Question
Asked 25th Mar, 2016
  • Nile University - Khartoum

What is the ideal method to reduce abdominal obesity?

abdominal obesity is risk factor for certain diseases
what is causes and how can be avoided and reduced? 

Most recent answer

16th Mar, 2021
Sharif Beigi
University of Tehran
Dear, Dr. There are many approaches in reducing bellyfat (VAT, SAT)
1. combination of resistance and aerobic exercise. At first doing resistance(such as crunch variations) and then aerobic exercises.
2. High Intensity Interval Training
3. Hulla Hoop training in combination with other forms of aerobic exercise training.

Popular Answers (1)

25th Mar, 2016
Rafik Karaman
Al-Quds University
Dear Amar,
Here are 6 evidence-based ways to lose belly fat.
1. Don’t Eat Sugar… and Avoid Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Like The Plague
Added sugar is extremely unhealthy.
Studies show that it has uniquely harmful effects on metabolic health.
Sugar is half glucose, half fructose… and fructose can only be metabolized by the liver in any significant amount.
When you eat a lot of refined sugar, the liver gets flooded with fructose, and is forced to turn it all into fat.
Numerous studies have shown that excess sugar, mostly due to the large amounts offructose, can lead to increased accumulation of fat in the belly.
Some believe that this is the primary mechanism behind sugar’s harmful effects on health… it increases belly fat and liver fat, which leads to insulin resistance and a host of metabolic problems.
Liquid sugar is even worse in this regard. Liquid calories don’t get “registered” by the brain in the same way as solid calories, so when you drink sugar-sweetened beverages, you end up eating more total calories.
Studies show that sugar-sweetened beverages are linked to a 60% increased risk of obesity in children… per each daily serving.
Make a decision to minimize the amount of sugar in your diet, and considercompletely eliminating sugary drinks.
This includes sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, various sports drinks, as well as coffees and teas with sugar added to them.
Keep in mind that none of this applies to whole fruit, which are extremely healthy and have plenty of fiber that mitigates the negative effects of fructose.
The amount of fructose you get from fruit is negligible compared to what you get from a diet high in refined sugar.
Btw… if you want to cut back on refined sugar, then you must start reading labels. Even foods marketed as health foods can contain huge amounts of sugar.
Bottom Line: Excess sugar consumption may be the primary driver of belly fat accumulation, especially sugary beverages like soft drinks and fruit juices.
2. Eating More Protein May be The Best Long-Term Strategy to Reduce Belly Fat
Protein is the most important macronutrient when it comes to losing weight.
It has been shown to reduce cravings by 60%, boost metabolism by 80-100 calories per day and help you eat up to 441 fewer calories per day.
If weight loss is your goal, then adding protein to your diet is perhaps the single most effective change you can do.
Not only will it help you lose… it can also help you avoid re-gaining weight if you ever decide to abandon your weight loss efforts.
There is also some evidence that protein is particularly effective against belly fat.
One study showed that the amount and quality of protein consumed was inversely related to fat in the belly. That is, people who ate more and better protein had much less belly fat.
Another study in Denmark showed that protein, especially animal protein, was linked to significantly reduced risk of belly fat gain over a period of 5 years.
This study also showed that refined carbs and vegetable oils were linked to increased amounts of belly fat, but fruits and vegetables linked to reduced amounts.
Many of the studies showing protein to be effective had protein at 25-30% of calories. That’s what you should aim for.
So… make an effort to increase your intake of unprocessed eggs, fish, seafood,meats, poultry and dairy products. These are the best protein sources in the diet.
If you struggle with getting enough protein in your diet, then a quality protein supplement (like whey protein) is a healthy and convenient way to boost your total intake.
If you’re a vegetarian, check out this article on how to increase your protein intake.
Bonus tip: Consider cooking your foods in coconut oil… some studies have shownthat 30 mL (about 2 tablespoons) of coconut oil per day reduces belly fat slightly.
Bottom Line: Eating enough protein is a very effective way to lose weight. Some studies suggest that protein is particularly effective against belly fat accumulation.
3. Cut Carbs From Your Diet
Carb restriction is a very effective way to lose fat.
This is supported by numerous studies… when people cut carbs, their appetite goes down and they lose weight.
 Over 20 randomized controlled trials have now shown that low-carb diets lead to 2-3 times more weight loss than low-fat diets.
This is true even when the low-carb groups are allowed to eat as much as they want, while the low-fat groups are calorie restricted and hungry.
Low-carb diets also lead to quick reductions in water weight, which gives people near instant results… a major difference on the scale is often seen within a few days.
There are also studies comparing low-carb and low-fat diets, showing that low-carb diets specifically target the fat in the belly, and around the organs and liver.
What this means is that a particularly high proportion of the fat lost on a low-carb dietis the dangerous and disease promoting abdominal fat.
Just avoiding the refined carbs (white breads, pastas, etc) should be sufficient, especially if you keep your protein high.
However… if you need to lose weight fast, then consider dropping your carbs down to 50 grams per day. This will put your body into ketosis, killing your appetite and making your body start burning primarily fats for fuel.
Of course, low-carb diets have many other health benefits besides just weight loss. They can have life-saving effects in type 2 diabetics, for example.
Bottom Line: Studies have shown that low-carb diets are particularly effective at getting rid of the fat in the belly area, around the organs and in the liver.
4. Eat Foods Rich in Fiber… Especially Viscous Fiber
Dietary fiber is mostly indigestible plant matter.
It is often claimed that eating plenty of fiber can help with weight loss.
This is true… but it’s important to keep in mind that not all fiber is created equal.
It seems to be mostly the viscous fibers that can have an effect on your weight.
These are fibers that bind water and form a thick gel that “sits” in the gut.
This gel can dramatically slow the movement of food through your stomach and small bowel, and slow down the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The end result is a prolonged feeling of fullness and reduced appetite.
One review study found that an additional 14 grams of fiber per day were linked to a 10% decrease in calorie intake and weight loss of 2 kg (4.5 lbs) over 4 months.
In one 5-year study, eating 10 grams of soluble fiber per day was linked to a 3.7% reduction in the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity, but it had no effect on the amount of fat under the skin.
What this implies, is that soluble fiber may be particularly effective at reducing the harmful belly fat.
The best way to get more fiber is to eat a lot of plant foods like vegetables and fruit. Legumes are also a good source, as well as some cereals like oats.
Then you could also try taking a fiber supplement like glucomannan. This is one of the most viscous dietary fibers in existence, and has been shown to cause weight loss in many studies.
Bottom Line: There is some evidence that soluble dietary fiber may lead to reduced amounts of belly fat, which should cause major improvements in metabolic health.
5. Aerobic Exercise is Very Effective at Reducing Belly Fat
Exercise is important for various reasons.
It is among the best things you can do if you want to live a long, healthy life and avoid disease.
Getting into all of the amazing health benefits of exercise is beyond the scope of this article, but exercise does appears to be effective at reducing belly fat.
However… keep in mind that I’m not talking about abdominal exercises here. Spot reduction (losing fat in one spot) is not possible, and doing endless amounts of crunches will not make you lose fat from the belly.
In one study, 6 weeks of training just the abdominal muscles had no measurable effect on waist circumference or the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity.
That being said, other types of exercise can be very effective.
Aerobic exercise (like walking, running, swimming, etc) has been shown to cause major reductions in belly fat in numerous studies.
Another study found that exercise completely prevented people from re-gaining abdominal fat after weight loss, implying that exercise is particularly important during weight maintenance.
Exercise also leads to reduced inflammation, blood sugar levels and all the other metabolic abnormalities that are associated with central obesity.
Bottom Line: Exercise can be very effective if you are trying to lose belly fat. Exercise also has a number of other health benefits.
6. Track Your Foods and Figure Out Exactly What and How Much You Are Eating
What you eat is important. Pretty much everyone knows this.
However… surprisingly, most people actuallydon’t have a clue what they are really eating.
People think they’re eating “high protein,” “low-carb” or whatever… but tend to drastically over- or underestimate.
I think that for anyone who truly wants to optimize their diet, tracking things for a while is absolutely essential.
It doesn’t mean you need to weigh and measure everything for the rest of your life, but doing it every now and then for a few days in a row can help you realize where you need to make changes.
If you want to boost your protein intake to 25-30% of calories, as recommended above, just eating more protein rich foods won’t cut it. You need to actually measure and fine tune in order to reach that goal.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
9 Recommendations

All Answers (23)

25th Mar, 2016
Rafik Karaman
Al-Quds University
Dear Amar,
Here are 6 evidence-based ways to lose belly fat.
1. Don’t Eat Sugar… and Avoid Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Like The Plague
Added sugar is extremely unhealthy.
Studies show that it has uniquely harmful effects on metabolic health.
Sugar is half glucose, half fructose… and fructose can only be metabolized by the liver in any significant amount.
When you eat a lot of refined sugar, the liver gets flooded with fructose, and is forced to turn it all into fat.
Numerous studies have shown that excess sugar, mostly due to the large amounts offructose, can lead to increased accumulation of fat in the belly.
Some believe that this is the primary mechanism behind sugar’s harmful effects on health… it increases belly fat and liver fat, which leads to insulin resistance and a host of metabolic problems.
Liquid sugar is even worse in this regard. Liquid calories don’t get “registered” by the brain in the same way as solid calories, so when you drink sugar-sweetened beverages, you end up eating more total calories.
Studies show that sugar-sweetened beverages are linked to a 60% increased risk of obesity in children… per each daily serving.
Make a decision to minimize the amount of sugar in your diet, and considercompletely eliminating sugary drinks.
This includes sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, various sports drinks, as well as coffees and teas with sugar added to them.
Keep in mind that none of this applies to whole fruit, which are extremely healthy and have plenty of fiber that mitigates the negative effects of fructose.
The amount of fructose you get from fruit is negligible compared to what you get from a diet high in refined sugar.
Btw… if you want to cut back on refined sugar, then you must start reading labels. Even foods marketed as health foods can contain huge amounts of sugar.
Bottom Line: Excess sugar consumption may be the primary driver of belly fat accumulation, especially sugary beverages like soft drinks and fruit juices.
2. Eating More Protein May be The Best Long-Term Strategy to Reduce Belly Fat
Protein is the most important macronutrient when it comes to losing weight.
It has been shown to reduce cravings by 60%, boost metabolism by 80-100 calories per day and help you eat up to 441 fewer calories per day.
If weight loss is your goal, then adding protein to your diet is perhaps the single most effective change you can do.
Not only will it help you lose… it can also help you avoid re-gaining weight if you ever decide to abandon your weight loss efforts.
There is also some evidence that protein is particularly effective against belly fat.
One study showed that the amount and quality of protein consumed was inversely related to fat in the belly. That is, people who ate more and better protein had much less belly fat.
Another study in Denmark showed that protein, especially animal protein, was linked to significantly reduced risk of belly fat gain over a period of 5 years.
This study also showed that refined carbs and vegetable oils were linked to increased amounts of belly fat, but fruits and vegetables linked to reduced amounts.
Many of the studies showing protein to be effective had protein at 25-30% of calories. That’s what you should aim for.
So… make an effort to increase your intake of unprocessed eggs, fish, seafood,meats, poultry and dairy products. These are the best protein sources in the diet.
If you struggle with getting enough protein in your diet, then a quality protein supplement (like whey protein) is a healthy and convenient way to boost your total intake.
If you’re a vegetarian, check out this article on how to increase your protein intake.
Bonus tip: Consider cooking your foods in coconut oil… some studies have shownthat 30 mL (about 2 tablespoons) of coconut oil per day reduces belly fat slightly.
Bottom Line: Eating enough protein is a very effective way to lose weight. Some studies suggest that protein is particularly effective against belly fat accumulation.
3. Cut Carbs From Your Diet
Carb restriction is a very effective way to lose fat.
This is supported by numerous studies… when people cut carbs, their appetite goes down and they lose weight.
 Over 20 randomized controlled trials have now shown that low-carb diets lead to 2-3 times more weight loss than low-fat diets.
This is true even when the low-carb groups are allowed to eat as much as they want, while the low-fat groups are calorie restricted and hungry.
Low-carb diets also lead to quick reductions in water weight, which gives people near instant results… a major difference on the scale is often seen within a few days.
There are also studies comparing low-carb and low-fat diets, showing that low-carb diets specifically target the fat in the belly, and around the organs and liver.
What this means is that a particularly high proportion of the fat lost on a low-carb dietis the dangerous and disease promoting abdominal fat.
Just avoiding the refined carbs (white breads, pastas, etc) should be sufficient, especially if you keep your protein high.
However… if you need to lose weight fast, then consider dropping your carbs down to 50 grams per day. This will put your body into ketosis, killing your appetite and making your body start burning primarily fats for fuel.
Of course, low-carb diets have many other health benefits besides just weight loss. They can have life-saving effects in type 2 diabetics, for example.
Bottom Line: Studies have shown that low-carb diets are particularly effective at getting rid of the fat in the belly area, around the organs and in the liver.
4. Eat Foods Rich in Fiber… Especially Viscous Fiber
Dietary fiber is mostly indigestible plant matter.
It is often claimed that eating plenty of fiber can help with weight loss.
This is true… but it’s important to keep in mind that not all fiber is created equal.
It seems to be mostly the viscous fibers that can have an effect on your weight.
These are fibers that bind water and form a thick gel that “sits” in the gut.
This gel can dramatically slow the movement of food through your stomach and small bowel, and slow down the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The end result is a prolonged feeling of fullness and reduced appetite.
One review study found that an additional 14 grams of fiber per day were linked to a 10% decrease in calorie intake and weight loss of 2 kg (4.5 lbs) over 4 months.
In one 5-year study, eating 10 grams of soluble fiber per day was linked to a 3.7% reduction in the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity, but it had no effect on the amount of fat under the skin.
What this implies, is that soluble fiber may be particularly effective at reducing the harmful belly fat.
The best way to get more fiber is to eat a lot of plant foods like vegetables and fruit. Legumes are also a good source, as well as some cereals like oats.
Then you could also try taking a fiber supplement like glucomannan. This is one of the most viscous dietary fibers in existence, and has been shown to cause weight loss in many studies.
Bottom Line: There is some evidence that soluble dietary fiber may lead to reduced amounts of belly fat, which should cause major improvements in metabolic health.
5. Aerobic Exercise is Very Effective at Reducing Belly Fat
Exercise is important for various reasons.
It is among the best things you can do if you want to live a long, healthy life and avoid disease.
Getting into all of the amazing health benefits of exercise is beyond the scope of this article, but exercise does appears to be effective at reducing belly fat.
However… keep in mind that I’m not talking about abdominal exercises here. Spot reduction (losing fat in one spot) is not possible, and doing endless amounts of crunches will not make you lose fat from the belly.
In one study, 6 weeks of training just the abdominal muscles had no measurable effect on waist circumference or the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity.
That being said, other types of exercise can be very effective.
Aerobic exercise (like walking, running, swimming, etc) has been shown to cause major reductions in belly fat in numerous studies.
Another study found that exercise completely prevented people from re-gaining abdominal fat after weight loss, implying that exercise is particularly important during weight maintenance.
Exercise also leads to reduced inflammation, blood sugar levels and all the other metabolic abnormalities that are associated with central obesity.
Bottom Line: Exercise can be very effective if you are trying to lose belly fat. Exercise also has a number of other health benefits.
6. Track Your Foods and Figure Out Exactly What and How Much You Are Eating
What you eat is important. Pretty much everyone knows this.
However… surprisingly, most people actuallydon’t have a clue what they are really eating.
People think they’re eating “high protein,” “low-carb” or whatever… but tend to drastically over- or underestimate.
I think that for anyone who truly wants to optimize their diet, tracking things for a while is absolutely essential.
It doesn’t mean you need to weigh and measure everything for the rest of your life, but doing it every now and then for a few days in a row can help you realize where you need to make changes.
If you want to boost your protein intake to 25-30% of calories, as recommended above, just eating more protein rich foods won’t cut it. You need to actually measure and fine tune in order to reach that goal.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
9 Recommendations
Deleted profile
Based on my personal experience ,diet and exercises  will do it.
1 Recommendation
26th Mar, 2016
Ali A R Aldallal
University of Jabir bin Hayan
4 Steps for Beating Belly Fat
There are four keys to controlling belly fat: exercise, diet,sleep, and stress management.
1. Exercise: Vigorous exercise trims all your fat, including visceral fat.
Get at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a week. Walking counts, as long as it's brisk enough that you work up a sweat and breathe harder, with your heart ratefaster than usual.
To get the same results in half the time, step up your pace and get vigorous exercise -- like jogging or walking. You'd need to do that for 20 minutes a day, 4 days a week.
Jog, if you're already fit, or walk briskly at an incline on a treadmill if you're not ready for jogging. Vigorous workouts on stationary bikes and elliptical or rowing machines are also effective, says Duke researcher Cris Slentz, PhD.
Moderate activity -- raising your heart rate for 30 minutes at least three times per week -- also helps. It slows down how much visceral fat you gain. But to torch visceral fat, your workouts may need to be stepped up.
“Rake leaves, walk, garden, go to Zumba, play soccer with your kids. It doesn’t have to be in the gym,” Hairston says.
If you are not active now, it's a good idea to check with yourhealth care provider before starting a new fitness program.
2. Diet: There is no magic diet for belly fat. But when you lose weight on any diet, belly fat usually goes first.
Getting enough fiber can help. Hairston’s research shows that people who eat 10 grams of soluble fiber per day -- without any other diet changes -- build up less visceral fat over time than others. That’s as simple as eating two small apples, a cup of green peas, or a half-cup of pinto beans. “Even if you kept everything else the same but switched to a higher-fiber bread, you might be able to better maintain your weight over time,” Hairston says.
3. Sleep: Getting the right amount of shut-eye helps. In one study, people who got 6 to 7 hours of sleep per night gained less visceral fat over 5 years compared to those who slept 5 or fewer hours per night or 8 or more hours per night. Sleep may not have been the only thing that mattered -- but it was part of the picture.
4. Stress: Everyone has stress. How you handle it matters. The best things you can do include relaxing with friends and family, meditating, exercising to blow off steam, and getting counseling. That leaves you healthier and better prepared to make good choices for yourself.
“If you could only afford the time to do one of these things," Shively says, "exercise probably has the most immediate benefits, because it gets at both obesity and stress.”
1 Recommendation
27th Mar, 2016
Amar Babikir Elhussein
Nile University - Khartoum
thank you all  
28th Mar, 2016
Tausif Alam
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Ali:
"The best things you can do include relaxing with friends and family,.."
Agreed, but this when tea and sweets start coming back into the picture!  ;)
1 Recommendation
29th Mar, 2016
Ramesh Sharma Poudel
Chitwan Medical College
 Daily walking is useful for ideal control of abdominal obesity:
Also, the modification of dietary habit is also important.
29th Mar, 2016
Fahimeh Kazemi
Alzahra University
Dear Amar,
Diet (eating low-carb foods, eating protein and high-fiber foods) and exercise (aerobic exercise such as walking, running, …)  are effective in reducing abdominal obesity.
Best regards,
Kazemi
29th Mar, 2016
Ishag Adam
Qassim University
 Dear  prof Anwar I agree wtih ou that experience ,diet and exercises will do it
I think  there is genetic predisposition  as well 
29th Mar, 2016
Tausif Alam
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Ishaq,
While genetic component cannot be ignored, there is a great deal one can do which substantially reduces or negates the deleterious effects. 
We live in an environment where tendency is to divert the responsibility from ourselves to elsewhere. Obesity and alcoholism ends up becoming diseases, despite the simple fact that no one is forcing us to gorge and stop moving or consume alcohol out of control. There is something to be said about personal sense of responsibility. The failure of our society seems to be at the level of proper education about facts.
30th Mar, 2016
Amar Babikir Elhussein
Nile University - Khartoum
Dear prof Ishag
I agree with you that genetic factor is most important factor in abdominal obesity,  
8th Apr, 2016
Paul Kibenge
Uganda Martyrs University (UMU)
Targeted aerobics for abdominal wall muscles and of course dieting.
14th Apr, 2016
Ali A R Aldallal
University of Jabir bin Hayan
6 Ways to Burn Your Belly Fat Fast
One of the most common questions I get is how to lose belly fat. Belly fat is actually the most dangerous type of fat – besides aesthetics, large waist lines are indicators of –disease-disease-disease.
It takes more than just crunches! We start to gain weight in our midsection when our cortisol levels spike. Stress is one of the primary culprits for high levels of cortisol secretion. When this happens cortisol breaks downs lean muscle (the type of tissue that burns calories most efficiently) and also holds on to fat storage in the abdominal region. That stress can even get WORSE with bad dieting; studies show that the stress caused by dieting can increase cortisol levels, making no change in belly fat even with calorie restriction. So how do you shape up? Incorporate these 6 things below and you will be on your way to a flatter belly in no time flat!
1. Sleep
If you want to work late at night, think again. When your biorhythms are off, you end up eating more. When you’re tired you produce more ghrelin, which triggers cravings for sugar and other fat-building foods. Losing sleep can also alter your hormone production, affecting your cortisol levels that cause insulin sensitivity, prime reasons for belly fat! Getting about 7 hours of sleep a night is one of the best things you can do for your body shaping goals.
2. Short bursts of exercises
1000 crunches a night may get you strong abdominal muscles, but with a full layer of fat on top, you will not get the results you really want. Instead of all those crunches, do exercises that engage multiple muscle groups and work your cardiovascular system. Try planking, where you hold yourself in a push-up position, resting your forearms on the ground. Try 3 or 4 sets of holding for 30 seconds each. Getting up and moving throughout the day by going for walks will also help.
3. Sugar is your Enemy
Fighting belly fat is 80% healthy diet. Reduce calories by filling yourself up with protein, vegetables, whole grains, and replacing bad habit snacks with good ones. For example, if you have a sugar craving, replace your calorie laden latte with a Muscle Milk lite, one of my favorites, because it has zero sugar and a ton of protein that will satiate while also torching my sugar craving! Another great trick is a sprinkle of cinnamon in your morning coffee or oatmeal- the spice has been shown to help stabilize blood sugar. It also slows the rate at which food exits the stomach, which helps you feel fuller longer.
4. Vitamin C
When you’re under extreme stress, you secrete more cortisol hormone. Vitamin C helps balance the cortisol spikes that happen to you under this stress. Besides being a good way to counteract a cold, Vitamin C is also essential for making carnitine, a compound used by the body to turn fat into fuel, making this vitamin your fat burning friend.
If you’re going through an emotional crisis, stress from work, or a bad eating splurge, increase your vitamin C – it’ll help counteract the negative side effects. Try bell peppers, kale or kiwi fruits. These have even more Vitamin C than the famous Orange !
5. Eat Fat
Yup, you heard me! It takes fat to burn fat. Like I said above, it’s sugar that gets you fat, not fat. Good fats include foods rich in Omega 3′s, like salmon, avocados & walnuts. These foods are full of nutrients that help keep you satiated throughout the day.
6. Slowing down your breath
This is a very simple method that you can use even when you’re in the midst of doing something else. Whenever you notice you’re feeling tense and uptight check and see how you’re breathing. Most people under stress either alternate holding their breath with short breaths, or take rapid shallow breaths. After you become aware of your own breathing, consciously relax your belly and slow down the breathing. This works best if you focus on slowing down the exhalation rather than your inhalation. With each exhalation you can say to yourself “slow down”. That is all there is to it- Simple but surprisingly effective!!!
14th Apr, 2016
Dr. Tajudeen Abdul Hameed
AJ KENCANA GLOBAL SDN BHD
Dear Sir _ the most best method for reducing abdominal obesity is to " BREAK FAST like a KING and LUNCH like a BUSINESS MAN and DINNER like  a PAUPER" and please drink lot of water and please walk at least ONE KM a day and stop liquor in the night. Thanks
1 Recommendation
14th Apr, 2016
Tausif Alam
University of Wisconsin–Madison
 Tajudeen,
A sage advice from an era long passed.
Unfortunately, most of us (Kings and their respective Queens) do not have time for such a breakfast these days - a cup of tea/coffee and piece of toast has become the modern norm.
Many of us also manage to miss the lunch, thanks to our nature of business and the contemporary so-called work ethics, which virtually demands it or at the most provides just enough time to inhale garbage in the name of food. That leaves us with the dinner - which we consume in vast quantities like a camel so it lasts for the entire 24hrs, leaving us feeling more like a stuffed alligator who would much rather rest than go out for a walk.  And in there lies the rub - nature didn't build our bodies, despite our new realities, like a camel. Perhaps eventually some of us will adapt (evolution) unless we self-destruct long before evolution lends its helping hand. 
1 Recommendation
24th Apr, 2016
Amar Babikir Elhussein
Nile University - Khartoum
thank you all for your  great answers
1 Recommendation
24th Apr, 2016
Amar Babikir Elhussein
Nile University - Khartoum
Dear .Dr. Abdul Hameed
I think this is simplest and ideal method to reduce the abdominal obesity, in fact it is simple and difficult  in same time. because of our attitude and our  daily responsibilities and duties, which may cause irregular meal times and may be sometimes one meal/ day      
1st Mar, 2019
Shiyam Sunder Tikmani
Aga Khan University, Pakistan
Hi Amar,
I was struggling with losing belly fat. Just want to share my experience: I selected realistic weight loss goal (reduce 10 kg over an year)
1) Wake up early in the morning and drink a glass of Luke warm water with one teaspoon honey and pinch of cinnamon.
2) After that 30 minutes walk or light aerobic exercise (I followed Jessica Smith TV)
3) Stop taking sugar or things made up of refined sugar, avoid fatty food, fizzy drinks
5) Take vegetables in the lunch and oats in night
6) drink at least 3-4 litrs of water
Hope this may help you
2 Recommendations
2nd Mar, 2019
Amar Babikir Elhussein
Nile University - Khartoum
is this "( one teaspoon honey and pinch of cinnamon ) from your tradition or what?
3rd Mar, 2019
Shiyam Sunder Tikmani
Aga Khan University, Pakistan
Dr. Amar,
its a tradition. it is believed that this will increase metabolism.
1 Recommendation
25th Nov, 2019
Kavitha Chandran
obesity to be managed based on the medical history,activity pattern and basic dietary pattern.there is no single solution.What is more important is the motivation of person and consistency in the prescribed weight loss program

Similar questions and discussions

Has anyone transformed Agrobacterium with the Gateway vector pAMPAT?
Question
8 answers
  • Nikolaos MastrodimosNikolaos Mastrodimos
Hello everyone,
I am having some trouble in transforming Agrobacterium cells with the Gateway vector pAMPAT.
For the time being, I have only tried GV3101 and have not managed to make it work yet.
This is what I have been doing:
Preparation of Agrobacterium electrocompetent cells:
  • Grow Agrobacterium from a 25% glycerol stock on LBA + Rifampicin, Gentamicin for 2-3 days at 28oC
  • Pick a single colony and grow Agrobacterium in a liquid culture (5 ml - same antibiotics and as above) / incubation at 28oC, 250 rpm shaking
  • Inoculate 100ml of LB with 5 ml of the liquid culture and incubate for approx. 6-8h, until OD500 0.5
  • Transfer into 50 ml Falcon tubes and:
  • Centrifuge at 4000 rpm, 4oC for 15 mins
  • Resuspend pellets in 25ml of cold sterile dd-water
  • Repeat the above 2 steps and add 25 ml of cold 10% sterile glycerol instead of dd-water
  • Repeat and add 400μl of cold 10% sterile glycerol
  • Make 50μl aliquots, freeze in liquid nitrogen and store at -80oC
Electroporation:
  • Add 800ng of plasmid (pAMPAT expressing the gene of interest with a YFP tag) in 50μl Agrobacterium electrocompetent cells
  • Gently homogenise and transfer into 1.0 mm cuvettes
  • Electroporation at 1440V, using the Eppendorf electroporator 2510
  • Add 500μl of SOC medium right after the electroporation
  • Plate cells on LBA + selective antibiotics (carbenicillin 50 - for pAMPAT, gentamicin 20 - for Agrobacterium)
  • Incubate for 2-3 days at 28oC
Until today, I have not seen any colonies (after 3-4 days).
What I am going to do next is use a different strain.
Has anyone transformed Agrobacterium - GV3101 or any other strain - with pAMPAT or any other gateway vector?
If yes, which method/ steps/ conditions did you use?
Any suggestions/advice would be much appreciated.
Thanks very much in advance.
Best wishes,
Nikolaos (Nikos) Mastrodimos

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Resumo As Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) devem considerar o perfil demográfico e epidemiológico de sua região de saúde para se adequar ao envelhecimento populacional e se estruturar em redes, cujas bases estão na macro e microgestão, com vistas à integralidade da atenção. Foi conduzida avaliação normativa da microgestão de quatro UBS de uma Região...
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Background: An efficient health management information system (HMIS) improves health care delivery and outcomes. However, in most rural settings in Uganda, paper-based HMIS are widely used to monitor public health care services. Moreover, there are limited capabilities and capacity for quality HMIS in remote settings such as Kayunga district. Obje...
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