A. Orozco

A. Orozco
Booz Allen Hamilton

PhD

About

46
Publications
3,639
Reads
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709
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - April 2016
Neocera Llc
Neocera Llc
Position
  • R&D Manager
March 2001 - March 2008
Neocera Llc
Neocera Llc
Position
  • Researcher
January 1998 - December 2000
University of Maryland, College Park
Position
  • Visitor Research Associate
Education
September 1993 - March 1996
Universidad de Cádiz
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
This paper discusses Cu-filled Through Silicon Via (TSV) failure analysis cases where known FA methods were used in an alternative way. Results are shown using magnetic field imaging (MFI) on a cross-sectioned chip to detect a leakage current path, and MFI and Light Induced Capacitance Alteration (LICA) to detect opens in TSV daisy chains.
Conference Paper
A Flip Chip sample failed short between power and ground. The reference unit had 418Ω and the failed unit with the short had 16.4Ω. Multiple fault isolation techniques were used in an attempt to find the failure with thermal imaging and Magnetic Current Imaging being the only techniques capable of localizing the defect. To physically verify the def...
Conference Paper
Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI) is a widely used technique in the Semiconductor industry for non-destructive Electrical Fault Isolation (EFI) for shorts, leakages and opens. When the devices shrink and the mobile electronics industry has a more strict criteria for speed with low power consumption, making High Resistance Opens (HRO) failures more impor...
Conference Paper
Magnetic Current Imaging (MCI), a sub technique of Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI), has been used for more than a decade to localize shorts at the package as well as die and wafer level in a non-destructive way. One particular hard category of shorts to localize is a short between power and ground; the so called power shorts. We show in this paper tha...
Article
Magnetic Current Imaging (MCI) and static Thermal Emission (TE), two commonly used Electrical Fault Isolation (EFI) tools, are compared on their ability to localize a short defect in a mobile device central processing unit (CPU). The short was localized by MCI between two micro bumps below the 100μm thick silicon die while TE detected a thermal sig...
Conference Paper
Magnetic Current Imaging (MCI) and static Thermal Emission (TE), two commonly used Electrical Fault Isolation (EFI) tools, are compared on their ability to localize a short defect in a mobile device central processing unit (CPU). The short was localized by MCI between two micro bumps below the 100μm thick silicon die while TE detected a thermal sig...
Article
In this paper we show Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI) is the best method for Electric Fault Isolation (EFI) of short failures in 2.5/3D Through Silicon Via (TSV) devices in a true non-destructive way by imaging the current path. To confirm the failing locations and to do Physical Failure Analysis (PFA), a Dual Beam-Plasma FIB (DB-PFIB) system was used...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we show an efficient workflow that combines Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI) and Dual Beam Plasma Focused Ion Beam (DB-PFIB) for fast and efficient Fault Isolation and root cause analysis in 2.5/3D devices. The work proves MFI is the best method for Electric Fault Isolation (EFI) of short failures in 2.5/3D Through Silicon Via (TSV) tripl...
Conference Paper
The need to increase transistor packing density beyond Moore's Law and the need for expanding functionality, real-estate management and faster connections has pushed the industry to develop complex 3D package technology which includes System-in-Package (SiP), wafer-level packaging, through-silicon-vias (TSV), stacked-die and flex packages. These st...
Conference Paper
The need to increase transistor packing density beyond Moore's Law and the need for expanding functionality, realestate management and faster connections has pushed the industry to develop complex 3D package technology which includes System-in-Package (SiP), wafer-level packaging, through-silicon-vias (TSV), stacked-die and flex packages. These sta...
Conference Paper
In this paper we show an efficient workflow that combines Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI) and Dual Beam Plasma Focused Ion Beam (DB-PFIB) for fast and efficient Fault Isolation and root cause analysis in 2.5/3D devices. The work proves MFI is the best method for Electric Fault Isolation (EFI) of short failures in 2.5/3D Through Silicon Via (TSV) tripl...
Article
Due to magnetic fields ability to penetrate through all materials used by the semiconductor industry, a unique ability not found in any other techniques, it has become an important technique for detecting shorts, leakages and opens in multi stacked Through Silicon Via samples. We show in this paper how Magnetic Field Imaging is being used to image...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Magnetic Current Imaging (MCI) has been used for more than a decade to localize shorts and leakages in packages non-destructively. Now that packages are becoming more complex with multiple dies inside the same package, MCI is showing its effectiveness in localizing these complicated shorts non-destructively when the Failure Analysis (FA) engineer d...
Article
Full-text available
We developed a scanning DC SQUID microscope with novel readout electronics capable of wideband sensing of RF magnetic fields from 50 to 200 MHz and simultaneously providing closed-loop response at kHz frequencies. To overcome the 20 MHz bandwidth limitation of traditional closed-loop SQUIDs, a flux-modulated closed-loop simultaneously locks the SQU...
Conference Paper
Magnetic Field Imaging has two major applications; Space Domain Reflectometry for Opens detection and Magnetic Current Imaging for shorts and leakage detection in addition to advanced signal mapping and path finding. We show that these techniques together can be a potential one-stop solution for all static Electric Fault Isolation in 3D devices whe...
Article
Full-text available
The challenges that 3D integration present to Failure Analysis require the development of new Fault Isolation techniques that allows for non-destructive, true 3D failure localization. By injecting a current in the device under test (DUT), the current generates a magnetic field around it and this magnetic field is detected by a sensor above the devi...
Conference Paper
In the past couple years, Space Domain Reflectometry (SDR) has become a mainstream method to locate open defects among the major semiconductor manufacturers. SDR injects a radio frequency (RF) signal into the open trace creating a standing wave with a node at the open location. The magnetic field generated by the standing wave is imaged with a SQUI...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While transistor gate lengths may continue to shrink for some time, the semiconductor industry faces increasing difficulties to satisfy Moore's Law. One solution to satisfying Moore's Law in the future is to stack transistors in a 3-dimensional (3D) formation. In addition, the need for expanding functionality, real-estate management and faster conn...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview on several techniques used for surface imaging, including SQUIDs, Hall-effect sensors, Giant magnetoimpedance sensors, and magnetoresistive (MR) sensors. Among all magnetic field sensors, only SQUIDs and MR devices have the potential to localize buried and non-visual field sources (such as defects in integrated cir...
Conference Paper
Space Domain Reflectometry (SDR) is a new technique that has already shown to be a reliable non-destructive method to image open failures in semiconductor chips by pumping a high frequency signal into the open trace. We show in this paper that SDR can be used to accurately find a breakage location in copper wire bond that failed during stress test.
Conference Paper
Space Domain Reflectometry (SDR) is a newly developed non-destructive failure analysis (FA) technique for localizing open defects in both packages and dies through mapping in space domain the magnetic field produced by a radio frequency (RF) current induced in the sample, herein the name Space Domain Reflectometry. The technique employs a scanning...
Conference Paper
Space Domain Reflectometry (SDR) is a newly developed non-destructive failure analysis (FA) technique for localizing open defects through the imaging of magnetic field produced by a radio frequency (RF) current induced in the sample. The technique employs a Scanning Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) RF Microscope and is capable of...
Article
Because of periodic flux-to-voltage transfer function, Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers operate in a closed-loop regime [1], which linearizes the response, and increases the dynamic range and sensitivity. However, a transmission line delay between the SQUID and electronics fundamentally limits the closed-loop bandwi...
Article
The use of magnetic current imaging (MCI) in failure analysis is discussed. An MCI scanning tool measures the magnetic field generated by the current carried in the structures of the device under test (DUT). It provides a two-dimensional map of the magnetic-field distribution. The latest MCI tools consist of a combination of high-sensitivity, high-...
Article
A novel method for capturing and characterizing high-temperature phases of metallic-alloys in thin-film composition spreads has been developed. A high-vacuum (10−8Torr) high-temperature annealing and quenching furnace system has been developed that allows formation of high-temperature phases in thin-film composition-spread samples deposited on 3in....
Article
The need to miniaturize in the electronics industry is driving smaller form factors, and resulting in complex packaging innovations such as structures with multiple devices stacked inside a three dimensional package. These structures present a challenge for non-destructive fault isolation. Two such modules recently exhibited failures on the NASA Go...
Article
Recent improvements in giant magnetoresistance sensors have increased the achievable spatial resolution of magnetic current imaging on packaged devices without a significant compromise in magnetic field sensitivity. Front and backside current imaging examples show the utility of these new sensors for die-level failure analysis.
Article
A new method of magnetic-field imaging to isolate high-resistance (HR) defects using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is discussed. HR defects describe any damage in a current path that results in an increase in resistance of that path. Two approaches developed for nanoscale imaging using magnetic fields are scanning fiber or SQU...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For several years, magnetic-based current imaging has been used to localize current leakages and shorts by imaging currents in integrated circuits and packages. Recent advances have enabled this technology to be extended to localizing high resistance defects in packages to within 30 μm, an order of magnitude better than time-domain reflectometry. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scanning Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Microscopy, also known as SSM, is a current density imaging technique that has been used in failure analysis to localize package- and die-level shorts. New developments have extended this technology to localizing resistive opens, augmenting other non-destructive failure analysis tools li...
Article
For several years, scanning SQUID microscopy has been used to localize current leakages and shorts by imaging currents in integrated circuits and packages. Recent advances have enabled this technology to be extended to localizing high resistance defects in packages to within 30 mum, an order of magnitude better than time-domain reflectometry. This...
Article
Full-text available
Exploration of new ferroic (ferroelectric, ferromagnetic or ferroelastic) materials continues to be a central theme in condensed matter physics and to drive advances in key areas of technology. Here, using thin-film composition spreads, we have mapped the functional phase diagram of the Ni-Mn-Ga system whose Heusler composition Ni(2)MnGa is a well...
Article
We report a systematic study of epitaxial films of magnetite (Fe3O4) of thickness 300-2000 Å, grown on single-crystal substrates (MgO, MgAl2O4, and SrTiO3) using pulsed laser deposition. The magnetic state was explored by measuring magnetization, conversion-electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance. At 300 K, films grown on MgAl2...
Article
We made films of Fe_3O4 by pulsed laser deposition with thicknesses between 100 and 3000 ÅWe present the results of ferromagnetic resonance studies at 10 and 34 GHz for films on the magnetic anisotropy for films deposited on SrTiO_3, MgO, or MgAl_2O4 substrates. The properties of these films vary significantly with thickness and substrate. In all c...
Article
Oscillatory exchange coupling is observed in TiN/Fe3O4 superlattices over length scales comparable to metallic superlattices. However, the strength of the coupling is almost an order of magnitude stronger than that commonly observed in metallic superlattices. In addition, a unique positive magnetoresistance effect is also seen. These observations a...
Article
Epitaxial thin films of ordered double-perovskite Sr2FeMoO6−y are deposited on (001) SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed-laser deposition using a two step growth process. Selection of growth conditions is found to lead to either highly conductive metallic thin films (residual resistivity of about 1 μΩ cm) or semiconducting films. The metallic films show a...
Article
Differential scanning calorimetty (DSC) is one of the most used indirect techniques in the study of thermal properties of solids. It is widely applied for computing the kinetic parameters describing the crystallisation processes in amorphous materials. There are plenty of methods developed for calculating such parameters, most of them called classi...
Article
The crystallization kinetics of Fe-B-Si metallic glasses, characterized by the effective activation energy E and the Avrami exponent n was studied by non-isothermal DSC technique. The data show values both for E and n in good agreement with the theoretical JMA model for the first crystallization stage, but not for the second.
Article
A sample of the alloy As47Se6Te47 has been subject to an aging process at room temperature for two years and to different annealings at intermediate temperatures between the glass transition and crystallization temperatures. By means of DSC calorimetric techniques the further crystallization reactions were studied, computing the parameters E, n, y,...
Article
Cited By (since 1996):11, Export Date: 11 November 2013, Source: Scopus, CODEN: PCGLA, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Ligero, R.A.; Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Spain
Article
We report a systematic study of epitaxial films of magnetite (Fe_3O_4) of thickness 300 to 2000 Ågrown on single crystal substrates (MgO, MgAl_2O4 and SrTiO_3) using pulsed laser deposition. The magnetic state was explored by measuring magnetization, conversion electron mossbauer spectroscopy and ferromagnetic resonance. At room temperature, films...

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