Asked 7th Jul, 2016

What teaching techniques or behaviors are conducive to develop a positive interpersonal Teacher-Student Relationship?

I am searching articles about Teacher-Student Relationship.

Most recent answer

5th Apr, 2019
Derek Pigrum
I think the answer to this question should be divorced from learning and if it remains connected to learning then the teacher must learn something too. The best way to develop or improve personal relationships with students is to share some of the teachers experiences of life. Of course this can only apply to older students. For younger students story telling is the what creates a lasting bond (see Pigrum 2017 on Story Telling while Work is Done). One thing we should always be aware of is that we do not know what the student learns. Very often they learn something quite different from what we teach. I recall an experience as a school boy of what would rightly be considered very bad teaching. The teacher came into the RI class, put his feet up on the table, and while he read his newspaper ordered us to open our Bibles while each of us in turn read a verse aloud from the old testament until the lesson was over. I loved this lesson, I despised the teacher, but the experience of reading the wonderful English of the King James version of the Bible has remained with me for life. But the teacher that endeared himself to me more than any other was Ralph Lilleford, my art lecturer, who actually did not teach me anything in any formal sense but by the things he did for others, his opposition to injustice and to authority meant that I have remained in contact with him for over fifty years.

All Answers (27)

On teaching in general (at the college level)  I recommend the best-selling Teaching Tips 14th Edition by Wilbert McKeachie (Author), Marilla Svinicki which is available in paperback or etext on Amazon. It has a section on building community. If you are a psychologist, you might want to look at the website for the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, which publishes the journal Teaching of Psychology, which is full of great ideas to enhance your teaching.
1 Recommendation
7th Jul, 2016
Debra Sharon Ferdinand-James
The University of the West Indies at Mona
I agree with the above views and would like to add that when a teacher recognizes students' diverse cultural backgrounds and accommodates for these in teaching, students feel appreciated and are more inclined to have a better interpersonal relationship with the teacher. Please see both sides of the issue in the attached.
Many thanks,
1 Recommendation
7th Jul, 2016
Asmuni Asmuni
College of Teacher Training and Education STKIP PGRI Jombang East Java Indonesia
7th Jul, 2016
Blaise Cornell-d'Echert Jr
Walden University
There is a reason that tutors and mentors have persisted in the learning domain since the times of antiquity. There is a huge amount of discussion about learner-centered learning environment, but the reality of practice is only a shallow approximation. From my perspective, true learner-centrism is where the learner is selecting and choosing what they want to learn. How can this occur in an institutional setting? I think that is the problem...the institutional setting. At least in the European tradition, that is essentially tied to the preparation of novices to work in the scriptorium, the organized and orderly delivery and practice of specific knowledge and skills. Ultimately, I believe that the institution creates a power division between the "owner" of knowledge, and the "recipient" of knowledge, and only the very best teachers can traverse this divide in an engaging way. Back to your question - the behaviors of a tutor (which combines the elements of teaching and coaching), and the behaviors of a mentor (which combines the behaviors of a coach and a parent) are the most effective. But these really only work 1 to 1, or in small groups of about 8 learners. Hardly sufficient for an "industrialized" institution dependent upon through-put.
8th Jul, 2016
Jimayma Bigcas
Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology
Thank you everyone for the information you've shared to me. God bless to all of you!
2 Recommendations
8th Jul, 2016
Krishnan Umachandran
Various approaches of classroom management techniques need to be carefully considered by the teacher and used only in appropriate places.
1 Recommendation
8th Jul, 2016
Philip Mcaleenan
Expert Ease International
I recommend the works of Paulo Freire in this regard.  He explores the teacher as learner and learner as teacher dialectic in the context of education as a humanising activity.
1 Recommendation
8th Jul, 2016
Michael Ben-Avie
Quinnipiac University
A student walked into the classroom and told the teacher he didn't do his homework. She responded by asking him if anything had happened at his home during the night. He told her that the power company had turned off the electricity. Instead of punishing him, she found time for him to do his homework during the school day. How did she know to ask him if something had happened in his home the night before? Why did she even ask him instead of punishing him immediately? The answer is that instead of viewing his first statement through the "order and discipline" lens, she viewed the statement through a "child development mindset" or lens. To learn more about how to apply a child development mindset in schools, I encourage you to learn about the work of James Comer and colleagues at the Yale School Development Program--
2 Recommendations
8th Jul, 2016
Ade Olaiya
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
In A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, edited by Fry, Ketteridge & Marshall, pages 126 to 127 highlight the importance of informal feedback from students particularly as the lecturer has control of questions asked in the learning context.  Engaging students in teaching and learning is a process (...) strongly influenced by interpersonal relationships between students and staff, (McFadden and Munns,2002:362).
1 Recommendation
11th Jul, 2016
Krishnan Umachandran
Every student is different 
Teachers need to first understand that low scores don't necessarily mean lack of ability and that behavioral problems don't necessarily indicate low scores. 
4 Recommendations
11th Jul, 2016
David H Rosen
Oregon Health and Science University
Be open and ask that students present and write papers about their own work. Being original in innovative ways peaks student attention. And it encourages them to risk being the same way. Creativity is always fresh and bold!  Here are two of my books : The Tao of Jung & The Tao of Elvis. My newest volume co-authored with Uyen Hoang is "Patient-Centered Medicine A Human Experience" Oxford University Press.
1 Recommendation
11th Jul, 2016
Ana Zavala
Centro Latinoamericano de Economía Humana
I would prefer teaching practices to teaching techniques. I think teaching is 'un métier de l'humain', as nursing is, so the interpersonal and affective sides of singular relatinships always matter to make sense to what happens between those who are in touch in educative situations. 
1 Recommendation
11th Jul, 2016
Cristiana Lucretia Pop
Bucharest Universityy of Economic Studies
Dear Jimayma,
I recommend you an article about some techniques applicable in education:
I am confident you'll find some useful ideas for your study!
Good luck!
12th Jul, 2016
Jack Vanderbilt
Los Angeles City College
Basic manners to begin with. Say please and thank you. Praise for the efforts of the students but be firm and strict. No heavy studies on that are necessary. 
1 Recommendation
14th Jul, 2016
Annie Smart
University of California, Berkeley
My own "teacher training" happened years ago but a basic technique has never failed me (so far!). I now teach undergrads and still use this for almost every project.  
For elementary school situations Dorothy Heathcote developed an intrapersonal technique she called The Mantle of the Expert. Essentially this means that the appointed teacher must hold status and create rules and boundaries as usual. Then within that safe space each student is allowed and encouraged to make their own choices, devise their own learning journeys, and teach both themselves and the teacher (and often the rest of the group) through their chosen process.
Once you pass that baton of responsibility over a student will nearly always respond with great responsibility towards themselves. (Working in pairs or small groups can encourage the less confident.) Once the student experiences this genuine "stepping out of the way" by the teacher then the relationship of the teacher to student finds itself on a more level field. Once the student experiences this desire for their own autonomy as a genuine gift from the teacher then the ensuing conversations and intrapersonal communications become more democratised, genuine and frank.
1 Recommendation
15th Jul, 2016
Samira Al Hosni
Indiana University Bloomington
Hello Jimayma,
Please check this article. It might be helpful.
2 Recommendations
19th Jul, 2016
Derek Pigrum
I have copied a paper by Michael Filimowicz and tanya Zankova on my theory of transitional practices. You will find the reference to dialogic drawing and talking helpful. There is more on this in my book Teaching Creativity: Transitional multi-mode practices 2009.
Discursivity and Creativity: Implementing Pigrum’s Multi-Mode Transitional Practices in Upper Division Creative Production Courses
Michael Filimowicz
Senior Lecturer, School of Interactive Arts and Technology, Simon Fraser University, 250 -13450 102 Avenue,
Surrey, BC, V3T 0A3, Canada
Veronika Tzankova
PhD Candidate, School of Communications, Simon Fraser University, #3520 - 515 West Hastings Street,
Vancouver, BC, V6B 5K3
Abstract: This paper discusses the practical implementation of Derek Pigrum’s multi-mode model of transitional practices (2009) within the context of upper division production courses in an interaction design curriculum. The notion of teaching creativity was practically and theoretically connected to a general notion of “discursivity.” The concept of "discursivity" was related to students’ overall ability to discuss, describe, and engage in a conversation about their creative work. We present a study of (1)the ways in which Pigrum’s (ibid) transitional modes can be translated into a variety of course activities, and (2) discuss challenges and outcomes of directly engaging student discursivity in their creative output.
Keywords: Teaching creativity, multi-mode transitional practices, discursivity, art and design education
1. Introduction
Teaching creativity is a challenging task. On numerous occasions, we have heard students majoring in Interactive Arts and Technology complain: "Everybody tells us to be creative, but nobody teaches us how to be creative." Instructional staff members at the School of Interactive Arts and Technology (SIAT) at Simon Fraser University (SFU) find themselves under increasing pressure to find more 'practical' parameters of teaching and encouraging creativity. To date, Derek Pigrum’s Teaching Creativity: Multi-mode Transitional Practices (2009) is the most consistent, book-length theorization on the philosophical and practical aspects of teaching creativity. The research presented here – conducted across two semesters and four courses – constitutes a systematic exploration of applying Pigrum’s model to assignments in upper division courses focusing on interactive narrative (IAT 313 Narrative and New Media), sound design (IAT 340 Sound Design), and new media & video production (IAT 344 Moving Images; IAT 443 Interactive Video). Extending on Pigrum's multi-modal model, we also implemented the notion of "discursivity" as an essential practical and theoretical foundation of creative practices. We define "discursivity" as students’ overall ability to discuss, describe, and engage in a conversation about their creative work as well as situate their creative practices within theoretical and conceptual frames.
2. Research Questions
In order to conceptualize the relationship between discursivity and creativity (as a creative and learning outcome), we formulated the following research questions at the beginning of our study:
􏰀  In what ways can discursivity be implemented into production courses and contribute to students' practice and critical understanding of their creative work?
􏰀  How translatable is Pigrum’s multi-mode model of transitional practices to the kinds of coursework SIAT students undertake in upper division creative production courses?
􏰀  Will the application of the pedagogic pattern of rich questions and dialogue, combined with discourse-engaging reading and writing activities improve the discursive and creative skills in upper division SIAT students?
􏰀  In particular, will such a pedagogic intervention result in improved abilities of students to create discourse around their work?
3. Methodology
The study was conducted across two semesters, structured as Phase 1 and Phase 2. To address the issues formulated in the research questions, we conducted student surveys for the two courses of investigation during Phase 1 - IAT 340 Sound Design and IAT 344 Moving Images. The surveys were conducted online, using SFU's web survey tool. In Phase 1 of our project, we noticed a tendency to use the web surveys as an opportunity to complain about work load, TA attitudes, and other issues which were not directly related to the objective of the surveys. Accounting for this problem, we decided to analyze the efficiency of the instructional methods in terms of practical results and students' active performance (meaning quality of students' productions) during the second phase of our report (Phase 2). In order to maintain research objectivity, we measured the quality of students' productions against the following criteria:
􏰀  Internal evaluation of learning processes (performed by Teaching Assistants)
􏰀  External evaluation of students' projects (a person outside SFU community, but within
the field of creative artistic practices was invited to express opinion about students' work)
􏰀  Evaluation of production qualities of students' projects between IAT 344 Moving Images
Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 iterations of the course
􏰀  Comparison of content and formal qualities of students' artistic statements between IAT
340 Sound Design in Fall 2012 and IAT 313 Narrative and New Media in Spring 2013 The above four criteria combined together address each of the research questions through a mix of different aspects and perspectives. In addition, these criteria interrelate in their ability to evaluate not only the teaching and learning objectives of the courses under investigation, but also the level at which these objectives were achieved by the students.
4. Outline of Pigrum's Multi-mode Teaching and Learning Transitional Practices
Building on the foundational work of Donald Winnicott, who elaborated the classical theories of the transitional object and experiences in earlier psycholanalytic and developmental discourses – most famously, the theory of the “security blanket” as the space of negotiation between self and other differentiations in the child, the imaginary object that forms a bridge between inner subjective space and external reality– Pigrum’s (2009) notion of “transitional practices” distinguishes between three foundational meta-modes of teaching and learning practices, which are then subdivided into lower-level patterns of interacting and overlapping practices. The three foundational meta-modes are: (1) Sign modes; (2) Operative modes; and (3) Place modes. These are briefly discussed in the following sections.
Figure 1. Pigrum's suggested multi-modes of teaching and learning. Note. Adapted from "Teaching Creativity: Multi-mode Transitional Practices", by D. Pigrum, 2009, London; New York: Continuum.
These three meta-modes are generally related to language and culture (the Sign mode), pragmatics (the Operative mode), and situatedness (the Place mode).
4.1 Sign Modes
This meta-mode treats different types of signs as representational spaces which embody multiple, complex, and imbricate significations. Pigrum identifies four sub-levels of this mode: non-finito sign use, "ready-to-hand" dispensable surface of inscription, the "multi-mode" object, and the "charged" object. The non-finito sign use includes practices such as: approaching ideas and definition with an open mind; modification of creative and progressive practices; leaving space for doing, undoing, and redoing; allowing for the inventive power of indeterminacy; and, implementing sketches as a draft of a thought. The "ready-to-hand" dispensable surface of inscription focuses on the pragmatic logistics of learning and advocates for: working on whatever happens to be there; allowing for things displayed by both "us" and "others"; and, a free play of or between absence and presence. The "multi-mode" object focuses on blurred modes of expression which transgress linguistic or visual representations. These may include: shifts between different modes of representation, such as writing, diagramming, and drawing; and, the inclusion of draft-like entities that involve the use of more than one sign mode. The "charged" object mode focuses on identifying the "charge" that objects have for us. These "charges" may serve like clues that can be followed, evolved, confronted, or conformed to.
4.2 Operative Modes
The operative modes of teaching and learning encapsulate practices which support a journey through the unknown and the transgression of limiting boundaries. The operative modes include: transferential mode, transformational mode, transpositional mode, and transgressional mode. The transferential mode is used in the recording of artifacts of particular interest that can be carried over to present creative activity. The recording can be a copy, note, or records (referential drawings) which serve as a stock of accumulated memories. The transformational mode emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning practices through the conversion of
one form into another. Activities may include: separating and combining forms, displacing activities, and learning through getting lost. The transpositional mode focuses on the importance of the process of learning on formation of ideas. In this mode, there is no time for reifying operations, where all essential information is highly condensed or contracted and thus constructs a higher order of integration, condensation, and displacement. The transgressional mode is the mode of undoing based on things that are not permanently anything. This mode signifies the transgression of the figurative in the direction of the figural.
4.3 Place Modes
The modes of place focus on the things that can be learned from the idiosyncratic structure and transparency of the places that surround us. The place modes include: the ontopology of the workplace, the place of the page, the place of the story, and the mode of the virtual space. The ontopology of the workplace connects the value of being to its situation – to the stable and presentable determination of a locality and the topos of a territory (Derrida via Pigrum, 2009). This mode implies a focus on situations where there are complex patterns to be perceived and where recognition of these patterns enforces certain moves and procedures for solution. The place of the page mode juxtaposes different learning outcomes from various note- taking practices – typing versus handwriting, for example. The place of the story mode discusses how practices are always communicated through stories and the importance of keeping a record of creative and research endeavors as a form of storytelling. The mode of virtual space engages with the shift in sensory and interactive modalities of encountering in virtual environments. Pigrum argues that virtual spaces impose and result in sadness and isolation. Here, we want to mention that there is substantial room for revision in Pigrum’s theoretical framing of virtual space. The online sociality of “digital natives” is not explored or understood in a contemporary learning scene. What is of importance is to support online student communities with in-person (in real space) meetings to nurture communication within groups and teams.
5. Mapping Pigrum’s Modes to Coursework
The teaching and learning methods implemented in the courses included in this study were aimed at enforcing discursive practices that supported students' creativity in their coursework. We introduced new teaching and learning strategies to the courses which were derived from Pigrum's multi-mode transitional practices of teaching creativity. These teaching strategies are discussed throughout sections 5.1 -5.3 of this paper.
5.1 IAT 313 Narrative and New Media
IAT 313 Narrative and New Media is an upper division course which aims at exploring narrative strategies in multimedia environments.
Critical/Creative Reading
Students were assigned five “dense” essays and were expected to “steal” and apply ideas (hypothetically, as a creative brainstorming exercise), toward revising their first narrative project. Ten essays were posted online and students were asked to choose five of these as fertile territory in which to creatively steal ideas (rather than regard them as texts that they would have to write research papers about). This activity corresponds to Pigrum's non-finito sign use, transformational mode, transgressional mode, and place of story teaching and learning practices.
Students were asked to transform a linear narrative (short story, video or comic) into a non-linear narrative – in our case, a video game. Students were also assigned two major (dense, high page count) readings on the relationship between game play and storytelling, and asked to produce visual materials that prototype what their short narrative might look like as a video game. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's non-finito sign use, multi-mode object, transformational mode, transgressional mode, and place of story teaching and learning practices.
Draft Narrative
Students were expected to submit a draft of their first major narrative project (linear narrative) and receive feedback from the instructor, teaching assistants and their peers. This activity was not graded on results, but on effort (on time submission, completeness). Students were then asked to revise the story based on the feedback they receive. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's transgressional mode of teaching and learning practices.
5.2 IAT 344 Moving Images
IAT 344 Moving Images is a production course which provides the fundamentals of digital video production including: visual theory, composition, lighting, sound, editing, and continuity among others.
Peer feedback groups
Peer feedback groups are formed by four or five students with the aim of organizing online peer evaluation micro-communities. The objective of these micro-communities is the assessment and provision of mutual feedback on each peer-student’s work. Prior to forming the groups, students were provided with materials to direct them toward giving meaningful, constructive, and usable feedback. Students were required to submit proof of giving feedback to their peers. The proof consisted of screenshots of the feedback that has been sent to fellow peers. Such feedback organization corresponds to Pigrum's place of the page and teaching and learning practices.
A large variety of web-based sources that expand on lecture content
These were sources available via the online platform for the course –WebCT. The main purpose of the materials was to further elaborate and expand on weekly lecture content in terms of both (1) practical skills, and (2) theoretical knowledge/ conceptualization. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's multi-mode object, place of story, and mode of virtual space teaching and learning practices.
Mandatory credit film journals
In Phase 1 of our project, this assignment was optional (extra credit). In Phase 2, students were asked to read writings and interviews with four major filmmakers - Cronenberg, Scorsese, Fellini, and Renoir. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's multi-mode object, place of story, and mode of virtual space teaching and learning practices.
Semi-weekly intensive feedback sessions on staged deliverables (6 in total)
Blended mode instruction was utilized, off-loading much lecture content to WebCT (SFU’s course management system) to free up space for individual, one-on-one (team, instructor, and teaching assistant) feedback sessions on deliverables throughout the semester, typically lasting for 30 minutes each. Discursivity employed here refers not only to writing and reading, but also to a dialogic back-and-forth core, in which students articulate and justify their creative decisions. The meetings were set up via and aimed at reviewing the weekly or biweekly assignment deliverables. This feedback organization corresponds to Pigrum's non- finito sign use, and multi-mode object, transformational mode teaching and learning practices.
Film blog
Mirroring professional practice, students were required to create film blogs documenting their process of making throughout the term, combined with such elements as documenting photography, artist statements, adventures in the field, technology used, research in film precedents, and aesthetic ideas. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's non-finito sign use, multi- mode object, transformational mode, ontopology of the workplace, place of story, and mode of virtual space teaching and learning practices.
Rehearsal Footage & Draft Version of Individual Video
Students intentionally produce “throw-away” footage. They shoot their entire team video seriously but without their actors, using just themselves. They act, light, edit, and shoot their video as a rough draft so that feedback can be given on their overall skills before they engage with their final video version. In addition, for their individual video, they submit a draft for feedback and revision. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's transgressional mode of undoing. 5.3 IAT 443 Interactive Video
This upper-division production course explores interactivity through the medium of moving images and video. To support creative learning, we included the following discourse- based elements:
Social issue documentary
The first project was reformatted to be an online interactive (web-based) documentary on any social issue of students’ choice. This format of the assignment situates the project in a general social discursive field. In the past, student projects varied significantly in terms of concept and execution. This change located everyone’s project in the same general conceptual field of societal issues. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's and mode of virtual space practice.
Documentary and interactive documentary theory
The focus of this project allowed for in-depth readings in key documentary and interactive documentary theory (critical reading). These readings develop key modalities (typologies) and students were asked to state which ideas in the texts were closest to their own strategies and intent. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's multi-mode object, transformational mode, and mode of virtual space teaching and learning practices.
Presentations on documentary and social issue concept
Student teams had to present their documentary and conceptual framework to the class for critique, and a Q&A session. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's non-finito sign use teaching and learning practice.
Faux kickstarter page
Mirroring contemporary professional practices of independent production with respect to potential funding (crowd funding), students had to develop a faux Kickstarter page (articulating and pitching their project as a potential kickstarter project). This activity corresponds to Pigrum's ontopology of the workplace, and mode of virtual space teaching and learning practices.
Public art calls
For project 2, which has always been an interactive audiovisual installation (spatial interaction), students were given a multitude of actual public art calls for site-specific installations (from professional sources), and required to articulate their project as a response to an actual site, and a prototype of a project that could work in the specified real space, according to the stated requirements of the call. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's transferential mode, transformational mode, and ontopology of workplace teaching and learning practices.
Installation presentations
Presentations of final projects have always been required; however, the newly-introduced public art situatedness added a professional aspect and a major discursive element (responding to a real site with limitations, scope, aims etc.). This activity corresponds to Pigrum's non-finito sign use, and ontopology of workplace teaching and learning practices.
Project a video image on an object
Students are asked to bring in footage to project video onto physical objects which alter the meaning of the footage. This activity corresponds to Pigrum's "ready-to- hand" dispensable surface of inscriptions, transpositional mode, and mode of virtual space teaching and learning practices.
6. Results
6.1 Internal Evaluation
The teaching assistant for IAT 443 Moving images expressed a positive attitude toward the learning results induced by the instructional changes introduced to the course. It is important to be emphasized that the teaching assistant for the course has also previously taken the course as a student. Based on her experiences both as a teaching assistant and a previous student, the internal evaluator stressed the positive changes in students' performance that the new instructional methods have resulted in.
6.2 External Evaluation
The external evaluation is important as it indicates the level at which SIAT students' active performance is compatible outside academic environments. The external evaluation conducted for IAT 344 Moving Images expressed a very positive opinion in regard to students' production.
6.3 Evaluation of Production Qualities of Students' Final Team Videos for IAT 344 Spring 2013 and IAT 344 Fall 2012
We received 15 final video projects for IAT 344 Spring 2013 and 13 for IAT 344 Fall 2012. To compare the production qualities, we used the following evaluation table:
CONCEPTUAL (concept, narrative structure & elements)
TECHNICAL (production values, efforts and techniques)
CREATIVE (originality and innovative ideas)
After assigning to each video a value out of 10, we calculated an average for each iteration of the course. The average for the final team videos for IAT 344 Spring 2013 was 8.46/10, while the average for IAT 344 Fall 2012 was 7.93/10. The increase in the average from 7.93 to 8.46/10 corresponds to increased quality of students' active performance. We partially assign the increased quality of student production to (1) the introduction of mandatory film journals (Spring 2013) as opposed to optional (Fall 2012), and (2) increased and refined volume of engagement with discursive practices (reading, writing, and audio-visual materials).
6.4 Comparison of Themes in Students' Artistic Statements between IAT 313 Narrative and New Media in Spring 2013 and IAT 340 Sound Design in Fall 2012
The incentive for students enrolled in IAT 313 Spring 2013 to write an artist statement on their final project was 1 pt. of extra credit. Therefore, a minority of students completed this exercise. We collected 22 artist statements out of 72 students enrolled – a correspondence of 30.5% of the total class enrolment.
For IAT 340 Fall 2012 the artist statements were mandatory.
We conducted thematic analysis of all artistic statements. Thematic analysis refers to "the process of analyzing data according to commonalities, relationships and differences across a data set. The word ‘thematic’ relates to the aim of searching for aggregated themes within data." (Gibson & Brown, 2009, para. 1)
We identified the following repetitive themes: 􏰀 Emotions associated with production 􏰀 Self-reflexivity
􏰀  Creative styles of verbal expression
􏰀  Awareness of personal perspectives, approaches, preferences, aesthetics
What we indicated as a difference between artistic statements obtained from IAT 313 and IAT 340 is the elevated level of self-reflexivity and analytical depth reached by IAT 313 students. Where the majority of artistic statements from IAT 340 incorporate description as a means of conveying artistic experience, artistic statements from IAT 313 are distinguished by rigorous writing, and an almost deconstructional approach to personal artistic practice. We also
noticed that some students from IAT 313 tried to implement strategies from the course' materials into the graphic design of their artistic statements and thus non-verbally communicate their artistic nature within an otherwise verbal assignment. Again, we partially assign this progress in artistic practices, thinking, and expression to the increased and refined volume of engagement with discursive practices (reading, writing, and audio-visual materials) during the second phase of this teaching and learning project.
7. Conclusions
Pigrum’s multi-mode transitional practices of teaching creativity (2009) are highly adaptable to a variety of learning situations. With a generalizable field of twelve conceptual themes and practical parameters to explore, it is not difficult to find potential mappings and modifications to assignments that enrich the creative output of students in upper division production courses. This application of theory to pedagogy resulted in a higher number of portfolio quality student work produced in the courses under investigation when compared to previous iterations of the same courses. Thematic analysis of students’ writing further revealed improvements in overall verbal and written articulation of their work, herein defined as discursivity, or the ability to create and sustain discourse around their creative output.
Gibson, W. J., & Brown, A. (2009). 8 Identifying themes, codes and hypotheses. In Working with qualitative data (pp. 127–145). Los Angeles, [Calif.]; London: SAGE. Retrieved from
Pigrum, D. (2009). Teaching creativity multi-mode transitional practices. London; New York: Continuum.
2 Recommendations
20th Jul, 2016
Krishnan Umachandran
Right from the MISSION STATEMENT the motto should be to  “Make a Difference”. where the School staff members are dedicated to make a positive difference in the lives of each student and in the community. The standards for academics, behavior, and safety are embedded to the routines.
19th Aug, 2016
Kevin Larkin
My sense from teaching both primary students and then pre-service teachers who will one day be primary school teachers is that the key to developing relationships with students is a) know your discipline well (as they want to learn) and b) know them as learners well (as they want to know that they are valued). This is obviously difficult with large cohorts - but just because it is difficult does not mean that it is impossible. 
1 Recommendation
28th Oct, 2016
Neil A. Knobloch
Purdue University
There are several ways you could look at the quality of relationship among teachers and students. Teacher immediacy is one way you might consider studying this phenomenon. Here are some links to help you start your search. (1); (2); and, (3)
Best, Neil
3 Recommendations
29th Oct, 2016
Krishnan Umachandran
Quality education depends on students and teachers -the ability of teachers to teach and interest of student's to learn
2 Recommendations

Similar questions and discussions

Warning in Lavaan, variance-covariance not positive definite!, model is not identified?
5 answers
  • Mugaahed Abdu Kaid SalehMugaahed Abdu Kaid Saleh
Dear colleagues,
I am new to R, I have been using Amos for conducting CFA but came to learn that when dealing with Likert scale, Lavaan in R is a better tool to do such analysis.
I started using lavaan to conduct CFA and report its fit indices.
I have four factors after conducting EFA, 4 to 5 items under each factor.
I did the following:
cfamodel <- "
communication =~ Com1+Com2+Com3+Com4+Com5
networking=~ Net1+Net2+Net3+Net4+Net5
problemsolving =~ ProblemS1+ProblemS2+ProblemS3+ProblemS4
tech =~ Tech1+Tech2+Tech3+Tech4+Tech5"
fit <- cfa(cfamodel, data = rdata, ordered = c("Com1", "Com2", "Com3", "Com4", "Com5", "Net1", "Net2", "Net3", "Net4", "Net5", "ProblemS1", "ProblemS2" ,"ProblemS3" , "ProblemS4", "Tech1", "Tech2", "Tech3" ,"Tech4", "Tech5"))
However, I get this warning:
Warning message:
In lav_model_vcov(lavmodel = lavmodel, lavsamplestats = lavsamplestats, :
lavaan WARNING:
The variance-covariance matrix of the estimated parameters (vcov)
does not appear to be positive definite! The smallest eigenvalue
(= -2.260671e-18) is smaller than zero. This may be a symptom that
the model is not identified.
I tried finding similar issues online for potential answers, but I failed to find so.
I found one place in the internet talking about the same warning as for second order models, my model is not a second order model. in fact is only CFA after EFA, as I don't have dependent variables to go for SEM structure model.
I would like to know if this warning means I can not continue?
if there is a similar thread that I could not find, kindly share it here.
The other doubt I have is; can I draw a neat CFA model through lavaan (attached the output of my try)?
Thank you very much in advance.

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