A. D. Fox

A. D. Fox
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Bioscience

B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc.

About

387
Publications
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Publications

Publications (387)
Article
Full-text available
Night-brooding of nestlings in cavity-nesting avian species carries predation risks to parents. Anecdotally, several species are known to shift from constant adult night-brooding behaviour to leaving nestlings unattended at night during offspring development but the timing, speed of change and sex-specific differences between parents, and the facto...
Preprint
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Migratory connectivity is a metric of the co-occurrence of migratory animals originating from different breeding sites, and like their spatio-temporal distributions, can vary substantially during the annual cycle. Together, both these properties affect the optimal times and sites of population censusing. We tracked taiga bean geese (Anser fabalis f...
Article
To test for the degree of species-specific variation in clutch initiation date in relation to spring thaw, we recorded first egg dates in 1433 nests of seven large bodied long-distance migratory waterbird species breeding on Ayopechan Island in the Chaun Delta, Chukotka, in the Russian Arctic during 2002-2020. Pacific Loon Gavia pacifica, Sandhill...
Article
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Background The Eurasian Spoonbill ( Platalea leucorodia ) occurs throughout Eurasia and North and sub-Saharan Africa, with three recognized subspecies and six geographically distributed populations. However, in China, we knew almost nothing about migration routes, habitat use and effectiveness of current site protection measures for this species....
Article
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Several alien predator species have spread widely in Europe during the last five decades and pose a potential enhanced risk to native nesting ducks and their eggs. Because predation is an important factor limiting Northern Hemisphere duck nest survival, we ask the question, do alien species increase the nest loss risk to ground nesting ducks? We cr...
Article
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Background GPS/GSM tracking data were used to contrast use of (i) habitats and (ii) protected areas between three Arctic-nesting Greater White-fronted Geese ( Anser albifrons , GWFG) populations throughout the annual cycle. We wished to demonstrate that the East Asian Continental Population (which winters on natural wetlands in the Chinese Yangtze...
Article
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Background The Swan Goose ( Anser cygnoides ) breeds across Mongolia and adjacent China and Russia and winters exclusively in China. It is globally threatened, showing long-term major range contractions and declining abundance, linked to habitat loss and degradation. We remain ignorant about the biogeographical subpopulation structure of the specie...
Article
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Background The Black-faced Spoonbill ( Platalea minor ) is a globally threatened species, nesting mainly in western Korea with smaller numbers breeding in Liaoning Province, China, and Far East Russia. Recent winter field surveys to estimate the species’ population size were almost totally conducted in coastal areas, but tracking studies showed tha...
Article
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We tracked 39 western flyway white-naped cranes (Antigone vipio) throughout multiple annual cycles from June 2017 to July 2020, using GSM-GPS loggers providing positions every 10-min to describe migration routes and key staging areas used between their Mongolian breeding and wintering areas in China’s Yangtze River Basin. The results demonstrated t...
Article
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Advances in bio-logging technology for wildlife monitoring have expanded our ability to study space use and behavior of many animal species at increasingly detailed scales. However, such data can be challenging to analyze due to autocorrelation of GPS positions. As a case study, we investigated spatiotemporal movements and habitat selection in the...
Article
Population growth rates in geese can be sensitive to small changes in survival and/or production of young and understanding which demographic rates explain more variation in population change can be crucial for implementing effective conservation actions. Here, we show that annual adult survival and production of young (assessed in winter) explaine...
Technical Report
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With less than 15 known remaining breeding pairs, the Little Owl Athene noctua is on the verge of extinction as a Danish breeding bird, due to inadequate juvenile production, caused by lack of natural food during the breeding season. This report presents results of a study to identify the requirements for maintaining a natural, self-supporting popu...
Technical Report
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Det biologiske levegrundlag for kirkeugler i Danmark. In Danish with English Summary: Habitat and prey requirements for the Little Owl in Denmark, and Deutsche Zusammenfassung: Lebensraum- und Beuteanforderungen für den Steinkauz in Dänemark Sammendrag Med under 15 kendte, tilbageværende ynglepar er kirkeuglen på randen til at uddø som dansk yng...
Article
The proliferation of ever-larger wind turbines poses risks to wildlife, especially from avian collision, yet avoidance behaviour of large-bodied, long-lived bird species in relation to wind turbines remains little studied away from collision "black spots" and offshore marine environments. Here, three-dimensional flight trajectory data are reported...
Article
An estimated 50% decline in Taiga Bean Geese A. fabalis between the mid-1990s and 2015 contrasted increasing numbers of Tundra Bean Goose A. serrirostris wintering in Western Europe at the same time. Seber dead-recovery analysis of metal-ringed individuals used to investigate year- and age effects on survival estimates from historical ringing data...
Chapter
Net primary productivity, the diversity of associated migratory flyways, length of the snow/icefree season and the historical extent of tundra during the last glacial period mostly determine shorebird species richness around the Arctic. It seems likely these factors contribute to the species richness of other groups, despite differences in their fe...
Article
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European populations of the Greylag Goose Anser anser have been studied for over 50 years, but those in the East Asian flyway are less well known. Here we describe the breeding and wintering distribution of Greylag Geese wintering in China, based on historical and newly-reported telemetry data (from 31 individuals contributing complete migrations),...
Article
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Telemetry data, wintering waterbird surveys and expert knowledge are used here to describe the links between the summer and winter distributions of the Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in East Asia, and to determine the status of the species. Updated information suggests the existence of at least two discrete migratory flyways in the region: an “Inland f...
Article
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The Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, which breeds across northern Eurasia from Norway to Chukotka, is globally threatened and is currently classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The Eastern Palearctic population of the species was thought to breed in arctic Russia, from east of the Taimyr Peninsu...
Article
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East Asian Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons populations are less well defined and monitored than those in Europe and North America. Here, we combine historical and newly-reported telemetry data, wintering waterbirds surveys and expert advice to synthesis and update our knowledge of movements between the breeding and wintering distributio...
Article
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Our ability to define the population status, migration routes and seasonal distribution of Bean Geese Anser fabalis throughout the annual cycle in East Asia is severely compromised by the presence of two subspecies (Eastern Taiga Bean Goose A. f. middendorffii and Eastern Tundra Bean Goose A. f. serrirostris), which are difficult to differentiate i...
Article
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Two of the most fundamental ecological questions about any species relate to where they occur and in what abundance. Here, we combine GPS telemetry data, survey data and expert knowledge for the first time to define two distinct flyways (the East Asian Continental and West Pacific flyways), migration routes and abundance for the Eastern population...
Article
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Until recently, almost nothing was known about the migration routes, flyway structure and population status of the Mute Swan Cygnus olor in East Asia. Here, we use a combination of GPS telemetry data, collar resightings, published literature and expert advice to update existing knowledge of its summer and winter distribution in the region, and to p...
Article
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The migration routes and migratory patterns of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus summering in western Mongolia have not previously been described and the status of East Asian population is currently uncertain. Here we therefore use a combination of satellite tracking data, sightings of colour-marked individuals, published literature and expert knowledge...
Article
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The Falcated Duck Mareca falcata, which is considered Near Threatened by IUCN, winters almost exclusively in East Asia, with greatest numbers occurring in the Yangtze River floodplain and along the coasts of eastern China. Given gaps in knowledge of its distribution and population status, we combined tracking studies, winter surveys and expert know...
Article
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Background The Bar-headed Goose ( Anser indicus ) breeds across the high plains and plateau of Central Asia and winters in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Indian sub-continent. Of the two recognized discrete flyways of the Bar-headed Goose, the Eastern Tibetan Flyway (ETF) is the larger, comprising at least six m...
Article
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Background The Oriental Stork ( Ciconia boyciana ) breeds in southeastern Siberia and parts of northeast China, and winters mainly in southeast China. Although the autumn migration pattern of Oriental Storks has been previously described, differences between spring and autumn migration travel speed in relation to wind assistance were unknown. Meth...
Article
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Background The Common Pochard ( Aythya ferina ) (hereafter Pochard), a widespread and common freshwater diving duck in the Palearctic, was reclassified in 2015 from Least Concern to Vulnerable IUCN status based on rapid declines throughout its range. Analysis of its status, distribution and the potential causes for the decline in Europe has been un...
Article
Full-text available
Predation is the most important factor limiting Northern Hemisphere duck nest survival. While most avian nest predators take only eggs, mammalian predators also pose mortality risks to incubating ducks. Partial depredation of duck clutches elevates subsequent nest desertion probability, especially where eggshells provide evidence of the depredation...
Article
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The Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus is confined to central Asia, where it is currently increasing in abundance. Historically, the species has been divided into seven flyway units, of which the Eastern Flyway comprises 70% of the total world population. We used data from GPS-GSM transmitters deployed on Eastern Flyway Bar-headed Geese to differentiat...
Article
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This 70th annual issue of the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust's scientific journal Wildfowl, which commenced life as the First Annual Report of the Severn Wildfowl Trust in 1948, provides a timely opportunity to review and celebrate the wealth of knowledge and pioneering research published in its pages over the decades. During this time it has disseminat...
Article
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Satellite telemetry tracking of Light-bellied Brent Geese was used to test whether the length of time taken to undertake their autumn migration was longer than the duration of their spring migration (published previously). Spring and autumn migration did not differ significantly and both were conducted almost non-stop, despite expectations that bir...
Article
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Analysis of coordinated Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) count data from the last 30 years showed a 38.1% decrease in wintering numbers in NorthWest Europe, from 309,000 during 1988-1991 to c.192,300 individuals during 2015-2018. Annual trends in wintering numbers differed throughout the range. Numbers decreased in the UK, Ireland, and in the Netherla...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of coordinated Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) count data from the last 30 years showed a 38.1% decrease in wintering numbers in North-West Europe, from 309,000 during 1988–1991 to c.192,300 individuals during 2015–2018. Annual trends in wintering numbers differed throughout the range. Numbers decreased in the UK, Ireland, and in the Netherl...
Article
Despite their unfavourable conservation status, little is known about the population status, trends and demography of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra. Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data from 154 recapture events of 88 individually marked breeding female Common Scoter Melanitta nigra in the Aðaldalur valley, northeast Iceland, during 2009–2018 generate...
Article
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Aim Understanding connectivity between avian breeding and non‐breeding areas is essential to understand processes affecting threatened migrants throughout their annual cycle. We attempted to establish migratory connectivity and flyway structure of the IUCN vulnerable Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides ) by combining citizen science species' distribution m...
Article
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Annual Finnish breeding duck surveys over the last 30 years show declining abundance among several species and greater declines on eutrophic waters than oligotrophic lakes. It has been suggested that habitat-related differences in the rate of increase in predation pressure is a potential explanation for contrasting duck population trajectories betw...
Article
We analysed the stable isotope of hydrogen (δ2H) in first generation median wing covert feathers sampled from a free-flying first winter Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis caught in Storøya, Norway in late April 2019. The highly depleted δ2H values corresponded to those predicted if the bird had grown feather in the Russian Arctic breeding areas...
Article
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Migratory waterbirds require an effectively conserved cohesive network of wetland areas throughout their range and life-cycle. Under rapid climate change, protected area (PA) networks need to be able to accommodate climate driven range shifts in wildlife if they are to continue to be effective in the future. Thus, we investigated geographical varia...
Article
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Dispersal affects the spatial distribution and population structure of species. Dispersal is often male-biased in mammals while female-biased in birds, with the notable exception of the Anatidae. In this study, we tested genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal (SBD) in the Swan Goose Anser cygnoides, an Asian endemic and IUCN vulnerable species,...
Article
Use of lead shot for hunting was banned under legislation on 26 Ramsar sites in Denmark from 1986, based on evidence of poisoning in waterbirds ingesting lead shot and high lead shot pellet densities in Danish wetland sediments caused by intensive hunting. To assess the fate of lead shot from hunting prior to 1986 and the degree to which such shot...
Article
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Internationally coordinated censuses of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus across continental northwest Europe were undertaken in mid-winter 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The estimate of 138,500 birds in 2015, the highest to date, represented a more than doubling of the population size (at an annual increase of 4.1%) since the first census total of 59,...
Article
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Here we investigate if lead may be a contributing factor to the observed population decline in a Baltic colony of incubating eiders (Somateria mollissima). Body mass and blood samples were obtained from 50 incubating female eiders at the Baltic breeding colony on Christiansø during spring 2017 (n = 27) and 2018 (n = 23). All the females were sample...
Article
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Following 35 years of drainage and intensive arable tillage, the lower Skjern River in west Jutland, Denmark was re-engineered to a meandering riverbed and natural flooding regime to restore sediment and nutrient retention and reduce sedimentation and eutrophication of Ringkøbing Fjord at its efflux. The creation of 22 km 2 of lakes, shallow wetlan...
Article
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Free-flying geese have become a problem in many parts of urban North America as a result of accidental escapes, deliberate (re-)introductions and colonisation by naturally expanding populations. In the last 25 years, the same problem is becoming manifest in Europe. Such urban goose populations tend to benefit from access to highly suitable managed,...
Article
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Tundra-breeding birds face diverse conservation challenges, from accelerated rates of Arctic climate change to threats associated with highly migratory life histories. Here we summarise the status and trends of Arctic terrestrial birds (88 species, 228 subspecies or distinct flyway populations) across guilds/regions, derived from published sources,...
Article
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Long-distance migratory waterbirds contribute many ecosystem functions and services, not least as important huntable quarry species, as well as posing challenges to human societies, through agricultural crop damage, threats to flight safety and pathogen transmission. As a result, throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, they have received consid...
Article
1. Breeding waterbird communities have suffered globally from the effects of anthropogenic changes in water quality (especially nutrient enrichment) in recent decades, but few studies have demonstrated the positive effects of restorative actions. 2. Annual breeding waterbird surveys in the period 1977-2005 at two restored southern Danish lake basi...
Article
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The greatest loss of biodiversity in the EU has occurred on agricultural land. The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is one of the many numerous and widespread European farmland breeding bird species showing major population declines linked to European agricultural intensification. Here we present results based on monitoring data collected since 1...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background Foraging theory predicts that animals select patches that offer the highest net rate of energy gain. Hence, prey distribution patterns and spatiotemporal heterogeneity play important roles in determining animal feeding patch selection. For waterfowl foraging on buried aquatic plant tubers, the distribution and biomass of these p...
Article
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Abstract Background Migration theory suggests, and some empirical studies show, that in order to compete for the best breeding sites and increase reproductive success, long-distance avian migrants tend to adopt a time minimization strategy during spring migration, resulting in shorter duration spring migration compared to that in autumn. Methods Us...
Article
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Abstract Since its introduction from North America in the 1970s, the American razor clam Ensis leei (M. Huber, 2015) has successfully spread throughout North Sea coasts from Spain to Norway and the United Kingdom to the western Baltic. We investigated the distribution and abundance of this non-indigenous bivalve species as a potential novel food re...
Article
Full-text available
Internationally coordinated censuses of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus across continental northwest Europe were undertaken in mid-winter 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The estimate of 138,500 birds in 2015, the highest to date, represented a more than doubling of the population size (at an annual increase of 4.1%) since the first census total of 59,...
Article
Full-text available
The greatest loss of biodiversity in the EU has occurred on agricultural land. The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is one of the many numerous and widespread European farmland breeding bird species showing major population declines linked to European agricultural intensification. Here we present results based on monitoring data collected since 1...
Article
Full-text available
While many avian populations follow narrow, well-defined “migratory corridors”, individuals from other populations undertake highly divergent individual migration routes, using widely dispersed stopover sites en route between breeding and wintering areas, although the reasons for these differences are rarely investigated. We combined individual GPS...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty Far East Greylag Geese Anser anser rubrirostris were captured and fitted with GPS/GSM loggers to identify breeding and wintering areas, migration routes and stopover sites. Telemetry data for the first time showed linkages between their Yangtze River wintering areas, stopover sites in northeastern China and breeding/molting grounds in easter...