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Abraham Kierszenbaum

Abraham Kierszenbaum
The Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education · Cell Biology and Anatomy

MD PhD

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156
Publications
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Publications

Publications (156)
Article
Full-text available
Spermiogenesis is the differentiation of spermatids into motile sperm consisting of a head and a tail. The head harbors a condensed elongated nucleus partially covered by the acrosome-acroplaxome complex. Defects in the acrosome-acroplaxome complex are associated with abnormalities in sperm head shaping. The head-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), a c...
Article
Full-text available
Rat hypodactyly (hd) mutation is characterized by abnormal spermatogenesis and sperm decapitation, limb malformation (missing digits II and III) and growth retardation. We have previously reported centrobin (centrosome BRCA2-interacting protein) truncation at the C-terminus in the hd mutant. Here, we report data from a transgenic rescue experiment...
Article
Full-text available
Spermatids generate diverse and unusual actin and microtubule populations during spermiogenesis to fulfill mechanical and cargo transport functions assisted by motor and non-motor proteins. Disruption of cargo transport may lead to teratozoospermia and consequent male infertility. How motor and non-motor proteins utilize the cytoskeleton to transpo...
Article
We describe the localization of the golgin GMAP210 and the intraflagellar protein IFT88 in the Golgi of spermatids and the participation of these two proteins in the development of the acrosome-acroplaxome complex, the head-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA) and the spermatid tail. Immunocytochemical experiments show that GMAP210 predominates in the ci...
Article
Full-text available
The hypodactylous (hd) locus impairs limb development and spermatogenesis, leading to male infertility in rats. We show that the hd mutation is caused by an insertion of an endogenous retrovirus into intron 10 of the Cntrob gene. The retroviral insertion in hd mutant rats disrupts the normal splicing of Cntrob transcripts and results in the express...
Article
We report that full-length and truncated transcripts of Fyn tyrosine protein kinase are expressed during testicular development. Truncated Fyn (tr-Fyn) transcripts encode a 24 kDa protein with a N-terminal (NT) domain, a complete Src homology (SH) 3 domain and an incomplete SH2 domain. The kinase domain is missing in tr-Fyn. In contrast, full-lengt...
Article
Full-text available
The hypodactylous (hd) locus impairs limb development and spermatogenesis, leading to male infertility in rats. We show that the hd mutation is caused by an insertion of an endogenous retrovirus into intron 10 of the Cntrob gene. The retroviral insertion in hd mutant rats disrupts the normal splicing of Cntrob transcripts and results in the express...
Article
We report the cDNA cloning of rat testis Rnf19a, a ubiquitin protein ligase, and show 98% and 93% protein sequence identity of testicular mouse and human Rnf19a, respectively. Rnf19a interacts with Psmc3, a protein component of the 19S regulatory cap of the 26S proteasome. During spermatid development, Rnf19a and Psmc3 are initially found in Golgi-...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple profilin isoforms exist in mammals; at least four are expressed in the mammalian testis. The testis-specific isoforms profilin-3 (PFN3) and profilin-4 (PFN4) may have specialized roles in spermatogenic cells which are distinct from known functions fulfilled by the "somatic" profilins, profilin-1 (PFN1) and profilin-2 (PFN2). Ligand interac...
Data
Sequence alignments for homology modeling. A. Sequence alignment used for the generation of the human PFN3 model. B. Sequence alignment for making the human PFN4 model.
Data
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Immunolocalization of PFN4-related protein in spermatids and testicular spermatozoa isolated from human testis. A1-A3) and B1-B3) show dual labelling and confocal microscopy of human round and elongating spermatids employing indirect PFN4 immunofluorescence (green) and PNA lectin binding (red); nuclei were stained with DAPI (dark blue). A4 and B4 s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Spermatogenesis is a hormonally regulated process involving three sequential events: (1) the mitotic amplification of the spermatogonial cell progeny, (2) the completion of meiosis by the spermatocyte progeny, and (3) spermiogenesis, the gradual morphogenesis of the spermatid progeny. Mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis coexist in the seminiferous...
Article
We report the association of testicular Fer, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, with acrosome development and remodeling of the acrosome-associated acroplaxome plate during spermatid head shaping. A single gene expresses two forms of Fer tyrosine kinases in testis: a somatic form (FerS) and a truncated testis-type form (FerT). FerT transcript variants...
Article
Outer dense fibers are a major constituent of the sperm tail and outer dense fiber 2 (ODF2) protein is one of their major components. ODF2 shares partial homology with cenexin 1 and cenexin 2, regarded as centriolar proteins. We show that ODF2 and cenexin 2 transcripts are the product of differential splicing of a single gene, designated Cenexin/OD...
Article
Full-text available
The shaping of the mammalian sperm involves the elongation and condensation of the spermatid nucleus, the development of the acrosome, and the transient appearance of the microtubular manchette. F-actin-containing ectoplasmic hoops of Sertoli cells embrace the upper third of the spermatid head during elongation. During acrosomal biogenesis, proacro...
Article
The progression of mammalian gametogenesis requires a precise balance between cell-cycle activities and elimination of defective gametogenic cells to ensure the perpetuation of species. Both spermatogonia and oogonia are stem cell populations committed to meiosis with the aim of generating haploid gametes for fertilization. At puberty, mitotically...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously reported that Sertoli cell geometric changes induced by a Fas (CD95) agonist or by restricting Sertoli cell spreading can trigger spermatogenic cell detachment from Sertoli cell surfaces and initiate a programmed cell death sequence. Here, we have focused on ADAM proteins, tetraspanins CD9 and CD81, and the integrin beta1 subunit...
Article
Protein phosphorylation on serine/threonine or tyrosine residues represents a significant regulatory mechanism in signal transduction during spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and fertilization. There are several families of tyrosine protein kinases operating during spermatogenesis: the Src family of tyrosine protein kinases; the Fujinami poultry sarcoma/...
Article
Keratin 9 (K9) is one of the components of the perinuclear ring of the manchette found in developing spermatids but is predominantly expressed in the epidermis of the footpad (palm and sole in human epidermis). As an initial step to determine the function of K9 protein in sperm development, we have generated a mutant mouse by homologous recombinati...
Article
New insights have emerged about the expression, during testicular cord formation, of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) domain family of proteins that combines both cell surface adhesion and proteolytic activity; this family includes integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 and tetraspanins, a distinct family of proteins containing four tran...
Article
Full-text available
A combination of exogenous contractile forces generated by a stack of F-actin-containing hoops embracing the apical region of the elongating spermatid nucleus and an endogenous modulating mechanism dependent on the spermatid-containing acrosome-acroplaxome-manchette complex may play a cooperative role in the shaping of the spermatid head. In additi...
Article
Full-text available
Programmed cell death or apoptosis was analyzed in rat Sertoli-spermatogonial cell cocultures prepared from 2-9 day old rats using time-lapse video microscopy, a cell viability fluorescence microscopy assay, immunocytochemical markers, and cell-permeable caspase inhibitory peptides with reversible and irreversible effects. We show that apoptosis ca...
Article
Full-text available
Acrosome biogenesis involves the transport and fusion of Golgi-derived proacrosomal vesicles along the acroplaxome, an F-actin/keratin 5-containing cytoskeletal plate anchored to the spermatid nucleus. A significant issue is whether the acroplaxome develops in acrosomeless mutant mice. Male mice with a Hrb null mutation are infertile and both sperm...
Article
Full-text available
Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the proximal epiblast enables about 45 founder PGCs clustered at the base of the allantoic bud to enter the embryo by active cell movement. Specification of the PGC lineage depends on paracrine signals derived from the somatic cell neighbors in the extraembryonic ectoderm. Secretory bone morphogeneti...
Article
Experimental evidence indicates that the membrane-associated proteins polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 operate as a receptor-calcium channel complex that regulates signaling pathways essential for modulation of renal tubulogenesis. Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by defective renal tubular structure and results from mutations in either PKD1...
Article
Full-text available
Nuclear shaping is a critical event during sperm development as demonstrated by the incidence of male infertility associated with abnormal sperm ad shaping. Herein, we demonstrate that mouse and rat spermatids assemble in the subacrosomal space a cytoskeletal scaffold containing F-actin and Sak57, a keratin ortholog. The cytoskeletal plate, designa...
Article
It has been shown that mature oocytes injected with nuclei from round spermatids collected from mouse testis can generate normal offspring and that round spermatids can develop in vitro. An undetermined issue is whether spermatids developed in vitro are capable of generating fertile offspring by nuclear injection into oocytes. Herein, we report the...
Article
Full-text available
Immediately after birth, primordial germinal cell-derived prespermatogonia (PSG), located in the center of the testicular cords, migrate between adjacent Sertoli cells to establish contact with the cord basal lamina. PSG migration suggests continued assembly and disassembly of cell-cell contacts by a molecular mechanism that may involve integrins a...
Article
Full-text available
Protein and vesicle cargos can be mobilized during spermiogenesis by intramanchette transport utilizing microtubule-based protein motors (kinesins and dyneins). However, actin-based unconventional myosin motors may also play a significant role in targeting vesicle cargos to subcellular compartments during sperm development. Here we report that myos...
Article
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in cell recognition and signaling and their function has been experimentally determined by ligand activation and site-directed mutagenesis. Structurally, GPCRs consist of an extracellular N-terminus and an intracellular C-terminus separated by seven helical transmembrane domains (TM7). The extracellu...
Article
Genomic imprinting, an epigenetic form of gene regulation, determines the parent-dependent gene expression of marked or imprinted genes during gametogenesis and embryonic development. Imprinting involves differential allele DNA methylation in one sex cell lineage but not in the other. Egg and sperm each contributes the same DNA sequences to the zyg...
Article
Intramanchette transport (IMT) and intraflagellar transport (IFT) share similar molecular components: a raft protein complex transporting cargo proteins mobilized along microtubules by molecular motors. IFT, initially discovered in flagella of Chlamydomonas, has been also observed in cilia of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and in mouse ciliated an...
Article
Full-text available
Ran, a Ras-related GTPase, is required for transporting proteins in and out of the nucleus during interphase and for regulating the assembly of microtubules. cDNA cloning shows that rat testis, like mouse testis, expresses both somatic and testis-specific forms of Ran-GTPase. The presence of a homologous testis-specific form of Ran-GTPase in rodent...
Article
Two microtubule-containing structures are assembled during spermiogenesis: a transient manchette and a stable axoneme. Both structures contain microtubules enriched in posttranslationally modified tubulins. Despite the existence of a spectrum of tubulin isotypes postulated by the multi-tubulin hypothesis, further extended by an elaborated array of...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular aspects of spermiogenesis can be studied using mouse mutants and spermatids developed in vitro. The azh/azh mutant is an attractive model system because structural abnormalities in the sperm head and the ectopic position of the manchette are associated with tail bending and looping. Spermatids, developing an axoneme in vitro and capable o...
Article
Recent work shows that two groups of keratins are expressed during mammalian spermatogenesis. One group, belonging to the classic epidermis-type keratins, is present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. A member of this group, Sak57, a keratin 5 homologue, has been shown to co-align with microtubules and provide a scaffolding shell whil...
Article
Recent work shows that two groups of keratins are expressed during mammalian spermatogenesis. One group, belonging to the classic epidermis-type keratins, is present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. A member of this group, Sak57, a keratin 5 homologue, has been shown to co-align with microtubules and provide a scaffolding shell whil...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies demonstrate that the normal progression of the germ cell lineage during gonadogenesis involves a delicate balance of primordial germ cell survival and death factors generated by surrounding somatic cells. This balance operates in a different fashion in females and males. The fine tuning primordial germ cell specification in the wall...
Article
Spermiogenesis pursues three major objectives: (1) The safeguard of the male genome within the confines of a compact nucleus. (2) The accumulation of enzymes in the acrosome of be released at fertilization. (3) The development of a sperm propelling tail consisting of an axoneme surrounded by a scaffold of keratin-containing outer dense fibers and a...
Article
The implantation of the blastocyst into a nurturing endometrium involves two overlapping steps: 1. The blastocyst-endometrial luminal epithelial attachment. 2. The decidualization of the endometrial stroma. An intriguing question is how does the blastocyst identify the uterine implantation site. Current research is focused on hypothetical soluble s...
Article
The completion of spermiogenesis requires condensation of the haploid spermatid genome. This task is accomplished in a gradual and relentless manner by first erasing the nucleosomal organization of chromatin while the DNA is protected by transient nuclear proteins TP1 and TP2. Then, the more permanent protamines come into play to stabilize the sper...
Article
Full-text available
Sperm with abnormalities in the position and shape of the head were obtained from the azh/azh mutant and injected into the cytoplasm of mature mouse oocytes to determine whether sperm from the offspring display both head (club shape) and tail (looping, folding, and fusion) abnormalities observed in the mutant donor. Although quantitative difference...
Article
Emerging clues about the apoptotic molecular mechanisms operating during spermatogenesis indicate that the activation mechanism of executioner caspases may diverge from the traditional signaling operating in the immune system. Two issues are now been debated: (1) Whether the massive apoptosis of spermatogenic cells observed during the first spermat...
Article
Previous work in our laboratory has shown that a 62- to 64-kDa protein was a major component of the perinuclear ring of manchettes fractionated from rat spermatids. Mass spectrometry analysis of this protein indicated the presence of a glycine-rich domain homologous to human keratin 9 (K9). Several antibodies to K9, raised against synthetic peptide...
Article
During spermiogenesis, hydrolytic enzymes are sorted from the Golgi apparatus to the acrosome, a supranuclear megavesicle. At fertilization, the enzymatic content of the acrosome is released by exocytosis when a portion of the plasma membrane enveloping the sperm head fuses with the outer membrane of the acrosome. Membrane fusion involves the inter...
Article
Pig cloning can be achieved by transfer of nuclei of differentiated somatic cells into enucleated oocytes. Then, developing embryos are placed into surrogate mothers for further development to full term. Although cloned pigs offer the possibility of unlimited organ supply for compatible xenotransplantation in humans, the yield of a predictable numb...
Article
The 26S proteasome is a self-compartmentalizing protease responsible for the degradation of intracellular proteins. This giant intracellular protease is formed by several subunits arranged into two 19S polar caps-where protein recognition and ATP-dependent unfolding occur-flanking a 20S central barrel-shaped structure with an inner proteolytic cham...
Article
We have previously cloned a cDNA encoding TBP-1, a protein present in the rat spermatid manchette and outer dense fibers of the developing sperm. TBP-1 contains a heptad repeat of six-leucine zipper fingers at the amino terminus and highly conserved ATPase and DNA/RNA helicase motifs toward the carboxyl terminus. TBP-1 is one of the 20 subunits for...
Article
Telomeres are specialized natural ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that, contrary to the ends of broken chromosomes, are stable and do not fuse with the ends of other chromosomes. In addition, telomeres protect chromosomal ends from degradation, facilitate completion of chromosomal DNA replication, and contribute to chromosome positioning within nucl...
Article
Rat sperm galactosyl receptor is a member of the C-type animal lectin family showing preferential binding to N-acetylgalactosamine compared to galactose. Binding is mediated by a Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) identical to that of the minor variant of rat hepatic lectin receptor 2/3 (RHL-2/3). The molecular organization of t...
Article
The mechanism of bone metastasis of prostate cancer involves the interaction of cell surface receptor(s) on cancer cells with ligand(s) on bone marrow endothelial cell surfaces. The rat galactosyl receptor gene generates two mRNA species by differential splicing: one species encodes a protein identical to the minor form of hepatocyte asialoglycopro...
Article
The tubulin-containing axoneme and manchette develop consecutively during mammalian spermiogenesis. The nature of their molecular components and developmental sequence are not completely known. The azh/azh (for abnormal sperm headshape) mouse mutant is an ideal model for analyzing tubulin isotypes and microtubule-associated proteins of the manchett...
Article
Spermatogonial-Sertoli cell cocultures, prepared from sexually immature rats (7–10 days old) and maintained for experimental purposes for a maximum period of time of eight days, were used to determine whether Sertoli cell geometry can influence spermatogonial cell growth, viability and differentiation. We have found that when Sertoli cells are allo...
Article
The manchette is a transient structure that develops during spermiogenesis. It consists of three components: a perinuclear ring, a microtubule mantle inserted in the ring, and dense plaques attached at the distal end of the mantle. A procedure has been developed for the fractionation of intact manchettes from rat spermatids. Each fractionation step...
Article
We have used a rat pachytene spermatocyte cDNA expression library to clone TBP-1 (for tat-binding protein-1; designated rat testis TBP-1 [rtTBP-1]), a new member of the family of putative ATPases associated with the 26S proteasome complex. The 1.63 kb rtTBP-1 cDNA encodes a 49 kDa protein with 99% amino acid identity to human TBP-1 protein. rtTBP-1...
Article
We have previously reported the purification of Sak 57 (for spermatogenic cell/sperm-associated keratin of molecular mass 57 kDa) from outer dense fibers of rat sperm tails. Internal protein sequence analysis of Sak 57 revealed 70-100% homology to the 1A and 2A regions of the alpha-helical rod domain of human, mouse, and rat keratins. A multiple an...
Article
We have purified a 57 kDa protein (designated Sak57, for spermatogenic cell/sperm-associated keratin) from sodium dodecyl sulfate-beta-mercaptoethanol (SDS-beta ME)-dissociated outer dense fibers isolated from rat sperm tails. Internal protein sequence analysis of Sak57 yielded two 15-mer and 10-mer fragments with 70-100% homology to human, rat, an...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously reported that Sak57 (for Spermatogenic cell/Sperm-associated keratin of molecular mass 57 kDa) is an acidic keratin found in rat spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperm. Sak57 displays conserved amino acid sequences found in the 1A and 2A regions of the alpha-helical rod domain of keratins in human, rat, and mouse. We now report ind...
Article
We have previously reported the purification of rats testis galactosyl receptor, an equivalent to the Ca(2+)-dependent (C-type) minor variant of rat hepatic lectin-2/3 (RHL-2/3). We now report the purification of galactosyl receptor from rat sperm and its immunolocalization in the intact rat testis and sperm by polyclonal antibodies prepared using...
Article
Galactosyl receptor, a cell surface Ca(2+)-dependent lectin with binding affinity for galactose, was evaluated by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, Northern blotting, and immunocytochemistry in human liver, testis, and sperm. Polyclonal antisera raised against the minor asialoglycoprotein receptor variant of rat hepatocytes (designated rat hepat...
Article
Full-text available
Is gametogenesis possible in vitro? This question was one of the relevant topics in a comprehensive review published in 1965 by Etienne Wolff and Katy Haffen (1), describing results of pioneering organ culture work on vertebrate and invertebrate gonads carried out between 1913 and 1965. Wolff and Haffen provided a partial answer to the above questi...
Article
We have previously reported that a heterodimeric protein secreted by rat Sertoli cells is antigenically related to a protein associated with outer dense fibers of the sperm tail. Therefore, we have explored the possibility that Sertoli and spermatogenic cells express a similar gene encoding a homologous protein. A Sertoli cell heterodimeric protein...
Article
Testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2) was originally isolated and cloned from the regressing ventral prostate of the rat. In this tissue, and in other hormone-dependent tissues such as the mammary gland, this gene is induced in the absence of the appropriate trophic hormone. Sequence analysis of the cDNA and genomic clones of TRPM-2 ha...
Article
The role of permeable substrates on the proliferation and differentiation of rat spermatogenic cells in co-culture with Sertoli cells was evaluated. Co-cultures were prepared on substrate discs consisting of a thin, stable analog of extracellular matrix attached to a polyester mesh to facilitate handling. Substrate discs were used alone or mounted...
Article
A novel collagen-glycosaminoglycan (C-GAG) substrate was developed to overcome the optical opacity of a HATF nitrocellulose substrate and to provide a more physiological permeable substrate for cocultured Sertoli and spermatogenic cells. Cocultures were prepared on optically transparent C-GAG discs attached to a polyester mesh to facilitate handlin...
Article
We have used two radiolabeled oligonucleotide probes (TH2B and H1t), Northern blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography to study the temporal expression of TH2B and H1t testis-specific histone genes during the development of rat spermatogenic cells in vitro. These studies were carried out to determine whether meiotic propha...
Article
Polyclonal antisera raised against polypeptide components of two rat Sertoli cell secretory proteins, designated protein S70 and S45-S35 heterodimeric protein on the basis of cell origin and estimated molecular weight, were used to identify antigenic sites in 1) rat testis, 2) cultured Sertoli cells, 3) developing spermatids (collected from spermat...
Article
Full-text available
A procedure is described for the preparation and maintenance of human Sertoli-spermatogenic cell cocultures using biopsies of normal and undescended testis. The evaluation of cell viability and differentiation potential of cultured spermatogenic cell was monitored by [3H]thymidine labeling combined with light microscopic autoradiography. Spermatoge...