investigate the effect of using a thick lens model instead of a thin lens model for the intraocular lens (IOL) on the resulting refraction at the spectacle plane and on the ocular magnification based on a large clinical data set. Methods: A pseudophakic model eye with a thin spectacle corre...
Article
Purpose: To investigate particle swarm optimisation (PSO) as a modern purely data driven non-linear iterative strategy for lens formula constant optimisation in intraocular lens power calculation. Methods: A PSO algorithm was implemented for optimising the root mean squared formula prediction error (rmsPE, defined as achieved refraction minus pr...
Article
Full-text available
Sie sind aus der Berechnung von Intraokularlinsen heute nicht mehr wegzudenken, weil sie das refraktive Ergebnis nach der Katarakt-OP wesentlich verbessern können: optimierte IOL-Konstanten. Die 2017 gegründete Internet-Datenbank IOLCon hat sich inzwischen als welt�weit verfügbare, zuverlässige Quelle für optimierte IOL-Konstanten und -Spezifikatio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To investigate whether variation of the keratometer/corneal refractive index nK/nC improves the performance (prediction error PE) of classical and a modern intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formula and further, to establish whether any trend error of PE for corneal radius R could be eliminated using formula constant and nK/nC op...
Article
Purpose To investigate the effect of Rose Bengal photodynamic therapy (RB-PDT) on viability and proliferation of human limbal epithelial stem cells (T-LSCs), human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T), human limbal fibroblasts (LFCs), and human normal and keratoconus fibroblasts (HCFs and KC-HCFs) in vitro. Methods T-LSCs and HCE-T cell lines were used...
Article
Purpose To implement a fully data driven strategy for identifying outliers in clinical datasets used for formula constant optimisation, in order to achieve proper formula predicted refraction after cataract surgery, and to assess the capabilities of this outlier detection method. Methods 2 clinical datasets (DS1/DS2: N = 888/403) of eyes treated w...
Article
Full-text available
On February 24, 2022, the world woke up to new realities. Russia had launched a large-scale invasion of Ukraine along the entire border. The war, which had already lasted eight years, had entered a new phase. The largest military conflict since the Second World War in the very center of Europe changed the lives not only of Ukrainians, but of all Eu...
Article
Improvement in biometry and formulas have raised the bar for accurate IOL power calculation. However, when we look closely at the performance of a specific IOL model, we often find that the prediction error varies with the implant power. This phenomenon has no explanation other than the optic design of the IOL has shifted over the power range, ther...
Poster
Title: IOL power calculation on its next level – the “LPCM” based on modern CASTROP formula Purpose: The new "Lens Power Calculation Module" (LPCM) for calculation of toric and non-toric intraocular lenses is based on the CASTROP formula and is available as online calculation tool via IOLCon´s website. Hereby, modern online IOL power calculation s...
Book
Full-text available
This anthology is devoted to the curious side of Medical History. Carl Sagan said: ”You have to know the past to understand the present.” This collection of 80 short stories, written by experts in the field, inspires curiosity and provides a detailed look at the History of Medicine. It investigates many topics, including ancient Egyptian knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To investigate the potential role of keratometry on whole globes in situ of deceased patients by assessing its repeatability and comparing it with sterile donor tomography after excision and preservation in organ culture. Methods A sequence of 5 measurements was taken from 40 eyes in situ of deceased patients < 24 h after death using the p...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treating macular edema (ME) after retinal vein occlusion (RVO) following pro re nata (PRN) regimen and investigate potential predictors of non-response. Retrospective analysis of 126 treatment-naive eyes with ME after RVO. Eyes were treated initially with IVB of 1.25 mg/ml. Therapy was switched...
Article
Purpose Bootstrapping is a modern technique widely used in statistics to evaluate the performance of model parameters. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy to identify and eliminate outliers in a dataset used for optimizing formula constants for lens power calculation. Methods In a dataset with N = 888 clinical cases treated with a...
Poster
Purpose: The most common ocular symptom of monoclonal gammopathy is the appearance of paraproteinaemic keratopathy. Our goal is to present a case with successful haematological treatment of monoclonal gammopathy with corneal significance (MGCS). Methods: Our 50 years-old female patient had increasing predescemetal corneal opacification. Serum elect...
Article
Placido topographers are widely used in ophthalmology and optometry for a measurement of corneal surface topography. With an extremely high resolution this technology could measure mean curvature and astigmatism, mapping a manual keratometer with SimK values, as well as asphericity. In addition, corneal irregularities and scars as well as (early) f...
Article
Background: Previous studies have reported significant differences in corneal biomechanics between keratoconic and healthy corneas. Corvis ST® (CST – OCULUS, Wetzlar, Germany) and Ocular Response Analyser® (ORA – Reichelt Inc., Depew, NY, USA) are two single central air-puff tonometers and are commonly used to analyse the corneal biomechanics. Impl...
Article
Full-text available
Background Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy is a well-accepted, safe, and effective measure in the treatment of posterior capsule opacification. However, iatrogenic intraocular lens damage is a relatively common side effect that happens due to inappropriate focusing during the procedure. This experimental study analyzes...
Chapter
The detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the space behind the lens of the eye and the identification of "Berger´s Space" by optical coherence tomography are essential requirements for a successful posterior laser-assisted capsulotomy. Even today, the term "Berger´s Space" and its importance are not well known to many ophthalmologists nor its name g...
Chapter
Representations of cross-eyed people are often found in paintings. Despite his deformity, the Italian painter Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591–1666) nicknamed “Il Guercino” (“the cross-eyed”) was one of the most versatile and significant artists of Italian Baroque.KeywordsGiovanni Francesco BarbieriPainterArtSquintingAmblyopia
Chapter
Speculation is that Joan of Arc owed her victories over the English to a mandragora (a highly biologically active alkaloid). Other plants, including deadly nightshade, angel’s trumpet and henbane also contain scopolamine, named after its discoverer, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (also known as Johann Anton Scopoli) (1723–1788).KeywordsGiovanni Antonio S...
Chapter
Who would have thought that in 1761, the son of an innkeeper in Graz (Austria) would make such a breakthrough in medicine that it would become part of standard procedure in medical diagnosis? Leopold Auenbrugger’s concept of thumping the chest revolutionized medicine. Together with Laënnec’s stethoscope, this diagnostic technique was first used in...
Chapter
In 1949, Harold Ridley (see about Ridley in later chapter) implanted the first Intraocular Lens (IOL). The history of biometry and calculation of the required artificial lens power began with the introduction of an artificial “lenticulus” and can be dated approximately to 1948/1949. The prediction of the refractive power of the IOL was made by esti...
Chapter
The German physician and physicist, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, made significant contributions to widely varying areas of modern science, including ophthalmology. Helmholtz’ life from first to last was one of devotion to science; he must be counted as one of the foremost thinkers of the nineteenth century.KeywordsHermann von HelmholtzSc...
Chapter
It is the buffer between the known and the unknown: Quarantine is defined as “a temporary isolation and monitoring of potentially infected persons to protect the society from contagious diseases.” Quarantine is powerful in its uncertainty: waiting to see if something hidden will be revealed. It can be dangerous as well, assuming guilt: everyone is...
Chapter
For centuries, the blind have used canes as a mobility tool but who invented the white cane is somewhat controversial. Three individuals claim to be the inventors, two of them at about the same time. Today, the white cane is a most important device for the orientation and self-determined mobility of blind people.KeywordsWhite caneBlindDeviceAutonom...
Chapter
He was a successful scientist and physician, but his other great passion was music. Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin was a major Russian composer of the nineteenth century. His famous opera “Prince Igor” is considered as one of the most important historical national Russian operas. As a scientist, Borodin took part at the very first International Con...
Chapter
Today, this seventeenth century concept is more weird than scientific: Can the last image a person sees before his death be affixed to his retina? If so, how does one see it? What benefits might this have? Perhaps to convict a killer? Nice idea: No need to waste time comparing fingerprints if you can view the image of the killer immediately! Or may...
Chapter
As old as humankind and long before the plague, AIDS or COVID, outbreaks of leprosy have affected, and panicked, people on every continent. The clapper in the hand of a leper was used to warn travellers of the oncoming presence of one afflicted with leprosy. Whether called “Hansen’s disease” or the “punishment of God,” leprosy was once one of the h...
Chapter
Eugen Bleuler, considered as one of the most influential psychiatrists of his time, coined the terms schizophrenia, autism, and ambivalence. Together with Freud and Kraepelin, he gave modern psychiatry a scientific basis. While his colleagues were primarily concerned with organic brain research, he tried to understand psychological symptoms and is...
Chapter
Why is a female ghost seen from time to time at the castle in Karlsruhe, Germany? Why does she shock people almost to death in a building that was not even built when she was living? An ophthalmologist “knew” the answer: Dr. Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling (1740–1817).KeywordsHeinrich Jung-StillingOphthalmologistCataract surgeonGhostKarlsruhe
Chapter
Even in the ancient world, women suffering from so-called hysteria were treated dismissively. This is the story of how, in prudish Victorian England, “hysteria” led to the creation of a very special device; a device which “pleasures” the women of today.KeywordsJoseph Mortimer GranvilleHysteriaWomenCureStimulationClitorisVibrator
Chapter
If he were he alive today, he would probably be sitting in prison or in a psychiatric ward for Haldane executed a plethora of dangerous experiments on himself and his son. He locked himself in small rooms to inhale deadly gases; he crawled through the carnage caused by underground explosions; he examined blood in order to understand the nature of h...
Chapter
When an expert hears the name Credé, he thinks of “Credé-prophylaxis,” the procedure where newborn babies are treated with silver nitrate solution to avoid a gonococcal ophthalmitis. This ocular disease often led to blindness. And we owe him thanks for yet another breakthrough in gynecology, the “Credé procedure.”KeywordsCarl Siegmund Franz CredéGy...
Chapter
Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Renaissance painting “The Blind leading the Blind” (1568) depicts this Biblical parable and leaves a wide field open for interpretation. In earlier paintings, the blind were typically depicted with eyes closed. Here, Bruegel gives each man a different ocular affliction, all painted with a realism that allowed (not undispu...
Chapter
The ancient Greeks considered her as the representative of the inevitable. She was the one who cut the thread of life which had been previously spun by her two sisters. An ancient kingdom was named after her. A plant with its deadly poison and the death’s head hawkmoth still reminds us of her. Atropos, daughter of Zeus, one of the three Fates and t...
Chapter
Legend has it that St. Odilia (660–720) was born blind to the family of Alsatian Lord Adalrich and his wife Bereswinda. Rather than have her killed for her infermity, Odilia was given to a peasant family. Taken in by a convent at age 12, she gained sight upon being baptized by Saint Erhard of Regensburg. In 690, she founded a cloister in Hohenburg,...
Chapter
Ludwig Philipp Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965) founded his hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon in 1913. This hospital in the African jungle remains proof of Schweitzer’s deep involvement in humanitarian work. Albert Schweitzer was a complex man: He was a priest, a pacifist, an organist, a philosopher, and a doctor.KeywordsAlbert SchweitzerHumanitarianCharit...