Question
Asked 30th May, 2014

What might be causing lack of motivation of employees at the workplace?

Nowadays a culture has been developed, particularly in public sector employees, who are not willing to work. They seem to be demotivated, we must find out the reasons.

Most recent answer

24th Sep, 2017
Zahid Iqbal
University of Gujrat
As per my observations, we should differentiate between core responsibilities and extra responsibilities (voluntarily). If someone is not fulfilling his core responsibilities (for what he is being paid), there is a factor of his nature of irresponsibility or laziness although motivation factor also plays a significant role and one very important factor is what organization reward against his nature of job because it is observed that people are not rewarded/payed as per their nature of job. People feel stress and unwillingly perform their duties.

Popular answers (1)

9th Jul, 2014
Behrouz Ahmadi-Nedushan
Yazd University
Lack of motivation can be caused by any of following 6 factors:
1. Job insecurity
Following on from the above point, a lack of career vision can give rise to feelings of insecurity. All employees want to feel a sense of security and longevity in their roles and an employer must help facilitate this with regular coaching and objective setting.
2. Feeling under-valued
If an employee feels that their efforts are not being recognized or appreciated, they’ll soon begin to lack energy and commitment in their role. It’s important to celebrate successes and give credit where credit’s due. Try to make sure that achievements are rewarded – even if it’s just with a pat on the back.
3. No development opportunities
4. Poor leadership
Effective leadership is an essential factor in the motivation of your staff. If strong leadership is lacking or is negatively affecting the outlook of the team – certain employees may start to feel demoralized. 
5. Conflict
Conflict in the workplace is hugely detrimental. Healthy debate is often productive, but it’s important to keep an eye out for any workplace intimidation or bullying. Some employees may feel worried to come forward about issues relating to a fellow colleague - which is where an anonymous employee survey may help to reveal any problem areas.
6. Unrealistic workload
It’s important to keep a check on the expectations and demands that are being placed upon your employees. If someone feels overburdened by a large, impossible workload – they can soon become disillusioned, stressed and lose motivation. Equally, if an employee has a workload that’s too light or not varied enough, they might quickly lose interest.
There are good number of articles on the subject. I have attached inks to 2 articles.
8 Recommendations

All Answers (6)

9th Jul, 2014
Asmat Ali
Survey of Pakistan
@SALEEM RAZA BHATTI, good intro. The reasons, causing lack of motivation of employees at the workplace can be many. However, some of the reasons can be:
-Ineligible team leader
-Money matters, so lack of good salary package
-Domestic problems of employees also contribute to lack of motivation. For example, if someone is mentally upset due to family problems, then s/he would never contribute effectively
-Lack of skills and training to perform a certain task
-Communication gap between boss and a worker
-Lack of appreciation from upper slot
5 Recommendations
9th Jul, 2014
Behrouz Ahmadi-Nedushan
Yazd University
Lack of motivation can be caused by any of following 6 factors:
1. Job insecurity
Following on from the above point, a lack of career vision can give rise to feelings of insecurity. All employees want to feel a sense of security and longevity in their roles and an employer must help facilitate this with regular coaching and objective setting.
2. Feeling under-valued
If an employee feels that their efforts are not being recognized or appreciated, they’ll soon begin to lack energy and commitment in their role. It’s important to celebrate successes and give credit where credit’s due. Try to make sure that achievements are rewarded – even if it’s just with a pat on the back.
3. No development opportunities
4. Poor leadership
Effective leadership is an essential factor in the motivation of your staff. If strong leadership is lacking or is negatively affecting the outlook of the team – certain employees may start to feel demoralized. 
5. Conflict
Conflict in the workplace is hugely detrimental. Healthy debate is often productive, but it’s important to keep an eye out for any workplace intimidation or bullying. Some employees may feel worried to come forward about issues relating to a fellow colleague - which is where an anonymous employee survey may help to reveal any problem areas.
6. Unrealistic workload
It’s important to keep a check on the expectations and demands that are being placed upon your employees. If someone feels overburdened by a large, impossible workload – they can soon become disillusioned, stressed and lose motivation. Equally, if an employee has a workload that’s too light or not varied enough, they might quickly lose interest.
There are good number of articles on the subject. I have attached inks to 2 articles.
8 Recommendations
11th Jul, 2014
SALEEM RAZA BHATTI
Istanbul Technical University
I am agree with your comments  all of you thank you very much.  
1 Recommendation
10th Nov, 2014
Valerie Myers
University of Michigan
Perverse incentives may also explain a lack of motivation (See Kerr's classic article on the Folly of Rewarding A and hoping for B). If employees know that there is no consequence for underperformance (e.g., job loss), yet longevity and political behavior are rewarded with promotion, regardless of competence, then they will be motivated to do what is rewarded. They will do only what enables them to stay and attain their desired reward. This has a demoralizing effect on staff who learn from example, that "time" rather than good work results in advancement.  In such a culture, even people who are intrinsically motivated may ask: Why exert additional effort?
1 Recommendation
11th Nov, 2014
SALEEM RAZA BHATTI
Istanbul Technical University
I think organizational culture also has an impact on employees motivation and de motivation and play a vital role.   
24th Sep, 2017
Zahid Iqbal
University of Gujrat
As per my observations, we should differentiate between core responsibilities and extra responsibilities (voluntarily). If someone is not fulfilling his core responsibilities (for what he is being paid), there is a factor of his nature of irresponsibility or laziness although motivation factor also plays a significant role and one very important factor is what organization reward against his nature of job because it is observed that people are not rewarded/payed as per their nature of job. People feel stress and unwillingly perform their duties.

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Mplus 2-1-1 multilevel mediation model with Level 1 moderator of 'b' path | code and ?
Question
Be the first to answer
  • Justin WiegandJustin Wiegand
I'm working with a 2-1-1 mediation model (each number refers to the level of analysis) with a level 1 moderator of the 'b' path (i.e., between mediator and dependent variable). Mplus code is provided below.
The following link to a diagram (from Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes 2007) demonstrates what I'm after, but in a single-level context. In my case, X is at level 2, and all other variables are at level 1.
I would appreciate input on the following:
1) Based on the given diagram, whether I should add certain WITH statements (corresponding to the curved arrows).
2) Whether the estimation of Level 1 and Level 2 (residual) variances is proper as specified.
3) Whether the decision to not group mean center variables (working from Lüdtke et al. 2008) is correct/advisable. (I still used group means for the Level 2 x variable; see DEFINE statement.)
Mplus code:
USEVARIABLES = GROUP X M W Y XGRPMN MW;
Missing are . ;
BETWEEN IS XGRPMN;
CLUSTER IS GROUP;
DEFINE:
XGRPMN = CLUSTER_MEAN (X);
MW = M*W;
ANALYSIS: TYPE IS TWO-LEVEL RANDOM;
MODEL:
%WITHIN%
M W MW Y; ! estimate L1 (residual) variances for m, w, m*w, y
Y ON M(b1); ! regress L1 y on L1 med, slope "b1"
Y ON W(b2); ! regress L1 y on L1 path 'b' mod, slope "b2"
Y ON MW(b3); ! regress L1 y on (L1 med*L1 path 'b' mod), slope "b3"
%BETWEEN%
XGRPMN M W MW Y; ! estimate L2 (residual) variances for x, m, w, m*w, y
M ON XGRPMN(a1); ! regress L1 med on L2 x, slope "a"
Y ON M; ! regress L1 y on L1 med
Y ON XGRPMN(cdash); ! regress L1 y on L2 x, slope "cdash"
MODEL CONSTRAINT:
NEW(LOW_MOD MED_MOD HIG_MOD
I_LOWMOD I_MEDMOD I_HIGMOD
IMM); ! Name indirect effects and Index of MM
LOW_MOD = 3.8755; ! example -1 SD of moderator
MED_MOD = 4.8596; ! example mean of moderator
HIG_MOD = 5.8437; ! example +1 SD of moderator
! Calc conditional indirect effects and IMM
I_LOWMOD = a1*(b1+b3*LOW_MOD); ! indirect effect cond on low value of mod
I_MEDMOD = a1*(b1+b3*MED_MOD); ! indirect effect cond on medium value of mod
I_HIGMOD = a1*(b1+b3*HIG_MOD); ! indirect effect cond on high value of mod
IMM = a1*b3; ! Index of moderated mediation

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