A. Lazarian

A. Lazarian
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Department of Astronomy

PhD, University of Cambridge

About

727
Publications
39,919
Reads
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22,115
Citations
Introduction
I enjoy working on studying physical processes of astrophysical importance. This motivated my studies of magnetic turbulence, magnetic reconnection, grain alignment, emission spinning dust etc. The advances in understanding of basic physics are essential for the progress in astrophysics. E.g. advances in reconnection and turbulence changed the paradigms of particle acceleration, magnetic star formation, resulted in the gradient technique for magnetic field study. I use computers to test theory.
Additional affiliations
September 2001 - present
University of Wisconsin - Madison
Description
  • Professor of Astronomy
September 1998 - August 1999
Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
Position
  • Research Associate
September 1995 - September 1998
Princeton University

Publications

Publications (727)
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic fields on the order of 100 µG observed in young supernova remnants cannot be amplified by shock compression alone. To investigate the amplification caused by turbulent dynamo, we perform three-dimensional MHD simulations of the interaction between shock wave and inhomogeneous density distribution with a shallow spectrum in the preshock med...
Article
Magnetic fields play an important role in the evolution of molecular clouds and star formation. Using the velocity gradient technique (VGT) model, we measured the magnetic field in Orion A using the ¹² CO, ¹³ CO, and C ¹⁸ O(1-0) emission lines at a scale of ∼0.07 pc. The measured B field shows an east–west orientation that is perpendicular to the i...
Preprint
Full-text available
We extend the work in Hernández-Padilla et al. (2020), in which the anisotropy of centroid and integrated intensity maps with synthetic observations is studied. In this work we include radiation transfer (in post-processing) to estimate the emission in several CO molecular lines, that range from thick to thin (12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O). The resul...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic fields play an important role in the evolution of molecular clouds and star formation. Using the Velocity Gradient Technique (VGT) model, we measured the magnetic field in Orion A using the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (1-0) emission lines at a scale of 0.07 pc. The measured B-field shows an east-west orientation that is perpendicular to the integ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Molecular gas is believed to be the fuel for star formation and nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies. To identify the role of magnetic fields in funneling molecular gas into the nuclear region, measurements of the magnetic fields embedded in molecular gas are needed. By applying the new velocity gradient technique to ALMA and PAWS’s CO isotopolog d...
Article
Dust-induced polarization in the interstellar medium (ISM) is due to asymmetric grains aligned with an external reference direction, usually the magnetic field. For both the leading alignment theories, the alignment of the grain’s angular momentum with one of its principal axes and the coupling with the magnetic field requires the grain to be param...
Preprint
Full-text available
The heart of the Large Magellanic Cloud, 30 Doradus, is a complex region with a clear core-halo structure. Feedback from the stellar cluster R$\,$136 has been shown to be the main source of energy creating multiple pc-scale expanding-shells in the outer region, and carving a nebula core in proximity of the ionization source. We present the morpholo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Polarization of interstellar dust emission is a powerful probe of dust properties and magnetic field structure. Yet studies of external galaxies are hampered by foreground dust contribution. The aim of this study is to separate the polarised signal from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from that of the Milky Way (MW) in order to construct a wide-fi...
Article
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Alfvénic component of MHD turbulence damps Alfvénic waves. The consequences of this effect are important for many processes, from cosmic ray (CR) propagation to launching outflows and winds in galaxies and other magnetized systems. We discuss the differences in the damping of the streaming instability by turbulence and the damping of a plane parall...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report the evidence for the existence of the universal, continuous turbulent cascade of velocity fluctuations with Kolmogorov -5/3 slope spanning 6 orders of length scales, from $10^4$ pc down to $10^{-2}$ pc. This was achieved by applying our innovative technique of separating density and velocity fluctuations to a set of spectroscopic surveys...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mean plane-of-sky magnetic field strength is traditionally obtained from the combination of polarization and spectroscopic data using the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi (DCF) technique. However, we identify the major problem of the DCF to be its disregard of the anisotropic character of MHD turbulence. On the basis of the modern MHD turbulence theor...
Article
Measuring magnetic fields in the interstellar medium and obtaining their distribution along line-of-sight is very challenging with the traditional techniques. The Velocity Gradient Technique (VGT), which utilizes anisotropy of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, provides an attractive solution. Targeting the central molecular zone (CMZ), we test...
Preprint
Full-text available
Polarized dust emission is widely used to trace the plane-of-the-sky (POS) component of interstellar magnetic fields in two dimensions. Its potential to access three-dimensional magnetic fields, including the inclination angle of the magnetic fields relative to the line-of-sight (LOS), is crucial for a variety of astrophysical problems. Based on th...
Article
We study the streaming instability of GeV−100 GeV cosmic rays (CRs) and its damping in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). We find that the damping of streaming instability is dominated by ion-neutral collisional damping in weakly ionized molecular clouds, turbulent damping in the highly ionized warm medium, and nonlinear Landau damping in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The existence of magnetized turbulence in the interstellar HI is well accepted. A number of techniques to obtain turbulence spectrum and magnetic field direction and strength have been developed and successfully applied to HI spectroscopic data. To better separate the imprints of density and velocity fluctuations to the channel maps, a new theory-b...
Article
The central molecular zone (CMZ) plays an essential role in regulating the nuclear ecosystem of our Galaxy. To get an insight into magnetic fields of the CMZ, we employ the Gradient Technique (GT), which is rooted in the anisotropy of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Our analysis is based on the data of multiple wavelengths, including molecular emis...
Article
As a novel approach for tracing interstellar magnetic fields, the velocity gradient technique (VGT) has been proven to be effective for probing magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In this work, we verify the VGT in a broader context by applying the technique to a molecular cloud interacting with the supernova remnant (SNR) W44...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measuring magnetic fields in the interstellar medium and obtaining their distribution along line-of-sight is very challenging with the traditional techniques. The Velocity Gradient Technique (VGT), which utilizes anisotropy of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, provides an attractive solution. Targeting the central molecular zone (CMZ), we test...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alfv\'{e}nic component of MHD turbulence damps Alfv\'{e}nic waves. The consequences of this effect are important for many processes, from cosmic ray (CR) propagation to launching outflows and winds in galaxies and other magnetized systems. We discuss the differences in the damping of the streaming instability by turbulence and the damping of a plan...
Article
We investigate shock acceleration in a realistic astrophysical environment with density inhomogeneities. The turbulence induced by the interaction of the shock precursor with upstream density fluctuations amplifies both upstream and downstream magnetic fields via the turbulent dynamo. The dynamo-amplified turbulent magnetic fields (a) introduce var...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study the streaming instability of GeV-100 GeV cosmic rays (CRs) and its damping in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). We find that the damping of streaming instability is dominated by ion-neutral collisional damping in weakly ionized molecular clouds, turbulent damping in the highly ionized warm medium, and nonlinear Landau damping in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
A recent publication (Li et al. 2021) discovered one of the largest filamentary neutral hydrogen features dubbed Cattail from high resolution FAST observations that might be a new galactic arm of our own Milky Way. However in the analysis, it was suggested that this neutral hydrogen feature is cold despite having 12km/s total linewidth. We evaluate...
Article
As the fundamental physical process with many astrophysical implications, the diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) is determined by their interaction with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We consider the magnetic mirroring effect arising from MHD turbulence on the diffusion of CRs. Due to the intrinsic superdiffusion of turbulent magnetic fields, CR...
Preprint
Full-text available
Owing to the complexity of turbulent magnetic fields, modeling the diffusion of cosmic rays is challenging. Based on the current understanding of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, we use test particles to examine the cosmic rays' superdiffusion in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. By changing Alfvén Mach number...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ubiquity of very thin and lengthy cold neutral media (CNM) has been reported by multiple authors in the HI community. Yet, the reason of how the CNM can be so long and lengthy is still in debate. In this paper, we recognize a new type of instability due to the attractive nature of the pressure force in the unstable phase. We provide a new estim...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate shock acceleration in a realistic astrophysical environment with density inhomogeneities. The turbulence induced by the interaction of the shock precursor with upstream density fluctuations amplifies both upstream and downstream magnetic fields via the turbulent dynamo. The dynamo-amplified turbulent magnetic fields (a) introduce var...
Article
The first-year results from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) reveal a gradual decrease of F-coronal dust from distances of D = 0.166-0.336 au (or the inner elongations of ∼9.22-18.69 R o˙) to the Sun. Such an F-corona decrease cannot be explained by the dust sublimation scenario of the popular silicate composition that implies a dust-free boundary zone...
Preprint
Full-text available
As a novel approach for tracing interstellar magnetic fields, the Velocity Gradient Technique (VGT) has been proven to be effective for probing magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In this work, we verify the VGT in a broader context by applying the technique to a molecular cloud interacting with the supernovae remnant (SNR) W4...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dust clouds are ubiquitous in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters and affect their observable properties. The alignment of dust grains in the clouds and resulting dust polarization is a promising method to study magnetic fields of exoplanets. Moreover, the grain size distribution plays an important role in physical and chemical processes in the atmosph...
Preprint
Low-energy cosmic rays, in particular protons with energies below 1 GeV, are significant drivers of the thermochemistry of molecular clouds. However, these cosmic rays are also greatly impacted by energy losses and magnetic field transport effects in molecular gas. Explaining cosmic ray ionization rates of $10^{-16}$ s$^{-1}$ or greater in dense ga...
Article
Full-text available
Direct measurements of three-dimensional magnetic fields in the interstellar medium are not achievable. However, the anisotropic nature of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence provides a novel way of tracing the magnetic fields. Guided by the advanced understanding of turbulence’s anisotropy in the position–position–velocity (PPV) space, we extend...
Preprint
Full-text available
Small-scale turbulent dynamo is responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields on scales smaller than the driving scale of turbulence in diverse astrophysical media. Most earlier dynamo theories concern the kinematic regime and small-scale magnetic field amplification. Here we review our recent progress in developing the theories for the nonl...
Article
Considering the spatially separated polarization radiation and Faraday rotation regions to simulate complex interstellar media, we study synchrotron polarization gradient techniques’ measurement capabilities. We explore how to trace the direction of projected magnetic field of emitting-source region at the multi-frequency bands, using the gradient...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the fundamental physical process with many astrophysical implications, the diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) is determined by their interaction with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We consider the magnetic mirroring effect arising from MHD turbulence on the diffusion of CRs. Due to the intrinsic superdiffusion of turbulent magnetic fields, CR...
Preprint
Full-text available
Considering the spatially separated polarization radiation and Faraday rotation regions to simulate complex interstellar media, we study synchrotron polarization gradient techniques' measurement capabilities. We explore how to trace the direction of projected magnetic field of emitting-source region at the multi-frequency bands, using the gradient...
Preprint
Full-text available
The central molecular zone (CMZ) plays an essential role in regulating the nuclear ecosystem of our Galaxy. To get an insight into the magnetic fields of the CMZ, we employ the Gradient Technique (GT), which is rooted in the anisotropy of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Our analysis is based on the data of multiple wavelengths, including molecular...
Article
Small-scale turbulent dynamo is responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields on scales smaller than the driving scale of turbulence in diverse astrophysical media. Most earlier dynamo theories concern the kinematic regime and small-scale magnetic field amplification. Here we review our recent progress in developing the theories for the nonl...
Preprint
Full-text available
The strong alignment of small-scale turbulent Alfv\'enic motions with the direction of the magnetic field that percolates the small-scale eddies and imprints the direction of the magnetic field is a property that follows from the MHD theory and the theory of turbulent reconnection. The Alfv\'enic eddies mix magnetic fields perpendicular to the dire...
Preprint
Full-text available
Direct measurements of three-dimensional magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) are not achievable. However, the anisotropic nature of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence provides a novel way of tracing the magnetic fields. Guided by the advanced understanding of turbulence’s anisotropy in the Position–Position–Velocity (PPV) space, we e...
Article
Based on high-resolution 3D data cubes from a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence simulation, we study how to reveal the direction of the magnetic field within the optically thick interstellar medium by using the velocity gradient technique (VGT), correlation function anisotropy (CFA), and principal component analysis of anisotropies (PCAA). Consi...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of magnetic field diffusion plays an essential role in several astrophysical plasma processes. It has been demonstrated that the omnipresent turbulence in astrophysical media induces fast magnetic reconnection, which consequently leads to large-scale magnetic flux diffusion at a rate independent of the plasma microphysics. This process is...
Preprint
Full-text available
The relative role of turbulence, magnetic fields, self-gravity in star formation is a subject of intensive debate. We present IRAM 30m telescope observations of the 13CO (1-0) emission in the Serpens G3 G6 molecular cloud and apply to the data a set of statistical methods. Those include the probability density functions (PDFs) of column density and...
Article
We reveal a deep connection between alignment of dust grains by radiative torques (RATs) and mechanical torques (METs) and the rotational disruption of grains introduced by Hoang et al. The disruption of grains happens if they have attractor points corresponding to high angular momentum (high J). We introduce fast disruption for grains that are dir...
Article
The Velocity Gradients Technique (VGT) and the Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of mass density are tools to study turbulence, magnetic fields, and self-gravity in molecular clouds. However, self-absorption can significantly make the observed intensity different from the column density structures. In this work, we study the effects of self-abso...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Velocity Gradients Technique (VGT) and the Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of mass density are tools to study turbulence, magnetic fields, and self-gravity in molecular clouds. However, self-absorption can significantly make the observed intensity different from the column density structures. In this work, we study the effects of self-abso...
Preprint
Full-text available
Based on the theoretical description of Position-Position-Velocity (PPV) statistics in Lazarian & Pogosyan (2000), we introduce a new technique called the Velocity Decomposition Algorithm (VDA) in separating the contribution of turbulent velocity from density fluctuations. Using MHD turbulence simulations, we demonstrate its promise in recovering t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Probing magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) is notoriously challenging. Motivated by the modern theories of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and turbulence anisotropy, we introduce the Structure-Function Analysis (SFA) as a new approach to measure the magnetic field orientation and estimate the magnetization. We analyze the statist...
Preprint
Full-text available
We reveal a deep connection between alignment of dust grains by RAdiative torques (RATs) and MEchanical Torques (METs) and rotational disruption of grains introduced by \cite{Hoangetal:2019}. We establish the preferential disruption of grains aligned with attractor points of high angular momentum (high-J). We introduce {\it fast alignment} and {\it...
Preprint
Full-text available
Turbulence is a key process in many fields of astrophysics. Advances in numerical simulations of fluids over the last several decades have revolutionized our understanding of turbulence and related processes such as star formation and cosmic ray propagation. However, data from numerical simulations of astrophysical turbulence are often not made pub...
Preprint
Radiative Torques (RATs) or Mechanical Torques (METs) acting on irregular grains can induce the alignment of dust grains in respect to the alignment axis (AA), which can be either the direction of the magnetic field, or the direction of the radiation. We show that carbonaceous grains can be aligned with their axes both parallel and perpendicular to...
Article
Full-text available
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera Plus polarimetry at 154 μ m is reported for the face-on galaxy M51 and the edge-on galaxy NGC 891. For M51, the polarization vectors generally follow the spiral pattern defined by the molecular gas distribution, the far-infrared (FIR) intensity contours, and o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Magnetic reconnection underlies many explosive phenomena in the heliosphere and in laboratory plasmas. The new research capabilities in theory/simulations, observations, and laboratory experiments provide the opportunity to solve the grand scientific challenges summarized in this whitepaper. Success will require enhanced and sustained investments f...
Article
Full-text available
Via amplification by turbulent dynamo, magnetic fields can be potentially important for the formation of the first stars. To examine the dynamo behavior during the gravitational collapse of primordial gas, we extend the theory of the nonlinear turbulent dynamo to include the effect of gravitational compression. The relative importance between dynam...