Abigail Friendly

Abigail Friendly
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning

PhD Planning

About

29
Publications
14,262
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Introduction
Abigail Friendly is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning at Utrecht University and a Research Fellow at the Global Cities Institute, University of Toronto. Previously, she held a Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance, Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto. She has a PhD in Planning from the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toronto. Her research focuses on the intersection between urban planning, international development planning, governance and urban policies.

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Full-text available
In Brazil, a country notorious for its spatially segregated, unequal cities, a 2001 federal law recognizes the “right to the city” and mandates participation in planning processes, aiming to achieve social justice. Planning theory has dealt extensively with the “right to the city”, but critical examination of the implementation of this law – the St...
Article
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Incremental housing drives urbanization worldwide, and is recognized as the basis for socially relevant solutions to housing shortages in the global South. However, scholarship on incremental housing continues to focus largely on tenure, building materials and housing conditions at a local level, while incremental housing is embedded in – and depen...
Article
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Given the growing importance of populism in cities both empirically and in scholarly discourse, planning is increasingly grappling with this ‘unsettling era,’ focusing on how to respond to these times. This opening provides an opportunity to re-engage with the idea of insurgent planning — practices that are counter-hegemonic, transgressive, and ima...
Article
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Scholars have documented how financial capital has produced displacement driven by hypermodern urban spaces characterized by luxury and exclusivity. In this article, we highlight how hypermodern public-private partnerships (PPPs) often re-write history, creating a futuristic global city image. Our case study of Porto Maravilha’s PPP reviews a duali...
Article
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Despite considerable literature exploring Brazil's participatory management, less academic attention focuses on Brazil's public policy councils (conselhos gestores de políticas públicas), which are permanent political-institutional structures on a range of policy issues mediating between society and the state. This article analyses urban policy cou...
Technical Report
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In 2015, Brazil enacted the Statute of the Metropolis (Federal Law No. 13,089) to regulate the establishment of metropolitan areas and regional public policies throughout the country. This research comparatively analyzes land use planning practices in metropolitan areas — Baixada Santista and Vale do Rio Cuiabá — before and after the enactment of t...
Article
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The task of developing regional greenbelts poses multidimensional challenges to policymakers. Unlike their early 20th-century predecessors, these greenspaces incorporate multiple functions including growth management, farmland and environmental protection, and increasing economic competitiveness. This regional and multifunctional approach to greenb...
Article
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Legally protected by its own constitution since 1991, the greenbelt (or ‘GrünGürtel’) forms a ring of greenspace around Frankfurt, Germany and has been considered an effective reaction to municipal development pressures. As a response to Frankfurt’s embeddedness within a highly interconnected suburbanized region under extensive growth pressures, th...
Article
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In recent decades, a new generation of greenbelts has developed that are embedded within dynamic regionalism processes. Governance of these greenbelts is increasingly being challenged by institutional arrangements requiring coordination across multiple policy fields, territorial jurisdictions and policy levels – complexities that are not yet reflec...
Article
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There has been considerable attention on Brazil’s experience in applying the right to the city, influencing the urban reform movement and subsequent legislation including the 1988 Constitution and the 2001 Statute of the City. While much is known about Brazil’s urban transformations, this article views this trajectory within debates on social citiz...
Article
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Community service-learning (CSL) has gained popularity over the past decades in universities across North America. Although planning programs tend to involve more graduate-level community-engaged learning than other professional disciplines, learning outcomes have not been sufficiently examined. Based on a review of existing literature and analysis...
Article
Land value capture (LVC) refers to the public sector’s recovery of part or all of the land value increments (‘unearned’ income) generated by actions other than the landowner’s direct investment, including public investments in infrastructure or administrative changes in land use norms and regulations. LVC is increasingly used around the world as a...
Article
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Despite the broad celebration of Brazil’s urban reform movement, recent events in Brazil have called attention to a paradox focused on the disappointing results of this movement to deal with Brazil’s complex urban context. Taking this ‘impasse’ as a starting point, this article focuses on the role of politics and its relationship to economic intere...
Article
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With globalization, the largest cities in the world have been growing in economic importance. And their local powers have often been enhanced as a result of decentralization reforms over the past two decades. In this context, cities—and particularly their mayors—have been reaching out to other cities and jurisdictions to pursue a variety of goals....
Article
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The Brazilian urban reform movement expanded citizen participation in decision-making processes through a policy environment motivated by a right to the city (RTC), a collective development strategy for political transformation. Yet recent events evidence that social exclusion and spatial segregation remain dominant features of the Brazilian city....
Article
With globalization and the decline of nation states, cities have become more important economically and politically around the world. As this trend has established itself, city leaders – and particularly their elected mayors – have assumed greater importance as political actors. In important respects they are avatars of local politics. This signifi...
Article
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This paper describes and compares land value capture (LVC) tools in São Paulo and Toronto. LVC refers to the public sector’s recovery of part or all of the land value increments or “windfalls” accruing to new development through taxes, fees, exactions, or improvements that benefit the wider community. In São Paulo, a tool known as the onerous grant...
Article
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Brazilian urban social movements have played a key role in bringing about change in urban policy since the 1980s and in light of the widespread protests across the country in June 2013. This insurgency and the urban reform movement of the 1980s and 1990s exemplify waves of mobilization and demobilization, signaling positive change at the level of p...
Article
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Over the past 50 years, interest in a national urban policy in Canada has waxed and waned. Although the 1960s represented a high water mark in terms of creating national institutions on urban issues, efforts to develop a national urban policy languished until the early 2000s. While national urban policy can mean different things, a useful distinction...
Article
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Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. The practice, which first emerged in Brazil, includes four steps: (1) residents brainstorm ideas about how the money should be spent; (2) budget delegates develop proposals based on the community’s initial ideas; (3) the c...
Article
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In the context of urban poverty in Brazil, this article considers the national context of civil society starting in the 1950s through to the approval of the Statute of the City in 2001. Focusing on a case study of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, I unpack the perception of a declining civil society in that city. Rather than taking a retraction of civ...
Article
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Portney draws the reader's attention to how cities that have a relatively large creative class are cities where there is likely to be a greater push for sustainability initiatives. He also notes that local public officials are responsive to organized voices that advocate for environmental or sustainability initiatives; in reverse, if grassroots adv...
Thesis
This dissertation explores the juxtaposition between an innovative national policy underpinned by concepts of the right to the city and social justice, and the implementation of that law at the local level, with variable results. Approved in 2001 following the growth of the urban reform movements and a new ‘citizens’ Constitution in 1988, the Statu...
Article
Full-text available
Despite high levels of economic prosperity in Canada, food insecurity is increasingly being recognized as a crucial issue that lacks a coherent policy response at both federal and local levels. The concentration of low-income populations in social housing makes the problem especially acute for social housing residents and providers. The purpose of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Using public documents, including biographical directories, media archives, government reports and legal statutes, this report uses an historical approach to examine the processes and results of appointments to the CBC and CRTC. Major findings include: • Various reports, legislation, and committee findings have over time defined loose, non-binding...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
This special issue approaches regional planning as a contested arena of strategic planning. With this view, we transcend the idea that regional planning is purely a matter of scale and approach the complexity of regional planning from three perspectives: interests, institutions and relations. The perspective of 'interests' reveals the various underlying motivations connected to regional planning. The perspective of 'institutions' addresses the encounter of formal and informal rules, norms and discourses shaping planning and governance practices. The perspective of 'relations' uncovers the complex constellations of actors and processes associated with planning, involving various administrative scales, territorial entities and sectoral policies.
Project
This project uses a critical lens to explore Brazilian urban policy and planning. This focuses on the role of civil society in the planning of cities, the implementation of ‘progressive’ urban policies, and the future of Brazil’s cities given the politico-economic crisis.
Archived project
This project was a joint initiative of the University of Toronto (Global Cities Institute) and the University of Sao Paulo (Institute of International Relations). As cities – especially global cities – take on more and more important powers and functions, they begin to operate at levels of government and geography that transcend the local context in which they are embedded. These initiatives and programs are often called “paradiplomacy”. The project funded two meetings in each city to compare the cities in terms of governance, their general role as subnational governments in international relations, and the kinds of initiatives they have been taking which transcend or overlap with their local functions.