# A. De la Cruz-DombrizUniversity of Cape Town | UCT · Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) & Mathematics and Applied Mathematics Department

A. De la Cruz-Dombriz

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD in Theoretical Physics)

## About

92

Publications

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3,594

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Introduction

Additional affiliations

January 2014 - January 2016

## Publications

Publications (92)

Constant-curvature solutions lie at the very core of gravitational physics, with Schwarzschild and (anti-)de Sitter being two of the most paradigmatic examples. Although such a kind of solutions are very well-known in general relativity, that is not the case for theories of gravity beyond the Einsteinian paradigm. In this article, we provide a syst...

We construct a numerical relativity code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation for the gravitational quadratic f(R) Starobinsky model. By removing the assumption that the determinant of the conformal 3-metric is unity, we first generalize the BSSN formulation for general f(R) gravity theories in the metric formalism to...

In this work, we study the junction conditions of the ghost-free subclass of quadratic Poincaré Gauge gravity, which propagates one scalar and one pseudo-scalar. For this purpose, we revisit the theory of distributions and junction conditions in gravity, giving a novel insight to the subject by introducing a convenient notation to deal with regular...

In this work, we present novel analytical solutions for static and spherically symmetric wormhole geometries threaded by an anisotropic distribution of matter conformally coupled to a scalar ghost field. We explore the main features of the theory, such as the dynamics of the scalar field and matter throughout the wormhole, as well as the role playe...

We examine the quantum gravitational entanglement of two test masses in the context of linearized general relativity with specific nonlocal interaction with matter. To accomplish this, we consider an energy-momentum tensor describing two test particles of equal mass with each possessing some nonzero momentum. After discussing the quantization of th...

We construct a numerical relativity code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation for the gravitational quadratic $f(R)$ Starobinsky model. By removing the assumption that the determinant of the conformal 3-metric is unity, we first generalize the BSSN formulation for general $f(R)$ gravity theories in the metric formalism...

We examine the quantum gravitational entanglement of two test masses in the context of linearized General Relativity with specific non-local interaction with matter. To accomplish this, we consider an energy-momentum tensor describing two test particles of equal mass with each possessing some non-zero momentum. After discussing the quantization of...

In this work, we study the junction conditions of the ghost-free subclass of quadratic Poincar\'e Gauge gravity, which propagates one scalar and one pseudo-scalar. For this purpose, we revisit the theory of distributions and junction conditions in gravity, giving a novel insight to the subject by introducing a convenient notation to deal with regul...

We study a quintessence model for which the scalar field is disformally coupled to dark matter. The background mimics the ΛCDM cosmological evolution and the quintessence potential is not specified. A disformal effect due to the quintessential mass is seen in the growth rate of the cosmological structure on large scales. The disformal parameter ren...

f(R) gravity is one of the simplest viable modifications to General Relativity: it passes local astrophysical tests, predicts both the early-time cosmic inflation and the late-time cosmic acceleration, and also describes dark matter. In this paper, we probe cosmic magnification on large scales in f(R) gravity, using the well-known Hu-Sawicki model...

f(R) gravity is one of the simplest viable modifications to General Relativity: it passes local astrophysical tests, predicts both the early-time cosmic inflation and the late-time cosmic acceleration, and also describes dark matter. In this paper, we probe cosmic magnification on large scales in f (R) gravity, using the well-known Hu-Sawicki model...

We present the ghost-free infinite-derivative extensions of the spherically reduced gravity (SRG) and Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) theories in two space-time dimensions. For the case of SRG, we specify the Schwarzschild-type gauge and diagonalize the quadratic action for field perturbations after taking the background fields to be those...

We present the ghost-free infinite-derivative extensions of the Spherically-Reduced Gravity (SRG) and Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) theories in two space-time dimensions. For the case of SRG, we specify the Schwarzschild-type gauge and diagonalise the quadratic action for field perturbations after taking the background fields to be those...

Gravitational collapse is still poorly understood in the context of f(R) theories of gravity, since the Oppenheimer-Snyder model is incompatible with their junction conditions. In this work, we will present a systematic approach to the problem. Starting with a thorough analysis of how the Oppenheimer-Snyder construction should be generalized to fit...

Gravitational collapse is still poorly understood in the context of $f(R)$ theories of gravity, since the Oppenheimer-Snyder model is incompatible with their junction conditions. In this work, we will present a systematic approach to the problem. Starting with a thorough analysis of how the Oppenheimer-Snyder construction should be generalised to f...

Modifications to the General Theory of Relativity emerged almost immediately upon its acceptance by the scientific community. This chapter aims at providing a detailed review on the foundations on f(R) theories, one of the simplest modifications to Einsteinian gravity in the context of addressing the underlying nature of dark energy in the Cosmolog...

We study a quintessence model for which the scalar field is disformally coupled to dark matter. The background mimics the LCDM cosmological evolution and the quintessence potential is not specified. A disformal effect due to the quintessential mass is seen in the growth rate of the cosmological structure on large scales. The disformal parameter ren...

General Relativity and the $\Lambda$CDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research...

In this manuscript we will present the theoretical framework of the recently proposed infinite derivative theory of gravity with a non-symmetric connection. We will explicitly derive the field equations at the linear level and obtain new solutions with a non-trivial form of the torsion tensor in the presence of a fermionic source, and show that the...

While the accelerated cosmological expansion suggests the presence of a dark energy component, the possibility of its interaction with other fluid components is not entirely ruled out. We investigate the cosmological dynamics of coupled quintessence (where the quintessence couples and interacts with a generic fluid) in a disformal framework. The no...

The key probes of the growth of large-scale structure are its rate $f$ and amplitude $\sigma_8$. Redshift space distortions in the galaxy power spectrum allow us to measure only the combination $f\sigma_8$, which can be used to constrain the standard cosmological model or alternatives. By using measurements of the galaxy-galaxy lensing cross-correl...

The cosmological scalar perturbations of standard matter are investigated in the context of extended teleparallel f(T) gravity theories using the \(1+3\) covariant formalism. After a review of the background gravitational field equations of f(T) gravity and the introduction of the covariant perturbation variables, the usual scalar and harmonic deco...

In the era of radio astronomy, the high sensitivity of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) could play a decisive role in the detection of new radio sources. In this work, we study the SKA sensitivity to the synchrotron radio emission expected by the annihilation of TeV DM candidate in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. On the one hand, we consider mod...

In this manuscript we will present the theoretical framework of the recently proposed infinite derivative theory of gravity with a non-symmetric connection. We will explicitly derive the field equations at the linear level and obtain new solutions with a non-trivial form of the torsion tensor in the presence of a fermionic source, and show that the...

The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics—dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem—all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarkable...

We investigate the cosmological scalar perturbations of standard matter in the context of extended teleparallel f (T) gravity theories using the 1 + 3 covariant formalism. We review the gravitational field equations of f (T) gravity to introduce therein a gauge-invariant spatial gradient of the torsion fluid and obtain the linear perturbation equat...

We investigate the cosmological scalar perturbations of standard matter in the context of extended teleparallel $f(T)$ gravity theories using the 1 + 3 covariant formalism. We review the gravitational field equations of $f(T)$ gravity to introduce therein a gauge-invariant spatial gradient of the torsion fluid and obtain the linear perturbation equ...

We present the most general quadratic curvature action with torsion including infinite covariant derivatives and study its implications around the Minkowski background via the Palatini approach. Provided the torsion is solely given by the background axial field, the metric and torsion are shown to decouple, and both of them can be made ghost and si...

We present a novel approach to establish the Birkhoff's theorem validity in the so-called quadratic Poincaré Gauge theories of gravity. By obtaining the field equations via the Palatini formalism, we find paradigmatic scenarios where the theorem applies neatly. For more general and physically relevant situations, a suitable decomposition of the tor...

We use growth of structure data to constrain the effective field theory of dark energy. Considering as case study Horndeski theories with the speed of gravitational waves equal to that of light, we show how constraints on the free parameters and the large-scale structure phenomenological functions can be improved by two ingredients: firstly by comp...

We present the most general quadratic curvature action with torsion including infinite covariant derivatives and study its implications around the Minkowski background via the Palatini approach. Provided the torsion is solely given by the background axial field, the metric and torsion are shown to decouple, and both of them can be made ghost and si...

We present a novel approach to establish the Birkhoff's theorem validity in the so-called quadratic Poincar\'e Gauge theories of gravity. By obtaining the field equations via the Palatini formalism, we find paradigmatic scenarios where the theorem applies neatly. For more general and physically relevant situations, a suitable decomposition of the t...

The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics---dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem---all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarka...

In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories with a 3+1 dimensions Gauss-Bonnet analog term, we address the possibility of these theories reproducing several well-known cosmological bouncing scenarios in a four-dimensional Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker geometry. We shall study which types of gravitational Lagrangians are capable...

In the context of f(R)=R + alpha R^2 gravity, we study the existence of neutron and quark stars with no intermediate approximations in the generalised system of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations. Analysis shows that for positive alpha's the scalar curvature does not drop to zero at the star surface (as in General Relativity) but exponentially dec...

In the following work, we compute the positron production from branon dark matter annihilations in order to constrain extra-dimensional theories. By having assumed that the positron fraction measured by AMS-02 is well explained just with astrophysical sources, exclusion diagrams for the branon mass and the tension of the brane, the two parameters c...

In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories with a 3+1 dimensions Gauss-Bonnet analog term, we address the possibility of these theories reproducing several well-known cosmological solutions. In particular when applied to a Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker geometry in four-dimensional spacetime with standard fluids exclusively. We...

The onset of dark energy domination depends on the particular gravitational theory driving the cosmic evolution. Model independent techniques are crucial to test the both the present ΛCDM cosmological paradigm and alternative theories, making the least possible number of assumptions about the Universe. In this paper we investigate whether cosmograp...

The cosmographic approach, which only relies upon the homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe on large scales, has become an essential tool in dealing with an increasing number of theoretical possibilities for explaining the late-time acceleration of the Universe, ranging from Modified Gravity theories to Dark Energy alternatives passing from test...

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.089901

We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We...

In the context of f(R) gravity theories, we show that the apparent mass of a neutron star as seen from an observer at infinity is numerically calculable but requires careful matching, first at the star's edge, between interior and exterior solutions, none of them being totally Schwarzschild-like but presenting instead small oscillations of the curv...

In the context of f(R) gravity theories, we show that the apparent mass of a neutron star as seen from an observer at infinity is numerically calculable but requires careful matching, first at the star's edge, between interior and exterior solutions, none of them being totally Schwarzschild-like but presenting instead small oscillations of the curv...

Modified gravity has attracted much attention over the last few years and
remains a potential candidate for dark energy. In particular, the so-called
viable f(R) gravity theories, which are able to both recover General Relativity
(GR) and produce late-time cosmic acceleration, have been widely studied in
recent literature. Nevertheless, extended th...

In the present article we study the Inverse Electrodynamics Model. This model
is a gauge and parity invariant non-linear Electrodynamics theory, which
respects the conformal invariance of standard Electrodynamics. This modified
Electrodynamics model, when minimally coupled to General Relativity, is
compatible with static and spherically symmetric R...

Model-independent methods in cosmology have become an essential tool in order
to deal with an increasing number of theoretical alternatives for explaining
the late-time acceleration of the Universe. In principle, this provides a way
of testing the Cosmological Concordance (or $\Lambda$CDM) model under different
assumptions and to rule out whole cla...

We discuss the consistency of a recently proposed class of theories described by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the energy-momentum tensor and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the energy-momentum tensor. We briefly discuss the limitations of including the energy-momentum tensor in the action, as it is a non fundamen...

We present a complete analysis of the imprint of tensor anisotropies on the
Cosmic Microwave Background for a class of f(R) gravity theories within the
PPF-CAMB framework. We derive the equations, both for the cosmological
background and gravitational wave perturbations, required to obtain the
standard temperature and polarization power spectra, ta...

We discuss the consistency of a recently proposed class of theories described
by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the energy-momentum
tensor and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the energy-momentum tensor.
We briefly discuss the limitations of including the energy-momentum tensor in
the action, as it is a non fundamen...

We study electric and magnetic monopoles in static, spherically symmetric and
constant curvature geometries in the context of the inverse electrodynamics
model. We prove that this U(1) invariant Lagrangian density is able to support
the standard metric of a Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole, but with more complex
thermodynamical properties than in the...

In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the
issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of
different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these
conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General
Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity....

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both
secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have
studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System
(HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as
annihilating dark matter in combination...

In this work we address the issue of studying the conditions required to
guarantee the Focusing Theorem for both null and timelike geodesic congruences
by using the Raychaudhuri equation. In particular we study the case of
Friedmann-Robertson-Walker as well as more general Bianchi Type I spacetimes.
The fulfillment of the Focusing Theorem is mandat...

One possible explanation for the present observed acceleration of the Universe is the breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy due to the formation of non-linear structures. How inhomogeneities affect the averaged cosmological expansion rate and lead to late-time acceleration is generally considered to be due to some backreaction mechanism.
In the rec...

Despite the extraordinary attention that modified gravity theories have
attracted over the past decade, the geodesic deviation equation in this context
has not received proper formulation thus far. This equation provides an elegant
way to investigate the timelike, null and spacelike structure of spacetime
geometries. In this investigation we provid...

A new general class of solutions of ungauged four-dimensional Supegravity, in
one-to-one correspondence with spherically symmetric, static black-hole
solutions and Lifshitz solutions with Hyperscaling violation (\emph{hvLif}) is
studied. The causal structure of the space-time is then elucidated.

In the context of scalar-tensor theories we study the evolution of the
density contrast for Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke theories in a
Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Universe. Calculations are performed in the
Einstein Frame with the cosmological background described as Lambda-Cold Dark
Matter (Lambda-CDM) and supplemented by a Jordan-Fierz-Brans-...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.87.129905

We study the differences in the gamma ray spectra simulated by four Monte
Carlo event generator packages developed in particle physics. Two different
versions of PYTHIA and two of HERWIG are analyzed, namely PYTHIA 6.418 and
HERWIG 6.5.10 in Fortran and PYTHIA 8.165 and HERWIG 2.6.1 in C++. For all the
studied channels, the intrinsic differences be...

Over the last few years much attention has been given to the study of
modified gravity theories in order to find a more natural explanation for the
late time acceleration of the Universe. Nevertheless, a comparison of the
matter power spectrum predictions made by these theories with available data
has not yet been subjected to a detailed analysis....

An arguable aspect of the modified gravity theories is that many of them
present the so-called degeneracy problem. For instance, the cosmological
evolution, gravitational collapse and the main features of standard black-hole
configurations, can be mimicked by many of those theories. In this
communication we revise briefly the appropriate observable...

In the context of f(R,T) theories of gravity, we study the evolution of
scalar cosmological perturbations in the metric formalism. According to
restrictions on the background evolution, a specific model within these
theories is assumed in order to guarantee the standard continuity equation.
Using a completely general procedure, we find the complete...

We study for the first time a complete analysis of the imprint of tensor
anisotropies on the Cosmic Microwave Background for a class of f(R)
gravity theories within the CAMB-PPF framework. Herein we present the
most relevant equations, both for the cosmological background and
gravitational wave perturbations, taking care to include all effects
whic...

Modified gravity is one of the most promising candidates for explaining the
current accelerating expansion of the Universe, and even its unification with
the inflationary epoch. Nevertheless, the wide range of models capable to
explain the phenomena of dark energy, imposes that current research focuses on
a more precise study of the possible effect...

In General Relativity without a cosmological constant
a non-positive contribution from the space-time geometry to Raychaudhuri equation is found provided that particular energy conditions
are assumed and regardless the considered solution of the Einstein's equations. This fact is usually interpreted as a manifestation of the attractive character of...

The gravitational collapse in fourth order theories of gravity defined by an
arbitrary action of the scalar curvature shows significant deviations with
General Relativity. The presence of a new scalar mode produces a higher initial
contraction that favors the reduction of the collapsing time. However,
depending on the particular model, there are fu...

We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences
on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which
describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or
null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution
to this equation. By straightforward ca...

Along this review, we focus on the study of several properties of modified
gravity theories, in particular on black-hole solutions and its comparison with
those solutions in General Relativity, and on
Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics. The thermodynamical properties of
fourth order gravity theories are also a subject of this investigation...

We study the evolution of scalar cosmological perturbations in the (1+3)-
covariant gauge-invariant formalism for generic $f(R)$ theories of gravity.
Extending previous works, we give a complete set of equations describing the
evolution of matter and curvature fluctuations for a multi-fluid cosmological
medium. We then specialize to a radiation-dus...

Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies

We present a description of CMB anisotropies generated by tensor
perturbations in f(R) theories of gravity. The temperature power spectrum in
the special case of $f(R)=R^n$ is computed using a modified version of CAMB
package.

If the present dark matter in the Universe annihilates into Standard Model
particles, it must contribute to the gamma ray fluxes detected on the Earth.
Here we briefly review the present constraints for the detection of gamma ray
photons produced in the annihilation of branon dark matter. We show that
observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and t...

In the context of f(R) modified gravity theories we determine that the black
holes existence is determined by the sign of a parameter dependent of the mass,
the charge, the spin and the scalar curvature. We obtain the different
astrophysical objects derived from the presence of different horizons.
Thermodynamics for this kind of black holes is stud...

We study the gravitational collapse in modified gravitational theories. In
particular, we analyze a general $f(R)$ model with uniformly collapsing cloud
of self-gravitating dust particles. This analysis shares analogies with the
formation of large-scale structures in the early Universe and with the
formation of stars in a molecular cloud experienci...

Branons are new degrees of freedom that appear in flexible brane-world models
corresponding to brane fluctuations. These new fields can behave as standard
weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with a significant associated
thermal relic density. We analyze the present constraints from their
spontaneous annihilations into photons for EGRET, F...

If the present dark matter in the Universe annihilates into Standard Model
particles, it must contribute to the gamma ray fluxes detected on the Earth.
The magnitude of such contribution depends on the particular dark matter
candidate, but certain features of the produced spectra may be analyzed in a
rather model-independent fashion. In this commun...

Annihilation of different dark matter (DM) candidates into Standard Model (SM) particles could be detected through their contribution to the gamma ray fluxes that are measured on the Earth. The magnitude of such contributions depends on the particular DM candidate, but certain imprints of produced photon spectra may be analyzed in a model-independe...

In the context of f(R) modified gravity theories, we study the Kerr-Newman
black-hole solutions. We study non-zero constant scalar curvature solutions and
discuss the metric tensor that satisfies the modified field equations. We
determine that, in absence of a cosmological constant, the black holes
existence is determined by the sign of a parameter...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.83.029903

If the present dark matter (DM) in the Universe annihilates into Standard Model (SM) particles, it must contribute to the gamma ray fluxes that are detected on the Earth. The magnitude of such contribution depends on the particular DM candidate, but certain features of these spectra may be analyzed in a model‐independent fashion. In this work we pr...