Question
Asked 27th Aug, 2014
  • Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute

What Indicators should be used to measure leadership effectiveness in organizations?

Leadership is one of the essential conditions for organizational success. But research has found that sometimes organizations excel even without top rate leadership if they have  grand culture that sustains a high level of people engagement. For knowing what matters in the organizational success, therefore, it is important to know how far leadership has contributed. That necessitates measuring its effectiveness. What indicators you think can be said to be appropriate in measuring the effectiveness of leadership?  

Most recent answer

16th Aug, 2021
Muhammad Arif
Institute of Business Management
As the clarity of an image depends upon, how clearer the mirror is. Similarly to my understanding the effectiveness of Leadership should be measured where it actually gets unfolded and that is , " In the behaviors of the personnel/employees of an organizations" The behavior of the employees and their approach towards their respective jobs i.e the quality of their task performance as well as their contextual performance especially in a multi cultural diverse setup is the ultimate reflection of the effectiveness of the leadership under which they are performing. Above in view, displayed performance of following behaviors of the employees of an organization would provide enough window into the effectiveness of the leadership under which they are performing:
1. Job satisfaction of the employees.
2. Employee's level of commitment.
3. Employee's loyalty towards organization.
4. Empowerment as experienced by the Employees.
5. Initiative/Risk taking ability of the employees.
6. Work life balance as experienced by the employees.
7. Quality of Task performance by the employees.
8. Turn out level of employees under down times of the organization.
9. Distance from the power center as experienced by the employees.
10. The average length of service put in by the employees.
The measurement tools for the above factors can be devised accordingly, however, for the intangible indicators such as levels of satisfaction or commitment, a fiver anchor Likert scale may be used.
1 Recommendation

Popular Answers (1)

31st Aug, 2014
Dr. GOPINATH. R.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.
Thanks to Prof. Debi S. Saini for It’s really an interesting question and very Interesting respondents answers. It is very useful to me for got a new idea please.
31 Recommendations

All Answers (130)

27th Aug, 2014
Nageswara Rao Posinasetti
University of Northern Iowa
Dear Debi
I am not an expert, but a quick reading gave one of the conclusions in a paper as:
“Specifically, we discovered that highly effective virtual team leaders act in a mentoring role and exhibit a high degree of understanding (empathy) toward other team members. At the same time, effective leaders are also able to assert their authority without being perceived as overbearing or inflexible. Finally, effective leaders are found to be extremely effective at providing regular, detailed, and prompt communication with their peers and in articulating role relationships (responsibilities) among the virtual team members. This study provides useful insights for managers interested in developing global virtual teams, as well as for academics interested in pursuing virtual team research.”
Some references for you:
  1. Hogan, R., Curphy, G. J., & Hogan, J. (1994). What we know about leadership: Effectiveness and personality. American psychologist, 49(6), 493.
  2. Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(5), 388-399.
  3. Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 385-425.
  4. Kayworth, T. R., & Leidner, D. E. (2002). Leadership effectiveness in global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(3), 7-40.
16 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Nages. Your thread is very interesting. The study you cited deals with research on leadership in the context of developing global  virtual teams. The references you have cited are very useful too. Thanks so much. This observation shows the following indicators of leadership effectiveness for a leader who leads global virtual teams:
--Mentoring the  team members
--Empathy towards team members
--Assertion of authority without being overbearing or inflexible
--Communicating regularly with peers
--Articulating role relationships (responsibility)
8 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Reginald L. Bell
Prairie View A&M University
Assuming the like attracts like, I have a hunch that power of leaders makes a difference in the measure of leadership effectiveness in organizations.
I firmly believe that leaders who use coercive power for influence will not create organizations that are sustainable in their absence, i.e., the immediate decline of ITT after the departure of Harold Geneen.  On the other hand, expert power (attraction to leader based on leader's knowledge and skills) and referent power (attraction to leader based on the personality and charisma of the leader) will result in organizations that can prosper despite the leader's departure.
Apple seems to be doing well despite the departure of a great and founding leader Steve Jobs. Leadership power, therefore, is very powerful indicator of organizational effectiveness.
5 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Raveendran Iyengar
Xsentinel Risk and Claim Advisory Pvt Ltd
Measuring the effectiveness of leadership should always be done together with the context of the leadership. The context outlays the type of leadership that is more appropriate to that .
The measures are also very evolving and fluid. What was an effective leadership about a quarter century ago may not be so effective now.......
If I were to undertake such exercise , I would probably approach the exercise by first outlining the context, develop measures that are suitable for the context to provide effective leadership and then look at the alignment of such qualities
4 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Aaron Cohen
University of Haifa
The best way is to measure leadership styles (according to leadership  theory you accept) and than to relate it empirically to common work outcomes such as OCB, in-role performance, turnover etc.
4 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Donald Ibama Hamilton
Rivers State University
Your question has brought to fore the critical distinction between LEADERSHIP and MANAGEMENT . An organisation can survive for a long time with good management and poor leadership if environmental demands on it does not require RAPID CHANGE .  POOR LEADERSHIP will show up as soon as CHANGE becomes CRITICAL
18 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Donald Ibama Hamilton
Rivers State University
THE BEST INDICATOR OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS IS THE MEASURE OF HOW CHANGE AFFECTS THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ORGANISATION
4 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Donald, If change is brought about by an highly authoritarian leader through fear and repression in a situation of high power distance and  unemployment in the labour market, will you consider such a person a leader? Of course, it is certain that leadership always connotes, among others, the ability to effect change. That is always inherent in the duties and responsibilities of a leader. 
4 Recommendations
28th Aug, 2014
Gargi Sawhney
Auburn University
Debi, Bass (1985) describes a full-range leadership model, which describe leadership as consisting of three types of leader behaviors: tranformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. Some of the leader behaviors mentioned in this thread, such as mentoring, communication, empathy, etc. are all encompassed in transformational leader behaviors. Transactional leader behaviors primarily focus on the exchanges between the leaders and the followers. Laissez-faire is describes a leadership style that abdicates responsibility. 
I personally find the full-range leadership model to be fairly comprehensive when it comes to assessing both effective and ineffective leader behaviors. There is a plethora of research on transformational and transactional leadership styles, and a little less on laissez-faire. A Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire is available that assesses all the above-mentioned leader behaviors. Hope this information is helpful. 
4 Recommendations
29th Aug, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Thanks Gargi. Your thread is  useful. I agree, the points listed by dear Nages form part of transformational leadership. But we can not say that transformational leadership is an indicator of measuring the leadership behavior. For, that is a concept, and not an indicator. Indicators exist in their own right, with or without being linked to any concepts or theory. But surely, your thread is extremely helpful in a fuller understanding of the issues and the leadership questionnaire. .
2 Recommendations
29th Aug, 2014
Justin Mgbechi Odinioha Gabriel
Rivers State University of Science and Technology
In my view, measuring the effectiveness of leadership Can be done through the quality of following the leader enjoys. This following Can be ascertained by the commitment, enthusiasm, obédience and vigor with which the followers are willing to attach to the vision and mission projected by the leader.
6 Recommendations
29th Aug, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Justin, indeed, the indicators you suggest are interesting, and truly reflect the position of leader in the esteem of the followers. I was wondering if you would like to add 'results' as well to your list of indicators or is focus on results implied  while the followers demonstrate commitment and engagement?
7 Recommendations
29th Aug, 2014
Justin Mgbechi Odinioha Gabriel
Rivers State University of Science and Technology
Dear Debi, Thanks alot , just hope i meet what you expect from me : by my ealier post, i  meant that leadership effectiveness can be measured by indices such as the rate at which his subordinates meet and deliver targets, the rate at which subordinates put in organisational citizenship behaviour as against counter productive work behaviours, the rate at which subordinates are willing to remain with the leader even in the face of tough times, the rate at which satisfaction is provided for whatever audience the organisation serves can all be seen as incators of leadership effectiveness. just ponder why football team owners are always quick to sanction or sack coaches on the event of team's poor outing; to me, that means that the leader has everything to do with whatever condition the organisation finds itself.  
5 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Krishnan Umachandran
NELCAST
Normally Leadership indicators are drawn on People ans Work Orientations. How much are they Enabling and Determining the Outcomes with identifications of improvement areas which are inhibiting the progress or delaying the success outcomes.
7 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan
Vel Tech - Technical University
Some indicators in my view:
  • Delegation of work to team-managers and team-members
  • Target fulfillment & updating targets frequently
  • 720 degree performance appraisal system to monitor & nurture progress
  • Effective customer satisfaction & feedback (this will be used in 720o PA also).
  • Total quality management in the organization
  • Pro-activeness
  • Good role model for the employees
7 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Jorge Morales Pedraza
Morales Project Consulting
These are some indicators for measuring leadership organizational success that in my opinion could be useful to be considered:
1. Communication Effectiveness – Be sure that your employees understand, not just hear, your latest communication message 
2. Customer Relationships and Satisfaction – We are not talking only about customer satisfaction, but something more than that. Focusing on customer satisfaction alone could lead to unprofitable customers. Sure the customer is always right, but are they the right customer for you? 
3. Employee Satisfaction - Happier employees will lead to happier customers and a successful business.
4. Brand Image - This is about more than recognition, brand image is a leading indicator of success regarding how people feel about your organization. Use market research and survey your market to determine if your brand image is rising or falling.
5. Distraction- Everybody has a job within your organization, but how much time do they spend on what they were hired to do? Do you have a measure for administrative tasks, quality improvement, and other management assignments? An effective leader try to eliminate this waste. How much time is spent on those tasks management asked you to do, but are not part of your job description?
6. Trust-  If people do not believe in their management then they will erect barriers that will slow down the implementation of any management program or initiative and customers will stall and stop buying.
7. Customer Frustration –  Most companies do not measure this because every major corporation has a phone tree you must navigate to talk to them, and then you are put on hold, only to talk to the person that cannot help you. Frustrated customers will eventually abandon your organization in search of a more pleasant vendor experience
8. Supplier Relationships - Just like customer relationships, supplier relationships must be measured too. Suppliers provide inputs that are, in some way, passed on to your customers.
9. Project Management - Every organization has projects, either for clients or for internal customers. The better your organization is as delivering on project objectives, the more effective and efficient it will be.
10. Employee Competence - This is more than just training hours, it is about actually learning something useful to your job. To do this right is difficult. Effective leaders might develop a competency matrix defining the required skills versus the required skill level. Then measure everyone’s current skill as a percentage. The gaps indicate the training required to move the organization toward higher competence.
Producing a balanced set of leading and lagging indicators for a company is critical to measuring organizational success. Leading indicators represent metrics that forecast a high probability of future success. Balance those with your lagging indicators, which measure how well you are performing today. A balanced combinations of both leading and lagging metrics will produce the greatest chance of success.
8 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Sundar, Thanks for your thread, which has many useful indicators that help measure the effectiveness of leadership in an organization. It is my considered opinion that being proactive rather than reactive, and being a role model for the followers are especially important, besides others. For, we are in the era  of transformational leadership; and inspiring the followers, and developing a charismatic persona so as to enthuse the followers are seen as very critical as parts of this approach towards leadership. And, the two indicators that you have suggested particularly  help in measuring these dimension. 
8 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan
Vel Tech - Technical University
Dear Debi - Kindly note the first point of Jorge - namely 'Communication Effectiveness' and this is a very vital point. If my list & Jorge's list are superimposed, one gets a great list of indicators. Of course, indicators given by others are also added as appropriate, and a final list may be drawn. 'Communication Effectiveness' is important because in a board meeting, everyone will look at the leader only and listen to him / her to see how the company is doing. Also, minutes need to be drafted well also. Some leaders write such a good agenda that based on the points & supporting documents, board can make a quick & correct decision. If a leader & the company are doing well, it will reflect in the discussion of the board meeting and things will go very smoothly. Team work is important for good performance and turnout of a company & this has been highlighted already in many of the ongoing threads.
With best wishes, Sundar
6 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Ljubomir Jacić
Technical College Požarevac
Dear @Debi, very good responses to your fine thread. Gary Yukl have written a fine book Leadership In Organizations! "Most researchers evaluate leadership effectiveness in terms of the consequences of the leader’s actions for followers and other organization stakeholders, but the choice of outcome variables has differed considerably from researcher to researcher. Criteria differ in many important respects, including how immediate they are and whether they have subjective or objective measures. Criteria that are negatively correlated are especially troublesome because
of the complex trade-offs among them. When evaluating leadership effectiveness, multiple criteria should be considered to deal with these complexities and the different preferences of various stakeholders."
Free download of this valuable resource given by the following link!
7 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear all, Thanks for your threads and attachments, which no doubt  are very useful. Quite understandably, leadership is an extensively written-about subject. Often, people just focus on results-centricity, as the most relevant indicator of leadership effectiveness. But I believe that it would be difficult to sustain that in the current times when talent management, retention and employee engagement are so critical issues. Thus, I was indeed waiting for some reflections on people-centricity  and the ratio in which results and people issues get combined in effective leadership in today's era.
Sundar, no doubt, and I agree  as many researches have revealed, that the top competency for any manager in today's era is the ability to communicate orally, in writing, and through body language. So, you are absolutely right. And Jorge has focused on many soft competencies, which is really very thoughtful and comprehensive, which is mostly so in his threads. I  would just like to replace Jorge's 'satisfaction' with 'commitment.' Sometimes, people are highly satisfied or even motivated, but may not be committed. Often, people in PSEs are happy as they do not take the risks, or be entrepreneurial, and may not annoy subordinates  and colleagues. Consequently, they are satisfied but still often PSEs do not perform that well. They are often  in the red; more so  in the context of developing countries. 
5 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Dr. GOPINATH. R.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.
Thanks to Prof. Debi S. Saini for It’s really an interesting question and very Interesting respondents answers. It is very useful to me for got a new idea please.
31 Recommendations
Deleted profile
Implementation of the organization' vision
8 Recommendations
31st Aug, 2014
Max Stanley Chartrand
DigiCare Research Foundation LLC
Debi, I think true leadership does not take the short-cuts of bullying and strong arm tactics. Instead, good leadership fosters vision, sense of stewardship, accountability, and mutual respect and trust. If the employee's behavior is egregious, unproductive, and if after sufficient attempts at remediation, their job description should change or be let go. But often in cases of dismissal the problem is of mismatch of skills to task, and possibly not laying down the parameters of expectation up front in the relationship and having tools to see that they are implemented.  
8 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Eddie Seva See
Bicol University
The major indicator of leadership would be the ability to influence others. But the importance of influencing others in the organization  would vary depending on the level of maturity of the organization. An organization could be at a level when leadership influence may no longer be necessary or it could be at a stage when almost everthing will depend on its head's leadership.
5 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
I fully agree with you, Max. Many people are able to realize results for others to see, through trickery; and they think they are leaders. But there are others who would never indulge in unethical practices. One should also be genuinely accepted by one's people.  I think the journey itself is the reward. Results do come in such situations, though it happens in the long run.
7 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero
GGRivas Consulting.
Leaders need to communicate a vision, meaning and drive. This means that effective leadership moves organizations current to future states, create visions of potential opportunities for organizations, employees instills commitment for change and in organizations, new cultures and strategies that mobilize and focus energy and resources . Leaders emerge when organizations face new problems and complexities that can not be solved by unguided evolution. Take responsibility for reforming organizational practices, adapting to the changing environment. They overcome resistance to change by creating visions of the future that evoke confidence and mastery of new organizational practices.
4 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Dhara Chavda
Physiotherapy College, Gujarat, India.
I am not an expert but I think there MUST BE a system of evaluating Leader's contributions for growth and development of organization. 
It is generally seen all over Seniors are all time eger to Judge their juniors and try to pull them down rather then appreciating their work..
So, there sholud ba a system to Analyze work of All..
3 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Indeed, there are some companies which do the performance  evaluation the reverse way, dear Dhara. SEMCO in Brazil is one company where almost every thing is done very differently. It is the workers who select the team leader, and also assess their work. Interestingly, Semco today employs about 5000 employees, and is a very successful organization. This a living example of out-of-box ideas in organizational management. They also have some unique employee participation and empowerment practices. Thus, they have re-defined  leadership.
5 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Gonzalo, dear all. Surely, building a vision is the starting point of all leadership. Also, realization of the vision and the speed with which it is put into operation are also  very useful indicators of leadership effectiveness. Dear Kamal and dear Gonzalo's threads mention vision realization as key indicators. Dear Gonzalo also talks about the ability to generate commitment, building culture, promoting synergy of resources, effecting change, and promoting personal and team mastery as very useful indicators of leadership effectiveness; thanks for the same.
6 Recommendations
1st Sep, 2014
Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero
GGRivas Consulting.
Transformational leadership has four components and for this purpose the leaders should at least:
Exert idealized influence. They are admired, respected and inspire confidence in their followers who want to emulate. Contributes to the perceived influence that the leader puts the needs of others before their own and that their behavior is governed by ethics, principles and values.
Motivating as inspiring. Uplifting its people getting take out your positive, humane, enthusiastic and optimistic side. Create a desirable future for everyone wanting to motivate and achieve because they talk about it with conviction and set the example.
To stimulate the intellect of its people. They are taught to be responsible for their own work, stimulating effort, innovation and creativity. They use questioning techniques, reframing problems, help them see new perspectives, never ridicule or criticize them in public.
Show individual consideration. They pay attention to the individual need for growth of each person who works with them, offer advice, coaching or mentoring, generate growth opportunities.
3 Recommendations
2nd Sep, 2014
Krishnan Umachandran
NELCAST
An effective leader portrays
  1. Innovation
  2. Brave to implement Change
  3. Synergising team members efforts
  4. Growth oriented culture
5 Recommendations
3rd Sep, 2014
Grace Khoury
Birzeit University
if interested to know how culture and context influence leadership success and effectiveness please read The Palestinian Executive: Leadership Under Challenging Conditions, we interviewed 110 successful leaders from 63 companies
4 Recommendations
3rd Sep, 2014
Alexandre Beluco
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
I'm always afraid of trying to measure things like leadership. Intangible parameters are always difficult to assess. I would suggest splitting tasks and establish officials, who would be leaders. Each task had its success evaluated and this evaluation would be imputed to the leaders. Difficult to assess, anyway!
6 Recommendations
4th Sep, 2014
Deepa Mazumdar
National Institute Of Bank Management
360 degree and contextual intelligence assessments.
2 Recommendations
4th Sep, 2014
Amer Ali Al-Atwi
Al Muthanna University
My dear
subordinates satisfaction and motivation 
2 Recommendations
4th Sep, 2014
Max Stanley Chartrand
DigiCare Research Foundation LLC
Ability to size up subordinates and delegate where capability and interests have been noted are among the most valuable traits of a good leader.
4 Recommendations
4th Sep, 2014
Mahfuz Judeh
Applied Science Private University
How to measure organizational effectiveness? What are the indicators of measuring the effectiveness or your organization? The answer is not as simple as it looks to you.
By enabling management to think conceptually about organizational effectiveness, organizations can improve their effectiveness and enhance their ability to align your mission and performance levels.
For an organization to be effective, it is imperative that the unique talents of its employees be recognized, utilized, and developed. Leaders can play a critical role in helping employees to realize their potential (Liden et. al., 2000).
For more information, you may look at the following link
6 Recommendations
5th Sep, 2014
Hoyet Andrews, III
I found the following document a good first step in organizing the thought process regarding measures for effective organizational leadership.
Effective Leadership comes with breath of experience, which can be enabled in an environment where leaders are given the responsibility to direct and lead, make mistakes and develop their supporting cast while gaining their supporting cast confidence in them.
5 Recommendations
5th Sep, 2014
Ljubomir Jacić
Technical College Požarevac
Very good doctoral dissertation on this issue, Promoting team effectiveness: How leaders and learning processes influence team outcomes is available here! 
Leadership and Positive Affective Similarity is a good chapter!
4 Recommendations
6th Sep, 2014
Valdis Krebs
Orgnet, LLC
One of the most interesting aspects of leadership is "followership" -- who actually looks to the leader for direction/advice/opinion/expertise/emotion?  Looking at the emergent organization, that self-organizes (within constraints) around leaders often gives insights into the effectiveness of leaders.
Having done any social network analysis projects in organizations where one of the focuses of the project were Leadership, I have seen the network patterns around those who are actually leading and those who are not.  It is often the peers and subordinates of leaders that reveal how effective the leadership is.  As the saying goes -- it is easy to fool the boss, but not so easy to fool your colleagues.
We often compare two networks in leadership network analysis -- that of the emergent leader/follower connections vs. the formal hierarchy network/tree.  Who leads as expected?  Who leads as unexpected? (both positive/better and negative/worse).
4 Recommendations
6th Sep, 2014
Max Stanley Chartrand
DigiCare Research Foundation LLC
Valdis' reference to "followhship" is on the mark. Leadership must possess the attributes of one who can follow before he can lead, and must retain those attributes to remain a good leader. Humility and sober consideration in all things renders a far better organizational result than the traditional arrogant strongman/woman model. Respect should be impeccable throughout the organization. 
5 Recommendations
8th Sep, 2014
Krishnan Umachandran
NELCAST
Decision-making can be improved and produce better, higher quality outcomes, especially for those critical, complicated dilemmas wrestled with on a day to day basis. Effectiveness improves leadership ability and increase self-confidence. It is a skill that can help make better use of time, reduce stress and help achieve goals.
6 Recommendations
8th Sep, 2014
Jürgen Weibler
FernUniversität in Hagen - University of Hagen
Well, it highly depends on your understanding of leadership (for example heroic or post-heroic). Then it depends on your understanding of an effective organization. Here you need an idea of its gestalt and its functioning (for example mechanistic or organic). When both seems to be clear - then - questions of operationalization of key prcesses/variables arise.
4 Recommendations
8th Sep, 2014
Diana Pounder
University of Utah
For Educatonal Leadership effectveness, see work by Ken Leithwood.  
4 Recommendations
8th Sep, 2014
Mohammad Amin Nayebi
Qazvin Islamic Azad University
Dear  Debi
Leadership is human side of  organization. Human Resources are most important of organizational Components. According to Scott, an organization has four side consist of  People, Objectives, Technology and social structures and  first side is most important.. so to determine leadership effectiveness we must assess human affair. organizational leadership mean realizing human resources planes based on organizational objectives. 
5 Recommendations
9th Sep, 2014
Niels Van Quaquebeke
Kühne Logistics University
I think leadership effectiveness can be most directly measured via the amount of followership it generates (i.e. people that are cognitively and affectively open to the exerted implicit and explicit leadership). Other practically related issues fall more under strategy, decision-making, organizational design, or culture. Arguably these are all somewhat related to leadership but not completely - also they are completely different scholastic fields with surprisingly little overlap.
For influence openness towards a leader's leadership (i.e. leadership effectiveness) I like to use this scale: http://www.respectresearchgroup.org/cgi-bin/rrg.pl?id=1656&lang=en
3 Recommendations
9th Sep, 2014
Noor Azman Ali
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Thanks Debi for bringing up such a broad topic to be  shared. Leadership always come together with the responsibility to bring the organization and the people in it to the prospective destination that would guarantee their survival and sustainability together. Starts with coming up with a  vision and then clarify that with clear goals and objectives, and then mobilizing the resources including the people by steering and stirring them towards the consensually determined destination. Whether they (all including the leader) are able to achieve them is the determinant of the EFFECTIVENESS of the leadership.
3 Recommendations
11th Sep, 2014
Max Stanley Chartrand
DigiCare Research Foundation LLC
Humility and respectful yet firm in resolve are among the descriptors of a good leader. 
3 Recommendations
11th Sep, 2014
Amer Ali Al-Atwi
Al Muthanna University
Effectiveness refers to ability to achieve a specific goals. Therefor leadership effectiveness in organizations is measured by achieving goals of leadership process : influence the behavior, emotion and cognitive of subordinates. 
3 Recommendations
12th Sep, 2014
Nicholas Jeneski
Clark University
This is a very good question, although I would argue that the criteria for "measuring leadership efficacy" changes considerably from the types of organizations being managed.  Hannibal, Alexander, Scipio and Boudica are examples of successful military leaders, yet, I couldn't imagine any of them as successful school principals or NGO managers.  The qualities required in a successful leader are dependent upon the qualities and goals of those being led.  This being so, the success of a leader is contingent upon the needs and demands of his/her followers.  I would argue that a leader can simultaneously be both successful on an interpersonal level, as well as a failure on an organizational level.  Myself, I would follow a great leader into hell itself if I found him/her worth following, even if the mission were futile.  I believe that any leader who is able to make his/her followers feel this way is technically a success.
3 Recommendations
13th Sep, 2014
Karien Jooste
Cape Peninsula University of Technology
I would say followers must feel valued and inspired that will lead to them taking accountability and leading themselves, my take
3 Recommendations
14th Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Amer, if we accept your definition of leadership, then there is no difference between managing and leading; for both seek to realize the goals of the organization.
2 Recommendations
14th Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Nicholas, surely, leadership can not be about people-centricity alone. The use of metrics in assessing the results of inputs of the followers is very much one of the key aspects of leadership. Whichever sphere we talk about, both these aspects are crucial--whether NGOs, military, political or business.Results may be attained by coercion, but that would not be called the success of leadership. I agree with Karien in this regard.
3 Recommendations
15th Sep, 2014
Krishnan Umachandran
NELCAST
Leaders are ordinary people who accept or are placed under extraordinary circumstances that bring forth their latent potential, producing a character that inspires the confidence and trust of others - Myles Munroe, Becoming A Leader, “Everyone Can Do It”
CHALLENGES
  • REJECTION / CRITICISM
  • MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FATIGUE
  • PRICE PAID BY THOSE AROUND
4 Recommendations
15th Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
I agree with your view Krishnan. Leadership can be learned; I do not believe that leaders are only born and not made. Of course, proactive and positive personality type can help learn leadership faster.
5 Recommendations
15th Sep, 2014
Stella Chao
GUANGDONG POLICE COLLEGE
Subordinate’ attitude to superior (working ability )
The personal relationship to colleagues
attitude and way when dealing Thorny problems dealing (attitude is important)
3 Recommendations
15th Sep, 2014
Mohammed Saleem Ali-Shtayeh
Biodiversity and Environmental Research Center
Job satisfaction, and feeling proud being part of the organization on the part of employees, may be good indicators for effective leadership!
3 Recommendations
16th Sep, 2014
Baden Ian Eunson
Monash University (Australia)
16th Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear @ Baden, I thank you immensely for enclosing your book chapter, which I found extremely interesting. It is very lucidly written, and helps finding  the indicators for leadership effectiveness.
2 Recommendations
16th Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Dear Stella and Mohammed, Thanks for your very useful threads. I fully agree that the subordinates would have genuine respect for their leader, and there can not be a leader without excellent inter-personal relationship competencies. Likewise, job satisfaction and feeling of a sense of pride is usually a result of effective leadership. 
3 Recommendations
16th Sep, 2014
Noor Azman Ali
Universiti Putra Malaysia
I would suggest two (2) perspective of leadership effectiveness. On the results-oriented perspective, the leaders ability to achieve specified goals and objectives should be evaluated. On the other hands, referring to the behavioural perceptive, leaders ability to create  a motivational working environment and gaining the most from their people should be the criteria of successful leaders.
4 Recommendations
16th Sep, 2014
S.Ananthan Subramaniam
National Defence University of Malaysia
Your questions begs a few further questions. Are you purely referring to leadership at the top i.e. the CEO etc. or leadership involving the social capital of the organisation...meaning leadership in the whole of organisation. Please read Prof Day's Leader Capacity in Teams for further understanding  http://www.themedfomscu.org/media/Leadership_Capacity.pdf
I also agree with Noor Azman's views. But again that is only looking at A individual leaders effectiveness.
5 Recommendations
17th Sep, 2014
Baden Ian Eunson
Monash University (Australia)
Thanks, Debi-
following that chapter on leadership, here's another to follow up on your remarks about interpersonal relationship competencies:
Interpersonal Skills
8 Recommendations
17th Sep, 2014
Debi S. Saini
Formerly Professor of HRM Management Development Institute
Many thanks, Baden, I find this chapter equally useful and interesting. In fact, I would say, each chapter is better than the other. I love anything written with great clarity; which is what I notice in both your attached chapters. It is certainly not easy to write with such a great degree of coherence and lucidity.
4 Recommendations
11th Jun, 2016
Jakub Prochazka
Masaryk University
We compared four indicators of leader's effectiveness a couple of years ago. The study is in Czech. However, the abstract is in English and the table with results is easy to understand.
2 Recommendations
11th Jun, 2016
Jürgen Weibler
FernUniversität in Hagen - University of Hagen
...one of the central questions in leadership research. As far as I see it the answer depends on your position in methodology, your understanding of organizations, and your theorizing about influencing others and (!) your theorizing about the impact  of people in organizations at all (e.g. effectiveness of leadership could then be operationlized as an objective performance rating like sales or as a subjective criteria like perceived communication atmosphere).
27th Jun, 2017
Amer Ali Al-Atwi
Al Muthanna University
There are many factors may be take in consideration such as:
satisfaction about leaders 
team performance 
1 Recommendation
5th Jul, 2017
Henarath H. D. N. P Opatha
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Dear Professor,
Leadership can be defined as a function of influencing a certain group of people individually and collectively by a certain person toward the achievement of certain goals. Based on the above working definition, leadership effectiveness refers to the extent to which a particular person was able to influence the relevant group of people individually and collectively toward the achievement of the relevant goals. Thus, It is possible to use the following indicators to measure effectiveness of leadership:
the number of individuals who follow the leader
number of individuals who affirm that they were significantly impacted by the leader
degree of satisfaction of each subordinate about the leader
degree of overall satisfaction of the group about the leader
degree of group cohesiveness (the degree to which group members want to remain as members of the group)
degree of group conformity (the degree to which individuals agree with the norms of the group)
extent of the availability of idiosyncratic credits to the leader (peculiar or personal privileges enjoyed by the leader to do some deviances without getting group pressure or rejection)
degree of social loafing of subordinates (Ringleman's effect)
degree of productivity relating to the service or product
degree of power held by the leader (from various sources)
degree of followers' acceptance of the leader as their leader 
4 Recommendations
31st Jul, 2017
Imo G Ibe
University of Nigeria
I totally agree with Opatha on the measures, However, I believe the effectiveness of a leaders can be measure with bias to exploring the relationship between employees’ attitudes toward change and reaction to involvement in leadership change; examining the relationship between employees’ attitudes toward change and reaction to trust; appraising the degree of association between employee’s attitudes toward change and reaction to fear of change consequences in leadership; determining the relationship between employee’s attitudes toward change and reaction in leadership change to career enhancement as well as examining employee’s attitudes toward change and readiness for change among employees.
1 Recommendation
14th Jan, 2021
Zahid Fazal
University of Peshawar
Boldness, courage and decision power
12 Recommendations
14th Jan, 2021
Faraed Salman
Erbil polytechnic university
They’re the effectiveness to expolre the relation&attitudes between employees,decision power,courage&boldness.
4 Recommendations
14th Jan, 2021
Abdulridha Taha Sarhan
Hilla University College
The most commonly used measure of leader effectivness ia assessing group performance and the scope to which the goals and objectives of the group are met
1 Recommendation
14th Jan, 2021
Muhammad Ihsan
University of Management and Technology (Pakistan)
Honesty ,vision , courage
4 Recommendations
15th Jan, 2021
Yanica Dimitrova
University of Library Studies and Information Technologies
Dear colleague,
To a large extent, such indicators are subjective, they can be derived in general, but I believe that we must consider the specifics of the specific organization. The presumption from which we must proceed is that corporate culture and leadership are mutually determined.
Indicators that can be used are - the opportunities for management innovation, motivation, communication competence, digital skills, orientation to change, understood as a constant, teamwork skills.
Regards,
Yanica
15th Jan, 2021
Joseph Dodd
Indications of effective leadership can be measured by:
- Performance metrics
- Employee satisfaction
- Team retention
- Employee engagement metrics
As a leader, your job is to inspire and motivate employees to follow a strategic path and through this, curate the next generation of leaders. Therefore, I believe the most important KPI's of effective leadership are those relating to employee engagement/satisfaction.
15th Jan, 2021
Juana Maria Arcelus-Ulibarrena
Parthenope University of Naples
.... above all to have an excellent "intuition" and to be "far-sighted" ...
6 Recommendations
15th Jan, 2021
Silvi Stamen
Translationmind
I think you should also consider the change management. It is an indicator of leadership effectiveness.
Use Kotter 8-steps model :)
1 Recommendation
15th Jan, 2021
Juana Maria Arcelus-Ulibarrena
Parthenope University of Naples
.... although sometimes "change management" cannot be measured in times of covid-19 given the novelty / speed with which it is necessary to confront ...
7 Recommendations
18th Jan, 2021
Eman Kamel Hossny
Academic nursing
I agree with, YANICA DIMITROVA
That the Indicators that can be used are - the opportunities for management innovation, motivation, communication competence, digital skills, orientation to change, understood as a constant, teamwork skills.
18th Jan, 2021
Joao Nilton Da Silva
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Interesting,
I would say at frist hand none and all.
Why?
Well, how leadership is define, hiw performance is define, where the culture stands on both of them, and how is it moving towards achieving goals over time.
Then i would check the N of the population under question and how are they moving over those variables and what is being done.
Check the level of consciousness in terms of performance leadership.
With that in mind, then we could atart buding the metrics, befire that is like having a 1 time Rx on a 1 year old patient and forecast with that how is he going to develop onicomicosis in the ponky finger in 50 years.
19th Jan, 2021
Muhammad Arshad
University of Management and Technology (Pakistan)
Honesty, puntuality and broad vision
19th Jan, 2021
Atiqe Ur Rahman
University of Management and Technology (Pakistan)
Nice opinion by dear Donald Ibama Hamilton
i am agreed with this opinion
11 Recommendations
19th Jan, 2021
Biser Zlatanov
Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski"
It seems that all is related as to how you, your organization define leadership? It depends always on the local business culture, competence of the staff, its responsiveness to certain stimuli etc. Leadership indicators could be highly vulnerable to the position of the organization on the market, among its customers. How do you define your external environment? Of course, it depends upon the market context, firm resources and life cycle, employee competence - if one come from HR field she would apply certain combination of indicators more extensively than others. It could be true for another team who comes from the financial field or other. Which approach would prevail? It depends also on the industry and its specific characteristics in which the company works. If for instance the company is a disruptor - in the ideal situation - and puts an emphasis on innovation what is the average level of successful innovations in the industry compared the company, what is the penetration of its new products, how many new products the company has launched, what`s the adoption of the new technology. Often used are financial indicators, but they have a limit that could bring short results. One very important indicator these days is the ability to form and sustain partnerships with other companies - to participate in the resources and knowledge sharing that goes beyond the company borders. And of course, speaking for the same network of relations - to control other companies ability to receive and share that resources could be crucial.
19th Jan, 2021
Raji Sivaraman
ASBA LLC
Maybe you can see the book, I published titled "Discoveries Through Personal Agility"? Here is the link.
19th Jan, 2021
Mohsen Farhadinejad
Semnan University
Hello my friend .
Cyrus the Great, king of ancient Iran, says: Leadership is to bring people to the peak of competence. Therefore, the development of capabilities and competencies of individuals is considered one of the key indicators of leadership. The second point is to examine how employees act in the absence of the leader?
22nd Jan, 2021
Seyyed Jafar Moosavi
Islamic Azad University, Qaem Shahr Branch
Effective leadership is measured by the effective leadership questionnaire of Saatchi and Azizpour managers (2005). This test has 40 five-choice questions. The method of scoring this scale is based on a five-point Likert scale, the options of which are ranked from very low = 1 to very high = 5, so that a score of 1 indicates the lowest leadership. Effectiveness and a score of 5 indicate the highest level of effective leadership. This questionnaire has eight subscales, each of which is marked with a number of questions.
4th Feb, 2021
Muhammad Niqab
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal
Leadership existence is vital for any organization. In the absence of leadership entropy of the organization increases. Leadership provides vision, motivation and encouragement to the followers, which can not be found in subordinates of an administrator. leadership is a process, which cover all aspects of the organization. However, its also true true that leadership is not like a solo flight it exhibits in form of team work for the success and effectiveness of organization.
9th Feb, 2021
Zane Asher Green
Preston University
The level of teamness among team members
10th Aug, 2021
William Badger
Arizona State University
Select five or so sample Leadership wisdoms (sample of implantations) of that wisdom and measure how well your Company/Organizations is doing in implantation.
1. Professionals arriving 15 early to all meetings and helping the host prepare.
2. Measure how nice all the people are all the time, to all people.
3. Demonstrate (measure) that all people in the Company/Organizations use the magic words and respect all people.
4. All professionals should smile often, smile is an indicator of success.
5. Ensure all professionals always have a plan B for all activities. The leader needs to continuously ask PM what they plan for the week and then ask them what is your plan B. Soon every every one is thinking and planning.
6, Review all your leadership wisdoms to determine how many can be measured. Then do so.
10th Aug, 2021
Juana Maria Arcelus-Ulibarrena
Parthenope University of Naples
Dear Dr. Debi S. Saini,
I consider that the effectiveness of the leadership is basilar if we want to obtain fluidity in the progress that we propose to obtain. These include:
-the ability to bring innovation,
-the number of praise and recognition received from superiors,
-knowing how to control the envy of some colleagues,
-the contribution given to the proper functioning of the company.
But the most important of all is the perception of "honesty" and "transparency" with each of the members of the team with whom you have to interact.
10 Recommendations
11th Aug, 2021
Amboka Asumwa Agustine
Institute of Energy studies &Research,Nairobi Kenya.
Juana Maria Arcelus-Ulibarrena In addition to your input , ability to make managerial decisions is a very key factor. Indecisiveness leads to apathy and ineptitude in leadership.
1 Recommendation
11th Aug, 2021
Juana Maria Arcelus-Ulibarrena
Parthenope University of Naples
Dear Dr. Amboka Asumwa Agustine, the ability to make decisions "on the fly" and without hesitation, is "the essentiality" already discounted when someone aspires to leadership!
13 Recommendations
11th Aug, 2021
Mohamed Sabri Bensaad
University Batna 2
Dear Pr Debi S. Saini,
A good leader is someone who can seperate cleverly personal and professional life. Making decisions is not always easy, but objectivity must accompany each decision taken.
Also, listening to employees is very important, in order to strengthen their moral but above all, to identify the capacity and shortcomings of each of them, which will considerably increase the performance of the company.
If thess conditions (and other key conditions) are respected in long term, the entrprise will be prosperous ( good / modest income, few employees who will quit the company).
Best wishes,
Sabri
2 Recommendations
11th Aug, 2021
Raji Sivaraman
ASBA LLC
Would this help you? I am the co-founder. https://agilitydiscoveries.com/
14th Aug, 2021
Namita Gudhe
Royal Roads University
As per my opinion and experience, leadership style itself sets up an apt organisational culture that allows the employees across hierarchy to perform without any hindrance. This concept of leadership does not necessarily mean to be superior; sometimes an individual with 10 yrs in a supervisor role also can prove to have excellent mentoring or consulting skills to peers and change a negative business scenario to positive and still have a healthy work culture.
Hope my thoughts help you to arrive at a better decision making.
Yours sincerely,
Namita Gudhe
16th Aug, 2021
Ivan Bakaki
International University of East Africa
I think we should always look at how some one is able to instil synergetic culture among employees and how someone's influence has brought about organizational goals and objectives being achieved
1 Recommendation

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