What is the average pressure in water distribution system and how to manage the unexpected pressure rise during operation?
The acceptable industry standards for water pressure is 140 kPa - 560 kPa. Domestic appliances operate under the intermediate pressure magnitudes. Topographic features and the increase of customer density cause deviations in water pressure throughout the supply system. In some cases, some water supply networks provide water in exaggerated high pressure to reach some customers in high altitude. This higher pressure accelerates the volume of water running out through unobserved leakages in supply system which results on microbursts of water pressure that may cause large scale failure and demands higher maintenance cost for water supply providers.
Dear researchers, what is your recommended solution to prevent these unnecessary pressure rise against transient scenarios?
In our country, the water company fixes the pressure at around 3 bars, ie the equivalent of 30 meters of the water column. The water, therefore, reaches a user who is 30 meters above the ground.
The installation of a pressure reducer makes it possible to regulate the untimely increase in pressure in the network. The pressure reducer, as its name suggests, reduces the pressure of the water in the public network when the latter becomes important.
Indeed, an overpressure can make the pipes noisy. You have certainly heard "water hammer" in a pipe. These noises come from the overpressure of the pipes which can then be damaged as well as certain hot water production devices.
You have two types of water pressure reducer:
1. preset at 3.5 bar;
2. adjustable, with or without pressure gauge: you can adjust the pressure yourself.
Water network pressure is mostly dictated by the expected performance of the network in terms of supply continuity, and available pressure at consumers taps; (and water quality where required).
This might be dictated by water supply legislation.
condition of network assets such as corrosion / C value of the pipes
operational practice, e.g, closing and opening valves within the network *
Those factors above with an asterisk, *, are common causes of water hammer. Water hammer is generated by transient pressure waves travelling rapidly, back and forth, through the pipes in the network.
The objective of water network management, is to supply all connected customers, continually, whilst optimising network pressure for minimal leakage and burst pipes.
Flow meters, pressure transducers, AI systems and network modelling tools can be used to measure, understand, and optimise network performance.
The major assets used to manage network performance include: network storage facilities (service reservoirs), pressure reducing / sustaining valves, air release valves, pumps, and inter-network connections.
Pressure transients are controlled by ensuring there are no sudden / rapid changes in flow.
A lot of information, and case studies, are available on the internet.
The discussion focuses on the analysis of comprehensive national water balances: underground and surface water "Blue Water", soil water reserves "Green water", and the net "Virtual Water" flux related to foodstuffs imports/exports; in order to conciliate in a sustainable way water resource supply with the whole demand, including food demand.
To help gather more support for these initiatives, please consider sharing this post further (you don’t need a ResearchGate account to see it), and I will continue to update it with other initiatives as I find them. You can also click “Recommend” below to help others in your ResearchGate network see it. And if you know of any other community initiatives that we can share here please let us know via this form: https://forms.gle/e37EHouWXFLyhYE8A
-Ijad Madisch, CEO & Co-Founder of ResearchGate
This list outlines country-level initiatives from various academic institutions and research organizations, with a focus on programs and sponsorship for Ukrainian researchers:
The above of our two research articles are two of our important efforts on how to conserve the soil and use it for the enhancement of reforestation to mitigate climate change impacts such as Urban Heat Island, loss of endemic species, scarcity of water and greenhouse gas emissions which are the leading concerns in urban built environment. Our articles have addressed a way to achieve the sustainable development goals such as SDG6, SDG12 and SDG 13.
Soil resources are most critical prerequisites those need to be conserved, utilized and given back to the earth to enhance the sustainable existence of living organisms. Current technological trends are mostly focusing on mining the soil resources and fulfilling the human needs using anthropogenic activities. This trend needs to revisit, addressed the research gaps and more interests need to be shown by researchers and stakeholders to enhance the optimum usage of soil resources with minimal harmful effects to nature.
I request the researchers to provide your opinions in this regard. Thank you.
This paper presents the analysis and assessment of water losses in water distribution systems of three water supply companies operating water supply networks in the area of effect of underground mining. The analysis of water losses was conducted based on numerous indices allowing for obtaining objective information on the condition of the water sup...
: Water losses occurring in water distribution systems (WDSs) are now considered as a serious problem, necessitating a robust and effective management strategy. Non-revenue water (NRW) data indicate that most cities in Gaza Strip, Palestine experience high NRW. In 2015, the average percentage of NRW in Gaza Strip was 39%. This figure resulted in ma...
All of the possible strategies to reduce water losses in piped distribution systems follow the law of diminishing returns: the higher the expenditure on water loss reduction, the lower the progressive return in terms of water saved. Therefore, water utilities need to estimate the economic level of water losses (ELWL) so that they can reduce their w...